Science Rules

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Science Rules

Author : Peter Achinstein
ISBN : 0801879434
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.36 MB
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Included is a famous nineteenth-century debate about scientific reasoning between the hypothetico-deductivist William Whewell and the inductivist John Stuart Mill; and an account of the realism-antirealism dispute about unobservables in science, with a consideration of Perrin's argument for the existence of molecules in the early twentieth century.
Category: Science

Who Rules In Science

Author : James Robert BROWN
ISBN : 0674028872
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.83 MB
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What if something as seemingly academic as the so-called science wars were to determine how we live? This eye-opening book reveals how little we've understood about the ongoing pitched battles between the sciences and the humanities--and how much may be at stake. James Brown's starting point is C. P. Snow's famous book, Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, which set the terms for the current debates. But that little book did much more than identify two new, opposing cultures, Brown contends: It also claimed that scientists are better qualified than nonscientists to solve political and social problems. In short, the true significance of Snow's treatise was its focus on the question of who should rule--a question that remains vexing, pressing, and politically explosive today. In Who Rules in Science? Brown takes us through the various engagements in the science wars--from the infamous "Sokal affair" to angry confrontations over the nature of evidence, the possibility of objectivity, and the methods of science--to show how the contested terrain may be science, but the prize is political: Whoever wins the science wars will have an unprecedented influence on how we are governed. Brown provides the most comprehensive and balanced assessment yet of the science wars. He separates the good arguments from the bad, and exposes the underlying message: Science and social justice are inextricably linked. His book is essential reading if we are to understand the forces making and remaking our world. Table of Contents: Preface Acknowledgments 1. Scenes from the Science Wars 2. The Scientific Experience 3. How We Got to Where We Are 4. The Nihilist Wing of Social Constructivism 5. Three Key Terms 6. The Naturalist Wing of Social Constructivism 7. The Role of Reason 8. The Democratization of Science 9. Science with a Social Agenda Afterword Notes Bibliography Index Reviews of this book: Meaty and challenging are the words to describe Brown's treatment of the arguments that go on over the nature and social impact of science. "The battleground in the current round of the science wars," he writes, "is epistemology (What is evidence? Objectivity? Rationality? Could any belief be justified?)...The stakes are political, however; social issues are constantly lurking in the background. How we structure and organize our society is the consequence. Whoever wins the science wars will have an unprecedented influence on how we are governed. Brown, professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, gives a rich and closely reasoned discussion of the issues in the science wars. --Scientific American Reviews of this book: Brown ably takes on many of the claims proffered by the antiscience camp and argues that the logic in those claims is faulty. Brown's engaging style makes accessible complex issues central to the philosophy of science. --Publishers Weekly Reviews of this book: While what has been known as "the science wars" seems to have finally played itself out--not, so much as I can tell, that distrust between the sciences and humanities has been settled, but that interest on the part of spectators has pretty well waned--the issues that animated the debate, and their practical importance in everyday life, may not have been successfully clarified for the general public. James Robert Brown's Who Rules in Science? is the clearest, most accessible book on the subject for the general reader that I have come across during the many years of this bickering. --Tom Bowden, TechDirections Reviews of this book: In Who Rules in Science, James Brown...warns that there's much more at stake here than people realize. This is not just a battle between postmodernist philosophers and working scientists over whether an electron is real or merely a social construction. It's about who gets to define reality, truth and rationality. --Sheilla Jones, Globe and Mail Reviews of this book: The latest and perhaps most comprehensive attempt at rescuing the pro-science "hard" Left from the anti-science cons Left is James Robert Brown's Who Rules in Science. Like Sokal, Chomsky, Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Lewontin, and others he believes that clear thinking is the Left's best weapon, and that good science is a powerful engine of social justice. Thus, constructivism, which undermines the authority of science and reason, is not only wrong-headed but also socially irresponsible. --Kevin Shapiro, Commentary Magazine Reviews of this book: James Brown...details in this very readable book the Great Divide between the humanities and science, and between constructivist and empirically oriented camps...For those who are quite comfortable with the standard approach in science, Who Rules exposes a very unpleasant underbelly of science, in which scientists can be influenced by personal or political motivations. --Keith Harris, Metapsychology Reviews of this book: A close analysis of the 'science wars' examines the link between politics and epistemology. Brown does an admirable job of engaging the general reader in such issues as the role that science plays in creating or changing the social order and the role of social factors in the creating or changing of scientific theories...The author takes readers through a whirlwind course in the philosophy of science in the 20th century, focusing on the concepts of realism, objectivity, and values. He acknowledges that social constructivists are right in seeing social factors at work in science, but he insists that reason and evidence play a dominant role. Brown sees the democratization of science as one of the central themes of the science wars, and he takes the position that when participants are drawn from every affected social group, more objective science will result. He argues that knowledge grows through comparative theory assessment, and that the way to ensure the optimal diversity of rival theories is by having a wide variety of theorists from diverse backgrounds; thus the political act of affirmative action leads to more objective science. Brings the science wars home for the lay reader by identifying the combatants, examining their goals, and exposing the strengths and weaknesses of their arguments. --Kirkus Reviews Reviews of this book: Brown...here provides a cheerful gloss on some philosophical issues arising from the currently fashionable "science wars." The result is a readable survey of the history of the analytic philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge from positivism to constructivism, with the positions of the usual suspects characterized and criticized. --P. D. Skiff, Choice Reviews of this book: Many readers will finish James Robert Brown's Who Rules in Science? Feeling that this "war" is more than a little phoney...The idea that these two schools are at "war" serves only to deflect attention away from their furtive collaboration. Who Rules in Science? sheds overdue light on this dark and secret liason. --David Hawkes, Times Literary Supplement Reviews of this book: In Who Rules in Science?, philosopher James Robert Brown argues cogently for public accountability for science--and public funding for scientists. He points out that debates about what science is, its control and its funding are not esoteric; they are the essence of the politics of science. --New Scientist This is a wonderful book: funny, learned, intelligent, strong-minded. In a clear and understanding fashion, James Robert Brown introduces us to the battles over the nature of science. He is never afraid to make judgements, yet always with appreciation of people's positions, however extreme. If you read only one book on the "Science Wars," read this. My only regret is that Who Rules in Science? is not longer. --Michael Ruse, Florida State University This book is a lively, engrossing overview of the philosophical and political issues at stake in the current debates about science. Brown doesn't pull any punches in stating his own views, but he always takes care to present fairly even those arguments with which he disagrees. And he's an equal-opportunity debunker: scientists, sociologists and his fellow philosophers all come in for (mostly justified) criticism. --Alan Sokal, co-author of Fashionable Nonsense A breath of commonsense, lucidly and wittily argued. --Robin Dunbar, author of Gossip, Grooming, and the Evolution of Language and The Trouble with Science Who Rules in Science? restores the image of the scientist as a rational actor, capable of generating reliable knowledge and defending the public interest. The book is wonderfully written and should be read as widely as possible. --Ullica Segerstrale, author of Defenders of the Truth
Category: Science

Science Safety Rules

Author : Kelli L. Hicks
ISBN : 9781615358908
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 83.80 MB
Format : PDF
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Emergent readers are introduced to science safety rules and why they are important.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

University Arithmetic

Author : Charles Davies
ISBN : NYPL:33433069072589
Genre : Arithmetic
File Size : 50.72 MB
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Category: Arithmetic

Reflection Without Rules

Author : D. Wade Hands
ISBN : 0521797969
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 74.55 MB
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This book is a comprehensive and often controversial survey of economic methodology.
Category: Business & Economics

Science In Action

Author : Bruno Latour
ISBN : 0674792912
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 43.46 MB
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From weaker to stronger rhetoric : literature - Laboratories - From weak points to strongholds : machines - Insiders out - From short to longer networks : tribunals of reason - Centres of calculation.
Category: Social Science

Trends In Computer Science

Author : Susan Shannon
ISBN : 1594540659
Genre : Computers
File Size : 80.2 MB
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The books in this series present leading-edge research in the field of computer research, technology and applications. Each contribution has been carefully selected for inclusion based on the significance of the research to the field. Summaries of all chapters are gathered at the beginning of the book and an in-depth index is presented to facilitate access.
Category: Computers

Judging Science

Author : Kenneth R. Foster
ISBN : 0262561204
Genre : Law
File Size : 73.70 MB
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Attempting to reconcile the law's need for workable rules of evidence with the views of scientific validity and reliability. What is scientific knowledge and when is it reliable? These deceptively simple questions have been the source of endless controversy. In 1993, the Supreme Court handed down a landmark ruling on the use of scientific evidence in federal courts. Federal judges may admit expert scientific evidence only if it merits the label scientific knowledge. The testimony must be scientifically reliable and valid. This book is organized around the criteria set out in the 1993 ruling. Following a general overview, the authors look at issues of fit--whether a plausible theory relates specific facts to the larger factual issues in contention; philosophical concepts such as the falsifiability of scientific claims; scientific error; reliability in science, particularly in fields such as epidemiology and toxicology; the meaning of scientific validity; peer review and the problem of boundary setting; and the risks of confusion and prejudice when presenting science to a jury. The book's conclusion attempts to reconcile the law's need for workable rules of evidence with the views of scientific validity and reliability that emerge from science and other disciplines.
Category: Law

The Oxford Handbook Of Political Science

Author : Robert E. Goodin
ISBN : 9780191619793
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 54.62 MB
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Drawing on the rich resources of the ten-volume series of The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science, this one-volume distillation provides a comprehensive overview of all the main branches of contemporary political science: political theory; political institutions; political behavior; comparative politics; international relations; political economy; law and politics; public policy; contextual political analysis; and political methodology. Sixty-seven of the top political scientists worldwide survey recent developments in those fields and provide penetrating introductions to exciting new fields of study. Following in the footsteps of the New Handbook of Political Science edited by Robert Goodin and Hans-Dieter Klingemann a decade before, this Oxford Handbook will become an indispensable guide to the scope and methods of political science as a whole. It will serve as the reference book of record for political scientists and for those following their work for years to come.
Category: Political Science

Logical Foundations Of Computer Science

Author : Sergei Adian
ISBN : 3540630457
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83.30 MB
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A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional is a gradient of that functional taken relative to the underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. Equal emphasis is placed on numerical and theoretical matters. Several concrete applications are made to illustrate the method. These applications include (1) Ginzburg-Landau functionals of superconductivity, (2) problems of transonic flow in which type depends locally on nonlinearities, and (3) minimal surface problems. Sobolev gradient constructions rely on a study of orthogonal projections onto graphs of closed densely defined linear transformations from one Hilbert space to another. These developments use work of Weyl, von Neumann and Beurling.
Category: Computers

An Introduction To The Philosophy Of Science

Author : Rudolf Carnap
ISBN : 9780486140865
Genre : Science
File Size : 76.95 MB
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Stimulating, thought-provoking text by one of the 20th century's most creative philosophers makes accessible such topics as probability, measurement and quantitative language, causality and determinism, theoretical laws and concepts, more.
Category: Science

The Science Of A Legislator

Author : Knud Haakonssen
ISBN : 0521376254
Genre : History
File Size : 37.96 MB
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A first comprehensive account of Adam Smith's jurisprudence demonstrates how his ideas developed out of, and in response to, Hume's theory of justice and includes the social and political thought expounded in his major writings.
Category: History

Symmetry Rules

Author : Joseph Rosen
ISBN : 3540759735
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.93 MB
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When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. Written by a renowned expert, this book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science.
Category: Science

Computational Science And Its Applications Iccsa 2004

Author : Antonio Laganà
ISBN : 9783540220602
Genre : Computers
File Size : 79.20 MB
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The natural mission of Computational Science is to tackle all sorts of human problems and to work out intelligent automata aimed at alleviating the b- den of working out suitable tools for solving complex problems. For this reason ComputationalScience,thoughoriginatingfromtheneedtosolvethemostch- lenging problems in science and engineering (computational science is the key player in the ?ght to gain fundamental advances in astronomy, biology, che- stry, environmental science, physics and several other scienti?c and engineering disciplines) is increasingly turning its attention to all ?elds of human activity. In all activities, in fact, intensive computation, information handling, kn- ledge synthesis, the use of ad-hoc devices, etc. increasingly need to be exploited and coordinated regardless of the location of both the users and the (various and heterogeneous) computing platforms. As a result the key to understanding the explosive growth of this discipline lies in two adjectives that more and more appropriately refer to Computational Science and its applications: interoperable and ubiquitous. Numerous examples of ubiquitous and interoperable tools and applicationsaregiveninthepresentfourLNCSvolumescontainingthecontri- tions delivered at the 2004 International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications (ICCSA 2004) held in Assisi, Italy, May 14–17, 2004.
Category: Computers

Encyclopedia Of Phenomenology

Author : Lester Embree
ISBN : 9789401588812
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 72.73 MB
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This encyclopedia presents phenomenological thought and the phenomenological movement within philosophy and within more than a score of other disciplines on a level accessible to professional colleagues of other orientations as well as to advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Entries average 3,000 words. In practically all cases, they include lists of works "For Further Study." The Introduction briefly chronicles the changing phenomenological agenda and compares phenomenology with other 20th Century movements. The 166 entries are a baut matters of seven sorts: ( 1) the faur broad tendencies and periods within the phenomenological movement; (2) twenty-three national traditions ofphenomenology; (3) twenty-two philosophical sub-disciplines, including those referred to with the formula "the philosophy of x"; (4) phenomenological tendencies within twenty-one non-philosophical dis ciplines; (5) forty major phenomenological topics; (6) twenty-eight leading phenomenological figures; and (7) twenty-seven non-phenomenological figures and movements ofinteresting sim ilarities and differences with phenomenology. Conventions Concern ing persons, years ofbirth and death are given upon first mention in an entry ofthe names of deceased non-phenomenologists. The names of persons believed tobe phenomenologists and also, for cross-referencing purposes, the titles of other entries are printed entirely in SMALL CAPITAL letters, also upon first mention. In addition, all words thus occurring in all small capital letters are listed in the index with the numbers of all pages on which they occur. To facilitate indexing, Chinese, Hungarian, and Japanese names have been re-arranged so that the personal name precedes the family name.
Category: Philosophy

Philosophy Science Education And Culture

Author : Robert Nola
ISBN : 1402037694
Genre : Education
File Size : 26.82 MB
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Currents such as epistemological and social constructivism, postmodernism, and certain forms of multiculturalism that had become fashionable within science education circles in the last decades lost sight of critical inquiry as the core aim of education. In this book we develop an account of education that places critical inquiry at the core of education in general and science education in particular. Since science constitutes the paradigm example of critical inquiry, we explain the nature of science, paying particular attention to scientific methodology and scientific modeling and at the same time showing their relevance in the science classroom. We defend a universalist, rationalist, and objectivist account of science against epistemological and social constructivist views, postmodernist approaches and epistemic multiculturalist accounts.
Category: Education

The Science Of Boxing

Author : Mike Donovan
ISBN : PSU:000050670550
Genre : Boxing
File Size : 39.6 MB
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Category: Boxing

Trapping Safety Into Rules

Author : Professor Mathilde Bourrier
ISBN : 9781409474142
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36.27 MB
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Once safety is involved, there seems to be an irresistible push towards more norms, procedures and processes, whatever the context. This book is not a plea against proceduralization, but it does take the view that it is time to reassess how far it can still go and to what benefit. There is a growing suspicion that the path taken might in fact lead to a dead end, unless the concept of procedure and the conditions under which procedures develop are revisited.
Category: Technology & Engineering