Prostitution And Victorian Society

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Prostitution And Victorian Society

Author : Judith R. Walkowitz
ISBN : 0521270642
Genre : History
File Size : 48.30 MB
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A study of alliances between prostitutes and femminists and their clashes with medical authorities and police.
Category: History

Prostitution And Victorian Social Reform

Author : Paul McHugh
ISBN : 9781136247750
Genre : History
File Size : 20.35 MB
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In the mid-nineteenth century many parts of England and Wales were still subjected to a system of regulated prostitution which, by identifying and detaining for treatment infected prostitutes, aimed to protect members of the armed forces (94 per cent of whom were forbidden to marry) from venereal diseases. The coercive nature of the Contagious Diseases Acts and the double standard which allowed the continuance of prostitution on the ground that the prostitute 'herself the supreme type of vice, she is ultimately the most efficient guardian of virtue', aroused the ire of many reformers, not only women’s rights campaigners. Paul McHugh analyses the social composition of the different repeal and reform movements – the liberal reformists, the passionate struggle of the charismatic Josephine Butler, the Tory reformers whose achievement was in the improvement of preventative medicine, and finally the Social Purity movement of the 1880s which favoured a coercive approach. This is a fascinating study of ideals and principles in action, of pressure-group strategy, and of individual leaders in the repeal movement’s sixteen year progress to victory. The book was originally publised in 1980.
Category: History

City Of Dreadful Delight

Author : Judith R. Walkowitz
ISBN : 9780226081014
Genre : History
File Size : 50.77 MB
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From tabloid exposes of child prostitution to the grisly tales of Jack the Ripper, narratives of sexual danger pulsated through Victorian London. Expertly blending social history and cultural criticism, Judith Walkowitz shows how these narratives reveal the complex dramas of power, politics, and sexuality that were being played out in late nineteenth-century Britain, and how they influenced the language of politics, journalism, and fiction. Victorian London was a world where long-standing traditions of class and gender were challenged by a range of public spectacles, mass media scandals, new commercial spaces, and a proliferation of new sexual categories and identities. In the midst of this changing culture, women of many classes challenged the traditional privileges of elite males and asserted their presence in the public domain. An important catalyst in this conflict, argues Walkowitz, was W. T. Stead's widely read 1885 article about child prostitution. Capitalizing on the uproar caused by the piece and the volatile political climate of the time, women spoke of sexual danger, articulating their own grievances against men, inserting themselves into the public discussion of sex to an unprecedented extent, and gaining new entree to public spaces and journalistic practices. The ultimate manifestation of class anxiety and gender antagonism came in 1888 with the tabloid tales of Jack the Ripper. In between, there were quotidien stories of sexual possibility and urban adventure, and Walkowitz examines them all, showing how women were not simply figures in the imaginary landscape of male spectators, but also central actors in the stories of metropolotin life that reverberated in courtrooms, learned journals, drawing rooms, street corners, and in the letters columns of the daily press. A model of cultural history, this ambitious book will stimulate and enlighten readers across a broad range of interests.
Category: History

Prostitution

Author : Paula (University of Wolverhampton Bartley, UK)
ISBN : 0415214564
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 90.94 MB
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The first comprehensive overview of attempts to eradicate prostitution from English society, including discussion of early attempts at reform and prevention through to the campaigns of the social purists.
Category: Social Science

Prostitution And Irish Society 1800 1940

Author : Maria Luddy
ISBN : 9780521709057
Genre : History
File Size : 31.32 MB
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The first book to tackle the controversial history of prostitution in modern Ireland.
Category: History

Prostitution And The State In Italy 1860 1915

Author : Mary Gibson
ISBN : 0814250483
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 78.29 MB
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Traces the history of prostitution during the period, when all prostitutes were required to register with the police, live in licensed brothels, undergo health examinations, and be treated in a special hospital if they were infected with venereal disease. Records of the era are used to examine how laws affected prostitutes' lives. Gibson teaches history at John Jay College of Criminal Justice and at City University of New York. First published in 1986 by Rutgers, The State University. This second edition contains a new introduction, a new Part I, and a new bibliography. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Category: Social Science

Crime And Poverty In 19th Century England

Author : A.W. Ager
ISBN : 9781441160966
Genre : History
File Size : 58.10 MB
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It has long been suggested that poverty was responsible for a criminal underclass emerging in Britain during the nineteenth century. Until quite recently, historians did little to challenge this perception. Using innovative quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques, this book looks in detail at some of the causal factors that motivated the poorer classes to commit crime, or act in ways that transgressed acceptable standards of behaviour. It demonstrates how the strategies that these individuals employed varied between urban and rural environments, and shows how the poor railed against legislative reforms that threatened the solvency of their households. In the process, this book provides the first solid appreciation of the complex relationship between crime and poverty in two distinct socio-economic regions between 1830 and 1885.
Category: History

The Fallen Woman Representations In Dominant Victorian Discourses

Author : Tabea Halbmeyer
ISBN : 9783346253316
Genre : History
File Size : 58.97 MB
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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject History Europe - Other Countries - Modern Times, Absolutism, Industrialization, grade: 1,0, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, language: English, abstract: The aim of this paper is to outline the complexity of the representations of the ‘fallen woman.’ All representations involved the fear of deviancy and the attempt to preserve the social and moral order. However, the strategies to deal with the ‘problem’ called ‘fallen woman’ were divergent. This paper is structured along modern forms of thinking. In Victorian times the differentiation of the religious, medical, judicial and literary fields was not as clear-cut as it is today. For this reason, the primary texts selected for the distinctive chapters might appear to belong to several discourses, not just the one assigned to them. It will become evident that the discourses on the ‘fallen woman’ reveal similar representations as well as contradictory ones. Even though the structure proposes the separation of the representations as victim and as threat, there are overlaps and the distinctions are not as definite as the outline suggests. In order to demonstrate basic ideas about the ‘fallen woman,’ there will be a strong focus on the female prostitute. Many aspects of the discourse on the ‘fallen woman’ become clear when looking at the topic of prostitution, which was thematized in Victorian culture and politics. Moreover, the term ‘stereotype’ will play a major role in this analysis.
Category: History

Victorian Transformations

Author : Dr Bianca Tredennick
ISBN : 9781409478720
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 67.49 MB
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Proposing the concept of transformation as a key to understanding the Victorian period, this collection explores the protean ways in which the nineteenth century conceived of, responded to, and created change. The volume focuses on literature, particularly issues related to genre, nationalism, and desire. For example, the essays suggest that changes in the novel's form correspond with shifting notions of human nature in Victor Hugo's Notre-Dame de Paris; technical forms such as the villanelle and chant royal are crucial bridges between Victorian and Modernist poetics; Victorian theater moves from privileging the text to valuing the spectacles that characterized much of Victorian staging; Carlyle's Past and Present is a rallying cry for replacing the static and fractured language of the past with a national language deep in shared meaning; Dante Gabriel Rossetti posits unachieved desire as the means of rescuing the subject from the institutional forces that threaten to close down and subsume him; and the return of Adelaide Anne Procter's fallen nun to the convent in "A Legend of Provence" can be read as signaling a more modern definition of gender and sexuality that allows for the possibility of transgressive desire within society. The collection concludes with an essay that shows neo-Victorian authors like John Fowles and A. S. Byatt contending with the Victorian preoccupations with gender and sexuality.
Category: Literary Criticism

London S Shadows

Author : Drew D. Gray
ISBN : 9781847252425
Genre : History
File Size : 22.84 MB
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In 1888 London was the capital of the greatest empire the world had ever known. In the West End the glittering lamps illuminated the homes of the rich and the emporiums that displayed the countless luxuries that they enjoyed. This was a city that reflected the wealth of the Victorian age, but there was also a dark side to Victorian London: vice and crime, degradation, poverty and despair. When an unknown killer began murdering prostitutes in Whitechapel the horrors of the East End were brought out of the shadows. In 1888 London was the capital of the most powerful empire the world had ever known and the largest city in Europe. In the West End a new city was growing, populated by the middle classes, the epitome of 'Victorian values'. Across the city the situation was very different. The East End of London had long been considered a nether world, a dark and dangerous place, and it embodied many of the fears of respectable Victorians. Using the Whitechapel murders of Jack the Ripper as a focal point, London's Shadows explores prostitution and poverty, revolutionary politics and Irish terrorism, immigration, the criminal underclass and the developing role of the Metropolitan Police. It also considers how the sensationalist New Journalism took the news of the Ripper murders to the furthest corners of the Empire. This is a new and fresh portrait of London at the height of Victoria's reign, revealing the dark underbelly of the city's history.
Category: History

Soul Self And Society

Author : Edward L. Rubin
ISBN : 9780199348671
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 71.46 MB
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Political and social commentators regularly bemoan the decline of morality in the modern world. They claim that the norms and values that held society together in the past are rapidly eroding, to be replaced by permissiveness and empty hedonism. But as Edward Rubin demonstrates in this powerful account of moral transformations, these prophets of doom are missing the point. Morality is not diminishing; instead, a new morality, centered on an ethos of human self-fulfillment, is arising to replace the old one. As Rubin explains, changes in morality have gone hand in hand with changes in the prevailing mode of governance throughout the course of Western history. During the Early Middle Ages, a moral system based on honor gradually developed. In a dangerous world where state power was declining, people relied on bonds of personal loyalty that were secured by generosity to their followers and violence against their enemies. That moral order, exemplified in the early feudal system and in sagas like The Song of Roland, The Song of the Cid, and the Arthurian legends has faded, but its remnants exist today in criminal organizations like the Mafia and in the rap music of the urban ghettos. When state power began to revive in the High Middle Ages through the efforts of the European monarchies, and Christianity became more institutionally effective and more spiritually intense, a new morality emerged. Described by Rubin as the morality of higher purposes, it demanded that people devote their personal efforts to achieving salvation and their social efforts to serving the emerging nation-states. It insisted on social hierarchy, confined women to subordinate roles, restricted sex to procreation, centered child-rearing on moral inculcation, and countenanced slavery and the marriage of pre-teenage girls to older men. Our modern era, which began in the late 18th century, has seen the gradual erosion of this morality of higher purposes and the rise of a new morality of self-fulfillment, one that encourages individuals to pursue the most meaningful and rewarding life-path. Far from being permissive or a moral abdication, it demands that people respect each other's choices, that sex be mutually enjoyable, that public positions be allocated according to merit, and that society provide all its members with their minimum needs so that they have the opportunity to fulfill themselves. Where people once served the state, the state now functions to serve the people. The clash between this ascending morality and the declining morality of higher purposes is the primary driver of contemporary political and cultural conflict. A sweeping, big-idea book in the vein of Francis Fukuyama's The End of History, Charles Taylor's The Secular Age, and Richard Sennett's The Fall of Public Man, Edward Rubin's new volume promises to reshape our understanding of morality, its relationship to government, and its role in shaping the emerging world of High Modernity.
Category: Political Science

Sex Crime And Literature In Victorian England

Author : Ian Ward
ISBN : 9781782253693
Genre : Law
File Size : 60.6 MB
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The Victorians worried about many things, prominent among their worries being the 'condition' of England and the 'question' of its women. Sex, Crime and Literature in Victorian England revisits these particular anxieties, concentrating more closely upon four 'crimes' which generated especial concern amongst contemporaries: adultery, bigamy, infanticide and prostitution. Each engaged questions of sexuality and its regulation, legal, moral and cultural, for which reason each attracted the considerable interest not just of lawyers and parliamentarians, but also novelists and poets and perhaps most importantly those who, in ever-larger numbers, liked to pass their leisure hours reading about sex and crime. Alongside statutes such as the 1857 Matrimonial Causes Act and the 1864 Contagious Diseases Act, Sex, Crime and Literature in Victorian England contemplates those texts which shaped Victorian attitudes towards England's 'condition' and the 'question' of its women: the novels of Dickens, Thackeray and Eliot, the works of sensationalists such as Ellen Wood and Mary Braddon, and the poetry of Gabriel and Christina Rossetti. Sex, Crime and Literature in Victorian England is a richly contextual commentary on a critical period in the evolution of modern legal and cultural attitudes to the relation of crime, sexuality and the family.
Category: Law

George Gissing The Working Woman And Urban Culture

Author : Emma Liggins
ISBN : 0754637174
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 86.8 MB
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George Gissing's realist representations of urban culture in fin-de-siècle London testify to the significance of the city for the development of new class and gender identities. Emma Liggins considers standard works such as The Odd Women and New Grub Street, and lesser known short fiction, arguing that Gissing made an important contribution to the development of urban fiction, which increasingly reflected current debates about women's presence in the city.
Category: Literary Criticism

Prostitution And Instrumental Rape In Victorian England

Author : Jared William Carter
ISBN : 9781468954111
Genre : History
File Size : 73.49 MB
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Female prostitution in England during the Victorian era was widely treated as a major social concern and issue of national public health from the 1860s to 1880s.
Category: History

National Insecurities

Author : Deirdre M. Moloney
ISBN : 9780807882610
Genre : History
File Size : 27.50 MB
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For over a century, deportation and exclusion have defined eligibility for citizenship in the United States and, in turn, have shaped what it means to be American. In this broad analysis of policy from 1882 to present, Deirdre Moloney places current debates about immigration issues in historical context. Focusing on several ethnic groups, Moloney closely examines how gender and race led to differences in the implementation of U.S. immigration policy as well as how poverty, sexuality, health, and ideologies were regulated at the borders. Emphasizing the perspectives of immigrants and their advocates, Moloney weaves in details from case files that illustrate the impact policy decisions had on individual lives. She explores the role of immigration policy in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and other nations, and shows how federal, state, and local agencies had often conflicting priorities and approaches to immigration control. Throughout, Moloney traces the ways that these policy debates contributed to a modern understanding of citizenship and human rights in the twentieth century and even today.
Category: History

A Garland For Gissing

Author : Bouwe Postmus
ISBN : 9042014776
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 83.58 MB
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The crown upon the continuing vitality and popularity of Gissing studies in the final decade of the twentieth century was the publication of The Collected Letters of George Gissing (1990-97). The editors of that mammoth undertaking, Paul Mattheisen, Arthur Young and Pierre Coustillas, had long been an inspiration to the younger generation of Gissing scholars, and their presence at the International George Gissing Conference at Amsterdam in September 1999 explained the success of the encounter between Gissing's older and younger critics. Ever since the reappraisal of Gissing's works began to get under way in the early 1960s through the publication of many new editions of the works and ground-breaking critical studies by Arthur Young, Jacob Korg and Pierre Coustillas, it has become impossible to ignore the high status he now enjoys by rights, which resembles the position granted to him long ago by his contemporaries, as one of the leading English novelists of the late nineteenth century. This collection of essays is remarkable for its emphasis on women's issues addressed in Gissing's novels, ranging from the inadequate education of women to the struggle for greater female independence, within and without marriage. Several contributors seek to define the precise nature and quality of Gissing's achievement and his place in the canon and, in the process, they open up fascinating, new opportunities for future research.
Category: Literary Criticism

Prostitution Sexuality And The Law In Ancient Rome

Author : Thomas A. J. McGinn
ISBN : 0199882940
Genre : History
File Size : 69.23 MB
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This is a study of the legal rules affecting the practice of female prostitution at Rome approximately from 200 B.C. to A.D. 250. It examines the formation and precise content of the legal norms developed for prostitution and those engaged in this profession, with close attention to their social context. McGinn's unique study explores the "fit" between the law-system and the socio-economic reality while shedding light on important questions concerning marginal groups, marriage, sexual behavior, the family, slavery, and citizen status, particularly that of women.
Category: History

The Lost Wave

Author : Molly Tambor
ISBN : 9780199392575
Genre : History
File Size : 60.79 MB
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As Italy emerged from World War II, the first women entered the national government. The 45 women who became parliamentarians when Italian women were first entitled to vote in 1946 represented a "lost wave" of feminist action, argues Molly Tambor. In this work, Tambor reconstructs the role that these female politicians played in Italy's new democratic Republic. They proved critical in ensuring that the new Constitution formally guaranteed the equality of all citizens regardless of sex, translating the general constitutional guarantees into direct legislative rights and protections. They used a specific electoral and legislative strategy, "constitutional rights feminism," to construct an image of the female citizen as a bulwark of democracy. Mining existing tropes of femininity such as the Resistance heroine, the working mother, the sacrificial Catholic, and the "mamma Italiana," they searched for social consensus for women's equality that could reach across religious, ideological, and gender divides. The political biographies of woman politicians are intertwined with the history of the laws they created and helped pass, including paid maternity leave, the closing of state-run brothels, and women's right to become judges. Women politicians navigated gendered political identity as they picked and chose among competing models of femininity in Cold War Italy. In so doing, The Lost Wave shows, they forged a political legacy that affected the rights and opportunities of all Italian citizens.
Category: History

Studying The British Crime Film

Author : Paul Elliott
ISBN : 9780993071775
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 72.23 MB
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Ever since its inception, British cinema has been obsessed with crime and the criminal. One of the first narrative films to be produced in Britain, the Hepworth’s 1905 short Rescued by Rover, was a fast-paced, quick-edited tale of abduction and kidnap, and the first British sound film, Alfred Hitchcock’s Blackmail (1930), centered on murder and criminal guilt. For a genre seemingly so important to the British cinematic character, there is little direct theoretical or historical work focused on it. The Britain of British cinema is often written about in terms of national history, ethnic diversity, or cultural tradition, yet very rarely in terms of its criminal tendencies and dark underbelly. This volume assumes that, to know how British cinema truly works, it is necessary to pull back the veneer of the costume piece, the historical drama, and the rom-com and glimpse at what is underneath. For every Brief Encounter (1945) there is a Brighton Rock (2010), for every Notting Hill (1999) there is a Long Good Friday (1980).
Category: Performing Arts

Diseases In The Homosexual Male

Author : Michael W. Adler
ISBN : 9781447116349
Genre : Medical
File Size : 55.49 MB
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The Bloomsbury Series in Clinical Science is growing and changing. Its Editorial Board and contributors were all originally selected from, or had links with, the University College and Middlesex School of Medicine. Now, as the Series develops, board members and con tributors alike identify with the wider reaches of Bloomsbury and Islington. The aims of the Series remain, however, to highlight, to review and to record significant areas of research and development in the field of clinical science. All contributors are experts in their particular field and monographs may be the work of a single author or several, guided by individual editors. Diseases in the Homosexual Male is the third monograph in the Series. Edited by Michael Adler, Professor of Genito-Urinary Medicine at the University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, it presents contributions from a number of distinguished workers with special expertise. AIDS has perhaps highlighted the problem but this monograph illustrates the wider profile and gives wit ness to the multidisciplinary nature of clinical science.
Category: Medical