Self Organization

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Self Organization In Biological Systems

Author : Scott Camazine
ISBN : 9780691212920
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.83 MB
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The synchronized flashing of fireflies at night. The spiraling patterns of an aggregating slime mold. The anastomosing network of army-ant trails. The coordinated movements of a school of fish. Researchers are finding in such patterns--phenomena that have fascinated naturalists for centuries--a fertile new approach to understanding biological systems: the study of self-organization. This book, a primer on self-organization in biological systems for students and other enthusiasts, introduces readers to the basic concepts and tools for studying self-organization and then examines numerous examples of self-organization in the natural world. Self-organization refers to diverse pattern formation processes in the physical and biological world, from sand grains assembling into rippled dunes to cells combining to create highly structured tissues to individual insects working to create sophisticated societies. What these diverse systems hold in common is the proximate means by which they acquire order and structure. In self-organizing systems, pattern at the global level emerges solely from interactions among lower-level components. Remarkably, even very complex structures result from the iteration of surprisingly simple behaviors performed by individuals relying on only local information. This striking conclusion suggests important lines of inquiry: To what degree is environmental rather than individual complexity responsible for group complexity? To what extent have widely differing organisms adopted similar, convergent strategies of pattern formation? How, specifically, has natural selection determined the rules governing interactions within biological systems? Broad in scope, thorough yet accessible, this book is a self-contained introduction to self-organization and complexity in biology--a field of study at the forefront of life sciences research.
Category: Science

Information And Self Organization

Author : Hermann Haken
ISBN : 9783540330233
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.29 MB
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The widespread interest this book has found among professors, scientists and stu dents working in a variety of fields has made a new edition necessary. I have used this opportunity to add three new chapters on recent developments. One of the most fascinating fields of modern science is cognitive science which has become a meet ing place of many disciplines ranging from mathematics over physics and computer science to psychology. Here, one of the important links between these fields is the concept of information which, however, appears in various disguises, be it as Shan non information or as semantic information (or as something still different). So far, meaning seemed to be exorcised from Shannon information, whereas meaning plays a central role in semantic (or as it is sometimes called "pragmatic") information. In the new chapter 13 it will be shown, however, that there is an important interplay between Shannon and semantic information and that, in particular, the latter plays a decisive role in the fixation of Shannon information and, in cognitive processes, al lows a drastic reduction of that information. A second, equally fascinating and rapidly developing field for mathematicians, computer scientists and physicists is quantum information and quantum computa tion. The inclusion of these topics is a must for any modern treatise dealing with in formation. It becomes more and more evident that the abstract concept of informa tion is inseparably tied up with its realizations in the physical world.
Category: Science

Self Organizing Systems 1963

Author : James Emmett Garvey
ISBN : UOM:39015013068245
Genre : Self-organizing systems
File Size : 58.35 MB
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Category: Self-organizing systems

Self Organization In Embedded Real Time Systems

Author : M. Teresa Higuera-Toledano
ISBN : 9781461419693
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 72.20 MB
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This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems. Self ‐organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self‐organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self‐X features such as self-configuration, self‐optimization, self‐adaptation, self‐healing and self‐protection.
Category: Technology & Engineering

At Home In The Universe

Author : Stuart Kauffman
ISBN : 9780199761852
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.88 MB
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A major scientific revolution has begun, a new paradigm that rivals Darwin's theory in importance. At its heart is the discovery of the order that lies deep within the most complex of systems, from the origin of life, to the workings of giant corporations, to the rise and fall of great civilizations. And more than anyone else, this revolution is the work of one man, Stuart Kauffman, a MacArthur Fellow and visionary pioneer of the new science of complexity. Now, in At Home in the Universe, Kauffman brilliantly weaves together the excitement of intellectual discovery and a fertile mix of insights to give the general reader a fascinating look at this new science--and at the forces for order that lie at the edge of chaos. We all know of instances of spontaneous order in nature--an oil droplet in water forms a sphere, snowflakes have a six-fold symmetry. What we are only now discovering, Kauffman says, is that the range of spontaneous order is enormously greater than we had supposed. Indeed, self-organization is a great undiscovered principle of nature. But how does this spontaneous order arise? Kauffman contends that complexity itself triggers self-organization, or what he calls "order for free," that if enough different molecules pass a certain threshold of complexity, they begin to self-organize into a new entity--a living cell. Kauffman uses the analogy of a thousand buttons on a rug--join two buttons randomly with thread, then another two, and so on. At first, you have isolated pairs; later, small clusters; but suddenly at around the 500th repetition, a remarkable transformation occurs--much like the phase transition when water abruptly turns to ice--and the buttons link up in one giant network. Likewise, life may have originated when the mix of different molecules in the primordial soup passed a certain level of complexity and self-organized into living entities (if so, then life is not a highly improbable chance event, but almost inevitable). Kauffman uses the basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe. Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order, written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe, this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.
Category: Science

The Origins Of Order

Author : Stuart A. Kauffman
ISBN : 0195079515
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.46 MB
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This monograph extends the basic concepts of Darwinian evolution to accommodate recent findings and perspectives from the fields of biology, physics, chemistry and mathematics. It explains how complex systems, contrary to expectations, can spontaneously exhibit degrees of order.
Category: Science

Geochemical Self Organization

Author : Peter J. Ortoleva
ISBN : UCSD:31822020599296
Genre : Religion
File Size : 46.82 MB
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This monograph offers an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of geological systems which become spatially organized through the mediation of chemical processes. The treatment is based on a mathematical approach. The intended readership includes researchers and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in all branches of geology as well as scientists and mathematicians concerned with nonlinear dynamics, numerical analysis, self-organization, nonlinear waves and dynamics, and phase transition phenomena. The work could also serve as a basis for a special topics course in mathematics, chemistry or physics.
Category: Religion

Self Organization Of Complex Structures

Author : Frank Schweitzer
ISBN : 9056990276
Genre : Computers
File Size : 49.39 MB
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During the past twenty years, a broad spectrum of theories and methods have been developed in physics, chemistry and molecular biology to explain structure formation in complex systems. These methods have been applied to many different fields such as economics, sociology and town planning, and this book reflects the interdisciplinary nature of complexity and self-organisation. The main focus is on the emergence of collective phenomena from individual or microscopic interactions. Presents a wide-ranging overview from fundamental aspects of the evolution of complexity, to applications in biology, ecology, sociology, economics, and urban structure formation.
Category: Computers

Self Organization In Sensor And Actor Networks

Author : Falko Dressler
ISBN : 0470724455
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 62.72 MB
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Self-Organization in Sensor and Actor Networks explores self-organization mechanisms and methodologies concerning the efficient coordination between intercommunicating autonomous systems.Self-organization is often referred to as the multitude of algorithms and methods that organise the global behaviour of a system based on inter-system communication. Studies of self-organization in natural systems first took off in the 1960s. In technology, such approaches have become a hot research topic over the last 4-5 years with emphasis upon management and control in communication networks, and especially in resource-constrained sensor and actor networks. In the area of ad hoc networks new solutions have been discovered that imitate the properties of self-organization. Some algorithms for on-demand communication and coordination, including data-centric networking, are well-known examples. Key features include: Detailed treatment of self-organization, mobile sensor and actor networks, coordination between autonomous systems, and bio-inspired networking. Overview of the basic methodologies for self-organization, a comparison to central and hierarchical control, and classification of algorithms and techniques in sensor and actor networks. Explanation of medium access control, ad hoc routing, data-centric networking, synchronization, and task allocation issues. Introduction to swarm intelligence, artificial immune system, molecular information exchange. Numerous examples and application scenarios to illustrate the theory. Self-Organization in Sensor and Actor Networks will prove essential reading for students of computer science and related fields; researchers working in the area of massively distributed systems, sensor networks, self-organization, and bio-inspired networking will also find this reference useful.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Complex Systems And Self Organization Modelling

Author : Cyrille Bertelle
ISBN : 9783540880738
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39.49 MB
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This book, the outcome of a workshop meeting within ESM 2006, explores the use of emergent computing and self-organization modeling within various applications of complex systems.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Origins

Author : Karl H. Pribram
ISBN : 0805817867
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26.86 MB
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The result of the second Appalachian conference on neurodynamics, this volume focuses on the problem of "order," its origins, evolution, and future. Central to this concern lies our understanding of time. Both classical and quantum physics have developed their conceptions within a framework of time symmetry. Divided into four major sections, this book: * provides refreshingly new approaches to the problem of the evolution of order, indicating the directions that need to be taken in subsequent conferences which will address learning and memory more directly; * addresses the issue of how information becomes transmitted in the nervous system; * shows how patterns are constructed at the synaptodendritic level of processing and how such pattern construction relates to image processing; and * deals with the control operations which operate on image processing to construct entities such as visual and auditory objects such as phonemes. The aim of the conference was to bring together professionals to exchange ideas -- some were fairly worked out; others were in their infancy. As a result, one of the most valuable aspects of the conference is that it fostered lasting interactive relationships among these leading researchers.
Category: Psychology

Self Organization And Society

Author : Takatoshi Imada
ISBN : 4431779191
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 47.8 MB
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Self-organization is a generic term describing the capacity of a system to change its own structure by itself while interacting with the environment. In this sense, self-organization is not environment-determined or environment-adaptive, but is self-determined and self-adaptive. The concept of self-organization was born in the 1960s, and attempts were made to establish a theory based on the logic of a system and its control. In contrast, the 1980s introduced a view based on the logic of creative individuals and on fluctuations. Antithetical differences exist between the two. The former regards the system of aggregated individuals as the object of consideration, where self-organization is the sum of the practices of a system led by control, or self-control in particular. The latter focuses on the practices of individuals deviating from the logic of a system, making the existing system fluctuate and transforming its structure. This volume attempts to integrate these viewpoints through inquiry into the structure of the self and through self-reflexion. A new horizon thus opens for the synthesis of planning/control action theory and spontaneous/performative action theory.
Category: Social Science

Invisible Hands

Author : Jonathan Sheehan
ISBN : 9780226233741
Genre : History
File Size : 84.10 MB
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Why is the world orderly, and how does this order come to be? Human beings inhabit a multitude of apparently ordered systems—natural, social, political, economic, cognitive, and others—whose origins and purposes are often obscure. In the eighteenth century, older certainties about such orders, rooted in either divine providence or the mechanical operations of nature, began to fall away. In their place arose a new appreciation for the complexity of things, a new recognition of the world’s disorder and randomness, new doubts about simple relations of cause and effect—but with them also a new ability to imagine the world’s orders, whether natural or manmade, as self-organizing. If large systems are left to their own devices, eighteenth-century Europeans increasingly came to believe, order will emerge on its own without any need for external design or direction. In Invisible Hands, Jonathan Sheehan and Dror Wahrman trace the many appearances of the language of self-organization in the eighteenth-century West. Across an array of domains, including religion, society, philosophy, science, politics, economy, and law, they show how and why this way of thinking came into the public view, then grew in prominence and arrived at the threshold of the nineteenth century in versatile, multifarious, and often surprising forms. Offering a new synthesis of intellectual and cultural developments, Invisible Hands is a landmark contribution to the history of the Enlightenment and eighteenth-century culture.
Category: History

Self Organization And The City

Author : Juval Portugali
ISBN : 9783662040997
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.93 MB
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This book integrates the theories of complex self-organizing systems with the rich body of discourse and literature developed in what might be called ‘social theory of cities and urbanism’. It uses techniques from dynamical complexity and synergetics to successfully tackle open social science questions.
Category: Science

Self Organization During Friction

Author : German Fox-Rabinovich
ISBN : 1420017861
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 84.22 MB
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In our present era of nanoscience and nanotechnology, new materials are poised to take center stage in dramatically improving friction and wear behavior under extreme conditions. Compiled by two eminent experts, Self-Organization During Friction: Advanced Surface-Engineered Materials and Systems Design details the latest advances and developments i
Category: Technology & Engineering

Guided Self Organization Inception

Author : Mikhail Prokopenko
ISBN : 9783642537349
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26.95 MB
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Is it possible to guide the process of self-organisation towards specific patterns and outcomes? Wouldn’t this be self-contradictory? After all, a self-organising process assumes a transition into a more organised form, or towards a more structured functionality, in the absence of centralised control. Then how can we place the guiding elements so that they do not override rich choices potentially discoverable by an uncontrolled process? This book presents different approaches to resolving this paradox. In doing so, the presented studies address a broad range of phenomena, ranging from autopoietic systems to morphological computation, and from small-world networks to information cascades in swarms. A large variety of methods is employed, from spontaneous symmetry breaking to information dynamics to evolutionary algorithms, creating a rich spectrum reflecting this emerging field. Demonstrating several foundational theories and frameworks, as well as innovative practical implementations, Guided Self-Organisation: Inception, will be an invaluable tool for advanced students and researchers in a multiplicity of fields across computer science, physics and biology, including information theory, robotics, dynamical systems, graph theory, artificial life, multi-agent systems, theory of computation and machine learning.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Isotopic Randomness And Self Organization

Author : Alexander Berezin
ISBN : 9783110606492
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.75 MB
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The material world is made of atoms, and the majority of chemical elements has two or more stable isotopes. The existence of isotopes and their applications are well known. Yet, there is little appreciation of isotopic diversity as a singular phenomenon of nature. This book discusses aspects of isotopic diversity in terms of a singular principle: "isotopicity".
Category: Science

Self Organization The Fundament Of Cell Biology

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1051964644
Genre :
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Abstract : Self-organization refers to the emergence of an overall order in time and space of a given system that results from the collective interactions of its individual components. This concept has been widely recognized as a core principle in pattern formation for multi-component systems of the physical, chemical and biological world. It can be distinguished from self-assembly by the constant input of energy required to maintain order—and self-organization therefore typically occurs in non-equilibrium or dissipative systems. Cells, with their constant energy consumption and myriads of local interactions between distinct proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids, represent the perfect playground for self-organization. It therefore comes as no surprise that many properties and features of self-organized systems, such as spontaneous formation of patterns, nonlinear coupling of reactions, bi-stable switches, waves and oscillations, are found in all aspects of modern cell biology. Ultimately, self-organization lies at the heart of the robustness and adaptability found in cellular and organismal organization, and hence constitutes a fundamental basis for natural selection and evolution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Self-organization in cell biology'.
Category:

Fractal River Basins

Author : Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe
ISBN : 0521004055
Genre : Science
File Size : 75.66 MB
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This book provides a theoretical basis to the arrangement of river basins and networks.
Category: Science

On Self Organization

Author : R.K. Mishra
ISBN : 9783642457265
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.44 MB
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The concept of self-organization is at the heart of the theory of complex systems. It describes how order can emerge from disorder in otherwise chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems. This book investigates and surveys the role of self-organization in a wide variety of disciplines. The contributions are written by world-renowned scientists and philosophers at a level that is accessible to nonspecialists.
Category: Science