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Author : Jakob Schwichtenberg
ISBN : 9783319666310
Genre : Science
File Size : 51.62 MB
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This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations.

Author : S. Oneda
ISBN : 9810204981
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.72 MB
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In elementary particle physics, there are a number of recognizable underlying symmetries which correctly describe spectacular multiplet structure of observed particles. However, lack of a consistent method to deal with badly broken symmetry has hindered the investigation through symmetry. With this book the authors hope to arouse interest in the approach to broken symmetry from a fresh point of view.The authors argue that spectrum generating symmetries still maintain asymptotic symmetry for physical (not virtual) particles. When combined with the symmetry related equal-time commutation relations which are derivable from fundamental Lagrangian, asymptotic symmetry then demands a close interplay among the masses, mixing parameters and coupling constants of physical particles. From this point of view, we may understand the success of the naive quark model, remarkable mass and mass-mixing angle relations in QCD and electroweak theory and even the presence of dynamical selection rules. The method may also give us a powerful tool for the study of new physics where fundamental Lagrangian is not yet known.

Author : A. Zee
ISBN : 9781400874507
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.6 MB
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The concept of symmetry has widespread manifestations and many diverse applications—from architecture to mathematics to science. Yet, as twentieth-century physics has revealed, symmetry has a special, central role in nature, one that is occasionally and enigmatically violated. Fearful Symmetry brings the incredible discoveries of the juxtaposition of symmetry and asymmetry in contemporary physics within everyone's grasp. A. Zee, a distinguished physicist and skillful expositor, tells the exciting story of how contemporary theoretical physicists are following Einstein in their search for the beauty and simplicity of Nature. Animated by a sense of reverence and whimsy, Fearful Symmetry describes the majestic sweep and accomplishments of twentieth-century physics—one of the greatest chapters in the intellectual history of humankind.

Author : Kurt Sundermeyer
ISBN : 9783319065816
Genre : Science
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Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also understand the implications of quantum physics and symmetry considerations: Poincare invariance dictates both the characteristic properties of particles (mass, spin, ...) and the wave equations of spin 0, 1/2, 1, ... objects. Further, the work of C.N. Yang and R. Mills reveals the consequences of internal symmetries as exemplified in the symmetry group of elementary particle physics. Given this pivotal role of symmetries it is thus not surprising that current research in fundamental physics is to a great degree motivated and inspired by considerations of symmetry. The treatment of symmetries in this monograph ranges from classical physics to now well-established theories of fundamental interactions, to the latest research on unified theories and quantum gravity.

This book is the third of a three-volume series written by the same author. It aims to deliver a comprehensive and self-contained account of the fundamentals of the physics of solids. In the presentation of the properties and experimentally observed phenomena together with the basic concepts and theoretical methods, it goes far beyond most classic texts. The essential features of various experimental techniques are also explained. This volume is devoted mostly to the discussion of the effects of electron—electron interaction beyond the one-electron approximation. The density-functional theory is introduced to account for correlation effects. The response to external perturbations is discussed in the framework of linear response theory. Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory is followed by the theory of Luttinger liquids. The subsequent chapters are devoted to electronic phases with broken symmetry: to itinerant magnetism, to spin- and charge-density waves and their realizations in quasi-one-dimensional materials, as well as to the microscopic theory of superconductivity. An overview is given of the physics of strongly correlated systems. The last chapter covers selected problems in the physics of disordered systems.

Author : Donald G. Babbitt
ISBN : 9780821847312
Genre : Science
File Size : 34.29 MB
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The articles in this volume mainly grew out of talks given at a Conference held at UCLA in January 2008, which honored V. S. Varadarajan on his 70th birthday. The main theme of the Conference was symmetry in mathematics and physics, areas of mathematics and mathematical physics in which Varadarajan has made significant contributions during the past 50 years. Very early in his career he also worked and made significant contributions in the areas of probability and the foundations of quantum mechanics. Topics covered by the articles in this volume are probability, quantum mechanics, symmetry (broadly interpreted in mathematics and physics), finite and infinite dimensional Lie groups and Lie algebras and their representations, super Lie groups and supergeometry (relatively new but active and important fields at the interface between mathematics and physics), and supersymmetry. The latter topic takes on a special importance since one of the first experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will be a test of whether supersymmetry exists in the world of elementary particles. A reprint of an exposition of supersymmetry by one of its founders, B. Zumino, appears in this volume.

Author : W. M. Gibson
ISBN : 0521299640
Genre : Science
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In this 1980 book the concept of symmetry of invariance is employed as a unifying theme in the properties and interactions of the elementary particles. Using an explanation of mathematical formalism and with applications to particular cases, the authors introduce the symmetry schemes which dominate the world of the particle physicist.

Author : Robert T. Sharp
ISBN : 0821870297
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.85 MB
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Papers in this volume are based on the Workshop on Symmetries in Physics held at the Centre de recherches mathematiques (University of Montreal) in memory of Robert T. Sharp. Contributed articles are on a variety of topics revolving around the theme of symmetry in physics. The preface presents a biographical and scientific retrospect of the life and work of Robert Sharp. Other articles in the volume represent his diverse range of interests, including representation theoretic methods for Lie algebras, quantization techniques and foundational considerations, modular group invariants and applications to conformal models, various physical models and equations, geometric calculations with symmetries, and pedagogical methods for developing spatio-temporal intuition. The book is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in group theoretic methods, symmetries, and mathematical physics.

Symmetry considerations dominate modern fundamental physics, both in quantum theory and in relativity. This book presents a collection of philosophy-on-physics papers, highlighting the main issues and controversies, and providing an entry into the subject for both physicists and philosophers. It covers topical issues such as the significance of gauge symmetry, particle identity in quantum theory, how to make sense of parity violation, the role of symmetry-breaking, the empirical status of symmetry principles, and so forth, along with more traditional problems in the philosophy of science. These include the status of the laws of nature, the relationships between mathematics, physical theory, and the world, and the extent to which mathematics dictates physics. A valuable reference for students and researchers, it will also be of interest to those studying the foundations of physics, philosophy of physics and philosophy of science.