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Soil Respiration And The Environment

Author : Luo Yiqi
ISBN : 0080463975
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 22.84 MB
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The global environment is constantly changing and our planet is getting warmer at an unprecedented rate. The study of the carbon cycle, and soil respiration, is a very active area of research internationally because of its relationship to climate change. It is crucial for our understanding of ecosystem functions from plot levels to global scales. Although a great deal of literature on soil respiration has been accumulated in the past several years, the material has not yet been synthesized into one place until now. This book synthesizes the already published research findings and presents the fundamentals of this subject. Including information on global carbon cycling, climate changes, ecosystem productivity, crop production, and soil fertility, this book will be of interest to scientists, researchers, and students across many disciplines. A key reference for the scientific community on global climate change, ecosystem studies, and soil ecology Describes the myriad ways that soils respire and how this activity influences the environment Covers a breadth of topics ranging from methodology to comparative analyses of different ecosystem types The first existing "treatise" on the subject
Category: Technology & Engineering

Plant Respiration

Author : Hans Lambers
ISBN : 9781402035890
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.45 MB
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Respiration in plants, as in all living organisms, is essential to provide metabolic energy and carbon skeletons for growth and maintenance. As such, respiration is an essential component of a plant’s carbon budget. Depending on species and environmental conditions, it consumes 25-75% of all the carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis – even more at extremely slow growth rates. Respiration in plants can also proceed in a manner that produces neither metabolic energy nor carbon skeletons, but heat. This type of respiration involves the cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase; it is unique to plants, and resides in the mitochondria. The activity of this alternative pathway can be measured based on a difference in fractionation of oxygen isotopes between the cytochrome and the alternative oxidase. Heat production is important in some flowers to attract pollinators; however, the alternative oxidase also plays a major role in leaves and roots of most plants. A common thread throughout this volume is to link respiration, including alternative oxidase activity, to plant functioning in different environments.
Category: Science

Respiration In Aquatic Ecosystems

Author : Paul del Giorgio
ISBN : 0191523615
Genre : Science
File Size : 59.80 MB
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Respiration represents the major area of ignorance in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. In spite of its obvious ecological and biogeochemical importance, most oceanographic and limnological textbooks invariably deal with respiration only superficially and as an extension of production and other processes. The objective of this book is to fill this gap and to provide the first comprehensive review of respiration in the major aquatic systems of the biosphere. The introductory chapters review the general importance of respiration in aquatic systems, and deal with respiration within four key biological components of aquatic systems: bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists, and zooplankton. The aim of this first part is to provide the backbone for the analysis and interpretation of ecosystem-level respiration in a variety of aquatic environments. The central chapters of the book review respiration in major aquatic ecosystems including freshwater wetlands, lakes and rivers, estuaries, coastal and open ocean and pelagic ecosystems, as well as respiration in suboxic environments. For each major ecosystem, the corresponding chapter provides a synthesis of methods used to assess respiration, outlines the existing information and data on respiration, discusses its regulation and link to biotic and abiotic factors, and finally provides regional and global estimates of the magnitude of respiration. The final chapter provides a general synthesis of the information and data provided in the different sections, and further attempts to place aquatic respiration within the context of the global carbon budget.
Category: Science

Respiration In Archaea And Bacteria

Author : Davide Zannoni
ISBN : 9781402031632
Genre : Science
File Size : 87.51 MB
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The book summarizes the achievements of the past decade in the biochemistry, bioenergetics, structural and molecular biology of respiratory processes in selected genera of the domain Bacteria along with an extensive coverage of the redox chains of extremophiles belonging to the Archaean domain. The volume is a unique piece of work since it contains a series of chapters dealing with metabolic features having important microbiological and ecological relevance such as the use of ammonium, iron, methane, sulfur and hydrogen as respiratory substrates or nitrous compounds in denitrification processes. Particular attention is also dedicated to peculiar groups of prokaryotes such as Gram positives, acetic acid bacteria, pathogens of the genera Helicobacter and Campylobacter, nitrogen fixing symbionts and free-living species, oxygenic phototrophs (Cyanobacteria) and anoxygenic (purple non-sulfur) phototrophs. The book is intended to be a long-term source of information for Ph.D. students, researchers and undergraduates from disciplines such as microbiology, biochemistry and ecology, studying basic and applied sciences, medicine and agriculture.
Category: Science

Cellular Respiration And Carcinogenesis

Author : Shireesh Apte
ISBN : 1597454354
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.50 MB
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Cellular Respiration and Carcinogenesis presents leading experts in the field as it informs the reader about both basic and recent research in the field of cellular respiration and the effects of its dysfunction, alteration or attenuation on the development of cancer. This masterfully compiled text offers the reader a fundamental understanding about how oxygen sensing and/or availability, programmed cell death, immune recognition and response and glucose metabolism are intimately linked with the two major mechanism or pathways of cellular respiration; oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. The editors and contributing authors proficiently and unequivocally address the effects of dysfunction of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation/glycolysis (cellular respiration) mechanisms and pathways on the development of cancer. While it remains true that there are no universal truths in cancer, Cellular Respiration and Carcinogenesis opens the dialogue that the etiology of cancer can usually be associated with, and significantly attributed to the failure of one or multiple pathways of oxidative phosphorylation (cellular respiration) to normally burn fuel to generate energy, vis-à-vis the Warburg hypothesis. Keeping with its cutting-edge nature, Cellular Respiration and Carcinogenesis provides the first glimpse to a cautionary evidence based counterbalance to the recent and rapidly proliferating notion that utilization of fuel primarily via glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer development.
Category: Science

Comparative Physiology Of Vertebrate Respiration

Author : G. M. Hughes
ISBN : 0674152506
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.85 MB
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This book is a concise study of the structure and function of vertebrate respiratory systems. It describes not only the individual organ systems, but also the relationship of these systems to each other and to the animal's environment. For example, the author emphasizes that a proper understanding of respiration involves a consideration of the external environment as a source of oxygen as well as the biochemistry of the cell; and, from the evolutionary point of view, that physiological changes in the respiratory and circulatory systems are dominated by the origin of the land habit. The author's approach to the subject exemplifies that trend to the amalgamation of Zoology and Physiology, which has become increasingly marked at universities and schools in recent years. This synthesis requires, broadly, a knowledge of classical comparative anatomy, ecology, evolution, physiology and biochemistry; an enormous task, but nevertheless one in which the zoologist holds a central position. This book indicates the nature of such an eclectic approach, with the animal, in its environment and its evolution, as its focal point. Covering a rapidly changing field of research the author refers to many recent views and indicates where these differ from those commonly accepted.
Category: Science

Fish Respiration

Author : Steve F. Perry
ISBN : 0080585418
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 23.1 MB
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Fish Respiration synthesizes classical literature and highlights recent developments pertaining to the respiratory physiology of fishes. Compiled by a team of international researchers, this comprehensive and authoritative review of the respiratory physiology of fishes will appeal to any comparative physiologist interested in this subject. First volume in the series dedicated solely to the respiratory system Contributors are world leaders in their respective areas Includes completely up-to-date material on the topic of fish physiology
Category: Technology & Engineering