Roman Paganism

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The Interpretation Of The New Testament In Greco Roman Paganism

Author : John Granger Cook
ISBN : 3161471954
Genre : Religion
File Size : 22.25 MB
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Recent New Testament scholarship has raised the question of the effect of the New Testament on readers including an 'implied' reader. How did the New Testament affect ancient readers who rejected it? John Granger Cook contributes to the ongoing investigation of the relationship between Christianity and Greco-Roman antiquity. He addresses the response to the New Testament in the following authors: Celsus, Porphyry, the anonymous philosopher of Macarius Magnes, Hierocles, and Julian the Apostate. These authors are readers who found the New Testament to be a rejection of values they took to be fundamental in Greco-Roman culture. The works of these pagans exist in fragments preserved by Christian apologists who attempted to respond to their critique of Christian texts and practices. The doctrine of the resurrection, for example, contradicts the belief in reincarnation and an immortal bodiless soul. Apocalyptic texts rejected the eternity of the universe. Jesus was considered to be inferior to the heroes of Hellenistic culture such as Apollonius of Tyana who conducted themselves as philosophers should. Pagans were disturbed by the ability of Christian language to persuade people to join the movement. Both pagans and Christians made use of apologetic techniques designed to attract people to their respective positions. Rhetoric and literary criticism were tools that both used in their ongoing arguments. John Granger Cook makes use of these tools to analyze the texts of the pagan readers of the New Testament.
Category: Religion

After Life In Roman Paganism

Author : Franz Valery Marie Cumont
ISBN : 9781596051720
Genre : History
File Size : 78.57 MB
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According to a rite borrowed by the Romans from the Etruscans, a pit was dug in the centre of the city, when the latter's foundations were laid, in order to make the Inferi communicate with the upper world. First fruits and other gifts were thrown into the pit, as well as a clod of the earth of the settlers' native country. Thus they restored their broken contact with the Manes of their ancestors. -from "The Nether World" Franz Cumont was one of the preeminent classical scholars of his day, and his investigations into the history of religion had a dramatic impact upon the fields of archaeology, comparative mythology, and anthropology. This 1922 volume collects the influential series of lectures he delivered at Yale University highlighting one aspect of his groundbreaking studies of Roman paganism: the Romans' view of the afterlife. Cumont discusses the Romans' attitudes about the importance of the tomb, the distinctions they made between a "shade" and a "soul," the rules of admittance to Hades and the Elysian Fields, the supernatural journeys of the dead, the ancient roots of the Romans' beliefs and practices, and much more. With solid research behind him, Cumont's reassuring erudition righted inaccuracies about Roman religion that had lingered, particularly in the writings of Christian apologists, and this continues to be a fundamental work of Roman paganism today. Belgian archaeologist and historian FRANZ-VALERY-MARIE CUMONT (1869-1947) wrote numerous books, among them Texts and Illustrated Monuments Relating to the Mysteries of Mithra (1900), considered his masterwork.
Category: History

Sunday In Roman Paganism

Author : Robert Leo Odom
ISBN : 1572582421
Genre :
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With most of the Christian world honoring Sunday as their day of worship, the question of its origin becomes important. Over the past hundred years much has been written about the use of the week among ancient pagan peoples. However, little has been done to compile such historical material into an easily accessible book for the general public. Robert Leo Odom for years has conducted special research on the Sabbath-Sunday question. In Sunday in Roman Paganism, he leads readers through the pages of history showing the rise of the planetary week and its day of the Sun in the heathenism of the Roman world during the early centuries of the Christian era. This book is not a capsulated history of Sunday as a church festival, but rather the history of the planetary week as it was known and used in the pagan world, and to show whether or not its day of the Sun was then regarded by pagans as being sacred to their Sun-god.

After Life In Roman Paganism

Author : Franz Cumont
ISBN : 9781597524537
Genre : Religion
File Size : 77.96 MB
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At least we can distinguish the principal phases of the religious movement which caused imperial society to pass from incredulity to certain forms of belief in immortality, forms at first somewhat crude but afterwards loftier, and we can see where the movement led. The change was a capital one and transformed for the ancients the whole conception of life. The axis about which morality revolved had to be shifted when ethics no long sought, as in earlier Greek philosophy, to realise the sovereign good on this earth but looked for it after death. Ðfrom the Introduction Contents Preface Historical Introduction 1. After Life in the Tomb 2. The Nether World 3. Celestial Immortality 4. The Winning of Immortality 5. Untimely Death 6. The Journey to the Beyond 7. The Sufferings of Hell and Metempsychosis 8. The Felicity of the Blessed
Category: Religion

The Interpretation Of The Old Testament In Greco Roman Paganism

Author : John Granger Cook
ISBN : 3161484746
Genre : Religion
File Size : 76.67 MB
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According to the available evidence not many pagans knew the Greek Bible (Septuagint) before the advent of Christianity. Those pagans who later became aware of Christian texts were among the first, according to the surviving data, to seriously explore the Septuagint. They found the Bible to be difficult reading. The pagans who reacted to biblical texts include Celsus (II C.E.), Porphyry (III C.E.), and Julian the Apostate (IV C.E.). These authors thought that if they could refute one of the primary foundations of Christianity, namely its use or interpretation of the Septuagint, then the new religion would perhaps crumble. John Granger Cook analyzes these pagans' voice and elaborates on its importance, since it shows how Septuagint texts appeared in the eyes of Greco-Roman intellectuals. Theirs was not an abstract interest, however, because they knew that Christianity posed a grave danger to some of their dearest beliefs, self-understanding, and way of life.
Category: Religion

Time In Roman Religion

Author : Gary Forsythe
ISBN : 9781136314421
Genre : Religion
File Size : 76.24 MB
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Religion is a major subfield of ancient history and classical studies, and Roman religion in particular is usually studied today by experts in two rather distinct halves: the religion of the Roman Republic, covering the fifth through first centuries B.C.; and the religious diversity of the Roman Empire, spanning the first four centuries of our era. In Time in Roman Religion, author Gary Forsythe examines both the religious history of the Republic and the religious history of the Empire. These six studies are unified by the important role played by various concepts of time in Roman religious thought and practice. Previous modern studies of early Roman religion in Republican times have discussed how the placement of religious ceremonies in the calendar was determined by their relevance to agricultural or military patterns of early Roman life, but modern scholars have failed to recognize that many aspects of Roman religious thought and behavior in later times were also preconditioned or even substantially influenced by concepts of time basic to earlier Roman religious history. This book is not a comprehensive survey of all major aspects of Roman religious history spanning one thousand years. Rather, it is a collection of six studies that are bound together by a single analytical theme: namely, time. Yet, in the process of delving into these six different topics the study surveys a large portion of Roman religious history in a representative fashion, from earliest times to the end of the ancient world and the triumph of Christianity.
Category: Religion

Roman Religion Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author : Oxford University Press
ISBN : 0199803153
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 49.74 MB
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of the ancient world find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In classics, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is just one of many articles from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Classics, a continuously updated and growing online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through the scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of classics. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit
Category: Literary Criticism

The Last Pagans Of Rome

Author : Alan Cameron
ISBN : 0199780919
Genre : History
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Rufinus' vivid account of the battle between the Eastern Emperor Theodosius and the Western usurper Eugenius by the River Frigidus in 394 represents it as the final confrontation between paganism and Christianity. It is indeed widely believed that a largely pagan aristocracy remained a powerful and active force well into the fifth century, sponsoring pagan literary circles, patronage of the classics, and propaganda for the old cults in art and literature. The main focus of much modern scholarship on the end of paganism in the West has been on its supposed stubborn resistance to Christianity. The dismantling of this romantic myth is one of the main goals of Alan Cameron's book. Actually, the book argues, Western paganism petered out much earlier and more rapidly than hitherto assumed. The subject of this book is not the conversion of the last pagans but rather the duration, nature, and consequences of their survival. By re-examining the abundant textual evidence, both Christian (Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Paulinus, Prudentius) and "pagan" (Claudian, Macrobius, and Ammianus Marcellinus), as well as the visual evidence (ivory diptychs, illuminated manuscripts, silverware), Cameron shows that most of the activities and artifacts previously identified as hallmarks of a pagan revival were in fact just as important to the life of cultivated Christians. Far from being a subversive activity designed to rally pagans, the acceptance of classical literature, learning, and art by most elite Christians may actually have helped the last reluctant pagans to finally abandon the old cults and adopt Christianity. The culmination of decades of research, The Last Pagans of Rome overturns many long-held assumptions about pagan and Christian culture in the late antique West.
Category: History

Religion In The Roman Empire

Author : Ben Holtzer
ISBN : 9781502622648
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 42.74 MB
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Religion in the Roman Empire goes beyond gods and goddesses to provide a detailed look at the belief system of ancient Rome. As the empire expanded, diverse cultures joined together, bringing new traditions, sacred places, and holidays. This book examines current scholarship about the role religion played in the lives of everyday Romans as well as that of spiritual figures like priests and priestesses.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

History Culture And Religion Of The Hellenistic Age

Author : Helmut Koester
ISBN : 9783110814064
Genre : Religion
File Size : 87.59 MB
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While the first American edition of this book, published more than a decade ago, was a revised translation of the German book, Einführung in das Neue Testament, this second edition of the first volume of the Introduction to the New Testament is no longer dependent upon a previously published German work. The author hopes that for the student of the New Testament it is a useful introduction into the many complex aspects of the political, cultural, and religious developments that characterized the world in which early Christianity arose and by which the New Testament and other early Christian writings were shaped.
Category: Religion

Religion In Late Roman Britain

Author : Dorothy Watts
ISBN : 9781134814558
Genre : History
File Size : 82.2 MB
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Religion in Late Roman Britain explores the changes in religion over the fourth century; the historical background for these changes and the forces which contributed to them. Dorothy Watts examines the reasons for the decline of Christianity and the continuation of the pagan, Celtic cults in Britain. The author establishes a chronology for the rise and decline of Christianity, based on the available archaeological evidence, and she charts the fate of the pagan cults and temples in the fourth century. The author discusses the nature of Romano-British pagan religion and she analyses the controversial rite of decapitated burial in the light of some startling new archaeological evidence.
Category: History

Religion In Roman Egypt

Author : David Frankfurter
ISBN : 0691070547
Genre : Religion
File Size : 55.86 MB
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This exploration of cultural resilience examines the complex fate of classical Egyptian religion during the centuries from the period when Christianity first made its appearance in Egypt to when it became the region's dominant religion (roughly 100 to 600 C.E. Taking into account the full range of witnesses to continuing native piety--from papyri and saints' lives to archaeology and terracotta figurines--and drawing on anthropological studies of folk religion, David Frankfurter argues that the religion of Pharonic Egypt did not die out as early as has been supposed but was instead relegated from political centers to village and home, where it continued a vigorous existence for centuries. In analyzing the fate of the Egyptian oracle and of the priesthoods, the function of magical texts, and the dynamics of domestic cults, Frankfurter describes how an ancient culture maintained itself while also being transformed through influences such as Hellenism, Roman government, and Christian dominance. Recognizing the special characteristics of Egypt, which differentiated it from the other Mediterranean cultures that were undergoing simultaneous social and political changes, he departs from the traditional "decline of paganism/triumph of Christianity" model most often used to describe the Roman period. By revealing late Egyptian religion in its Egyptian historical context, he moves us away from scenarios of Christian triumph and shows us how long and how energetically pagan worship survived.
Category: Religion

Christian And Pagan In The Roman Empire

Author : Tertullian
ISBN : 9780813210216
Genre : History
File Size : 89.36 MB
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In this volume, Robert D. Sider undertakes a judicious pruning of the original texts and brings a fresh accessibility to the important writings of Tertullian.
Category: History

After Life In Roman Paganism Lectures Delivered At Yale University On The Silliman Foundation

Author : Cumont Franz Valery Marie
ISBN : 1110723792
Genre : History
File Size : 62.26 MB
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This is a pre-1923 historical reproduction that was curated for quality. Quality assurance was conducted on each of these books in an attempt to remove books with imperfections introduced by the digitization process. Though we have made best efforts - the books may have occasional errors that do not impede the reading experience. We believe this work is culturally important and have elected to bring the book back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide.
Category: History