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Ecological Heterogeneity

Author : Jurek Kolasa
ISBN : 9781461230625
Genre : Science
File Size : 63.90 MB
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An attractive, promising, and frustrating feature of ecology is its complex ity, both conceptual and observational. Increasing acknowledgment of the importance of scale testifies to the shifting focus in large areas of ecology. In the rush to explore problems of scale, another general aspect of ecolog ical systems has been given less attention. This aspect, equally important, is heterogeneity. Its importance lies in the ubiquity of heterogeneity as a feature of ecological systems and in the number of questions it raises questions to which answers are not readily available. What is heterogeneity? Does it differ from complexity? What dimensions need be considered to evaluate heterogeneity ade quately? Can heterogeneity be measured at various scales? Is heterogeneity apart of organization of ecological systems? How does it change in time and space? What are the causes of heterogeneity and causes of its change? This volume attempts to answer these questions. It is devoted to iden tification of the meaning, range of applications, problems, and methodol ogy associated with the study of heterogeneity. The coverage is thus broad and rich, and the contributing authors have been encouraged to range widely in discussions and reflections. vi Preface The chapters are grouped into themes. The first group focuses on the conceptual foundations (Chapters 1-5). These papers exarnine the meaning of the term, historical developments, and relations to scale. The second theme is modeling population and interspecific interactions in hetero geneous environments (Chapters 6 and 7).
Category: Science

Tectonics Of Strike Slip Restraining And Releasing Bends

Author : W. D. Cunningham
ISBN : 1862392382
Genre : Science
File Size : 47.34 MB
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This volume addresses the tectonic complexity and diversity of strike-slip restraining and releasing bends with 18 contributions divided into four thematic sections: a topical review of fault bends and their global distribution; bends, sedimentary basins and earthquake hazards; restraining bends, transpressional deformation and basement controls on development; releasing bends, transtensional deformation and fluid flow.
Category: Science

Palaeoclimatology And Palaeoceanography From Laminated Sediments

Author : Alan E. S. Kemp
ISBN : 1897799675
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.36 MB
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The subject of this book is laminated sediments of marine or lacustrine origin. Laminated sediments are unique in providing annual or sub-annual resolution, often recording individual depositional events. The book acts as a focus for results of current studies ranging from the Black Sea to the deep-sea laminations of the equatorial Pacific.
Category: Science

Hunter Gatherers Of Early Holocene Coastal California

Author : Roger H. Colten
ISBN : 9781938770722
Genre : History
File Size : 86.53 MB
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This volume is the first to bring together a number of studies on the Early Holocene of the California coast (ca. 10,000 to 6600 BP). Erlandson and Colten haveassembled contributions that may be of interest to a broad spectrum of scholars whose research pertains to any of the following: early sites in the Americas, coastal adaptations, hunter-gatherer adaptations, general Pacific coast prehistory, and the specific history of research on pre-6600 BP occupations of coastal California.
Category: History

Deep Marine Systems

Author : Kevin T. Pickering
ISBN : 9781118865484
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.67 MB
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Deep-water (below wave base) processes, although generallyhidden from view, shape the sedimentary record of more than 65% ofthe Earth’s surface, including large parts of ancientmountain belts. This book aims to inform advanced-levelundergraduate and postgraduate students, and professional Earthscientists with interests in physical oceanography and hydrocarbonexploration and production, about many of the important physicalaspects of deep-water (mainly deep-marine) systems. The authorsconsider transport and deposition in the deep sea, trace-fossilassemblages, and facies stacking patterns as an archive of theunderlying controls on deposit architecture (e.g., seismicity,climate change, autocyclicity). Topics include modern and ancientdeep-water sedimentary environments, tectonic settings, and howbasinal and extra-basinal processes generate the typicalcharacteristics of basin slopes, submarine canyons, contouritemounds and drifts, submarine fans, basin floors and abyssalplains.
Category: Science

Historische Semitische Sprachwissenschaft

Author : Burkhart Kienast
ISBN : 3447043598
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 65.66 MB
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Am Nordrand der Arabischen Halbinsel treten in vorchristlicher Zeit in einem Zeitabstand von jeweils rund 700 Jahren neue semitische Volkerschaften mit eigener Sprache auf: die Akkader kurz nach 3000 v. Chr., die Kanaanaer ab ca. 2100 v. Chr., die Aramaer ab ca. 1400 v. Chr. und die Araber ab ca. 700 v. Chr. Auaerhalb dieser Abfolge steht das Sudarabisch-Athiopische, das aus sprachgeschichtlichen Grunden in die Mitte des 3. Jtd. v. Chr. zuruckreichen muss, auch wenn es erst ab ca. 1000 v. Chr. bezeugt ist. Aus diesen Tatsachen leitet Burkhart Kienast die Notwendigkeit einer historischen Betrachtung der semitischen Sprachen ab und folgt konsequent diesem Ansatz. Daraus resultieren neue Erkenntnisse auf fast allen Gebieten der Grammatik, etwa bei den aus dem Akkadischen gewonnenen Gesetzen der Nominalbildung, die grundsatzlich auch fur alle anderen semitischen Sprachen gelten, oder bei der Deutung der verbalen Tempora aus einem Nominalsatz, woraus sich der Zwang zur mehrfachen Umgestaltung des Verbalsystems ergibt. Verschiedene Punkte deuten darauf hin, dass das Semitisch im IV. Jahrtausend einen tiefgreifenden Wandel von einer Ergativsprache zu einer Sprache mit aktiver Verbalauffassung durchgemacht hat. Das Altsemitische (Akkadische) hat die typische Semitische Sprachstruktur noch nicht gefunden; sie konnte erst nach einigen Korrekturen (z.B. bei dem Status des Nomens und im Verbalsys-tem) ihre endgultige Auspragung erfahren.
Category: Foreign Language Study

Issues In Ecological Research And Application 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464964084
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.53 MB
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Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Ecological Research and Application. The editors have built Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Ecological Research and Application in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Ecological Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at
Category: Science