Phenology Of Ecosystem Processes

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Phenology Of Ecosystem Processes

Author : Asko Noormets
ISBN : 1441900268
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.19 MB
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Terrestrial carbon balance is uncertain at the regional and global scale. A significant source of variability in mid-latitude ecosystems is related to the timing and duration of phenological phases. Spring phenology, in particular, has disproportionate effects on the annual carbon balance. However, the traditional phenological indices that are based on leaf-out and flowering times of select indicator species are not universally amenable for predicting the temporal dynamics of ecosystem carbon and water exchange. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes evaluates current applications of traditional phenology in carbon and H2O cycle research, as well as the potential to identify phenological signals in ecosystem processes themselves. The book summarizes recent progress in the understanding of the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem carbon and H2O fluxes, the novel use of various methods (stable isotopes, time-series, forward and inverse modeling), and the implications for remote sensing and global carbon cycle modeling. Each chapter includes a literature review, in order to present the state-of-the-science in the field and enhance the book’s usability as an educational aid, as well as a case study to exemplify the use and applicability of various methods. Chapters that apply a specific methodology summarize the successes and challenges of particular methods for quantifying the seasonal changes in ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes. The book will benefit global change researchers, modelers, and advanced students.
Category: Science

Biodiversity And Savanna Ecosystem Processes

Author : Otto T. Solbrig
ISBN : 9783642789694
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.21 MB
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Savannas are the most widespread ecosystem in the tropics and as such are subjected to great human pressure that may result in massive soil degradation. The book addresses the role of species in the function of savanna ecosystems. It is shown that savannas are enormously diverse and that four factors determine the function of savanna ecosystems: Plant Available Moisture; Plant Available Nutrients; Fire; Herbivores.
Category: Science

Mosaic Landscapes And Ecological Processes

Author : L. Hansson
ISBN : 9789401107174
Genre : Science
File Size : 74.18 MB
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This series presents studies that have used the paradigm of landscape ecology. Other approaches, both to landscape and landscape ecology are common, but in the last decade landscape ecology has become distinct from its predecessors and its contemporaries. Landscape ecology addresses the relationships among spatial patterns, temporal patterns and ecological processes. The effect of spatial configurations on ecological processes is fundamental. When human activity is an important variable affecting those relationships, landscape ecology includes it. Spatial and temporal scales are as large as needed for comprehension of system processes and the mosaic included may be very heterogeneous. Intellec tual utility and applicability of results are valued equally. The Inter national Association for Landscape Ecology sponsors this series of studies in order to introduce and disseminate some of the new knowledge that is being produced by this exciting new environmental science. Gray Merriam Ottawa, Canada Foreword This is a book about real nature, or as close to real as we know - a nature of heterogeneous landscapes, wild and humanized, fine-grained and coarse-grained, wet and dry, hilly and flat, temperate and not so temper ate. Real nature is never uniform. At whatever spatial scale we examine nature, we encounter patchiness. If we were to look down from high above at a landscape of millions of hectares, using a zoom lens to move in and out from broad overview to detailed inspection of a square meter we would see that patterns visible at different scales overlay one another.
Category: Science

Temporal Dynamics And Ecological Process

Author : Colleen K. Kelly
ISBN : 9781107728844
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.32 MB
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In contrast with the fundamental ecological expectation that similarity induces competition and loss of species, temporal dynamics allows similar species to co-occur. In fact, the coexistence of similar species contributes significantly to species diversity and could affect ecosystem response to climate change. However, because temporal processes take place over time, they have often been a challenge to document or even to identify. Temporal Dynamics and Ecological Process brings together studies that have met this challenge and present two specific aspects of temporal processes: reproductive scheduling and the stable coexistence of similar species. By using plants to extract general principles, these studies uncover deep ties between temporal niche dynamics and the above central ecological issues, thereby providing a better understanding of what drives temporal processes in nature. Written by leading scientists in the field, this title will be a valuable source of reference to research ecologists and those interested in temporal ecology.
Category: Science

Ecosystems And Climate Change Research Priorities For The U S Climate Change Science Program

Author : Palmer A. Lucier (M.)
ISBN : MINN:31951D02370070R
Genre : Climatic changes
File Size : 32.77 MB
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Report summarizes and interprets workshop discussions focusing on three areas: Feedback between ecological systems and global change; Consequences of global change for ecological systems; Sustaining and improving ecological systems in the face of global change.
Category: Climatic changes

Fungi In Ecosystem Processes

Author : John Dighton
ISBN : 020391144X
Genre : Nature
File Size : 56.33 MB
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Adopting the novel approach of viewing the role of fungi from the perspective of ecosystem functions, this book examines the importance of fungi in soil formation, plant primary production, sustenance of secondary producers, and regulation of plant and animal populations and communities. This volume emphasizes the idea that fungi are not alone in the regulation of these processes. It addresses the main processes occurring in ecosystems and showing where and how fungi are critical, and enables readers to gain a better understanding of the role of fungi in shaping ecosystems. "Fungi in Ecosystem Processes" considers the negative impact of fungi on faunal productivity and includes more than 1200 citations.
Category: Nature

Phenology An Integrative Environmental Science

Author : Mark D. Schwartz
ISBN : 9789400769250
Genre : Science
File Size : 86.64 MB
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Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring events, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenological phenomena all give a ready measure of the environment as viewed by the associated organism, and are thus ideal indicators of the impact of local and global changes in weather and climate on the earth’s biosphere. Assessing our changing world is a complex task that requires close cooperation from experts in biology, climatology, ecology, geography, oceanography, remote sensing, and other areas. Like its predecessor, this second edition of Phenology is a synthesis of current phenological knowledge, designed as a primer on the field for global change and general scientists, students, and interested members of the public. With updated and new contributions from over fifty phenological experts, covering data collection, current research, methods, and applications, it demonstrates the accomplishments, progress over the last decade, and future potential of phenology as an integrative environmental science.
Category: Science

Satellite Based Applications On Climate Change

Author : John Qu
ISBN : 9789400758728
Genre : Science
File Size : 24.34 MB
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Climate and other environmental changes are drawing unprecedented concern and attention from national governments, international organizations and local communities. Global warming has left noticeable impacts on the environment and the ecosystems it supports (including humans), and has important implications for sustainable economic and social development in the future. Satellite observations of climate and environmental change have become an increasingly important tool in recent years in helping to shape the response of international communities to this critical global challenge. The book presents the latest advances in satellite-based remote sensing of the Earth’s environment - ranging from applications in climate and atmospheric science to hydrology, oceanography, hydrology, geomorphology, ecology and fire studies. Introductory chapters also cover key technical aspects such as instrumentation, calibration, data analysis, and GIS tools for decision-making.
Category: Science

Terrestrial Ecosystems In A Changing World

Author : Josep G. Canadell
ISBN : 9783540327301
Genre : Science
File Size : 72.65 MB
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This book examines the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on impacts of atmospheric, climate and land use change, and the book discusses the future challenges and the scientific frameworks to address them. Finally, the book explores fundamental new research developments and the need for stronger integration of natural and human dimensions in addressing the challenge of global change.
Category: Science

Plant Phenology As A Biomonitor For Climate Change In Germany

Author : Gunther Schmidt
ISBN : 9783319090900
Genre : Science
File Size : 57.4 MB
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The investigations refer to the development of plant phenology since the 1960s in Germany. Spatiotemporal trends were assessed by means of regression kriging. It could be shown that there already is a distinct shift of phenological onset towards the beginning of the year of up to two weeks. In future, a shift of up to one month was calculated till 2080. Moreover, a prolongation of the vegetation period of up to three weeks was found. The findings are relevant for the development of mitigation measures to prevent from environmental, agricultural and economic issues due to climate change.
Category: Science

Pattern Based Compression Of Multi Band Image Data For Landscape Analysis

Author : Wayne L. Myers
ISBN : 9780387444390
Genre : Science
File Size : 70.15 MB
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This book describes an integrated approach to using remotely sensed data in conjunction with geographic information systems for landscape analysis. Remotely sensed data are compressed into an analytical image-map that is compatible with the most popular geographic information systems as well as freeware viewers. The approach is most effective for landscapes that exhibit a pronounced mosaic pattern of land cover.
Category: Science

The Herbaceous Layer In Forests Of Eastern North America

Author : Department of Biological Sciences Frank S Gilliam
ISBN : 0195140885
Genre : Nature
File Size : 21.72 MB
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Focusing on the oft-overlooked herbaceous layer of eastern forests, this volume combines perspectives from different levels of biological organization (ecophysiology to ecosystems) and forest types (from the eastern boreal forest to southeastern pine forests) into a synthesis of our knowledge of the ecology of this important forest layer. This is the first book of its kind to synthesize information concerning herbaceous layer structure, composition, and dynamics of a variety of forest ecosystem types in eastern North America. With over 1,200 references cited in the 14 chapters, this book represents the most comprehensive review of literature on the ecology of the herbaceous layer.
Category: Nature

Report

Author : United States National Committee for the International Biological Program
ISBN : UIUC:30112001640876
Genre : Biology
File Size : 87.93 MB
Format : PDF
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Category: Biology

Ecosystem Consequences Of Soil Warming

Author : Jacqueline E. Mohan
ISBN : 9780128134931
Genre : Science
File Size : 71.18 MB
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Ecosystem Consequences of Soil Warming: Microbes, Vegetation, Fauna and Soil Biogeochemistry focuses on biotic and biogeochemical responses to warmer soils including plant and microbial evolution. It covers various field settings, such as arctic tundra; alpine meadows; temperate, tropical and subalpine forests; drylands; and grassland ecosystems. Information integrates multiple natural science disciplines, providing a holistic, integrative approach that will help readers understand and forecast future planetwide responses to soil warming. Students and educators will find this book informative for understanding biotic and biogeochemical responses to changing climatic conditions. Scientists from a wide range of disciplines, including soil scientists, ecologists, geneticists, as well as molecular, evolutionary and conservation biologists, will find this book a valuable resource in understanding and planning for warmer climate conditions. Emphasizes biological components of soils, plants and microbes that provide linkages to physics and chemistry Brings together chapters written by global scientific experts with interests in communication and education Includes coverage of polar, alpine, tropical, temperate and dryland ecosystems
Category: Science

Plant Strategies Vegetation Processes And Ecosystem Properties

Author : J. Philip Grime
ISBN : 047085040X
Genre : Science
File Size : 85.89 MB
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Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties, Second Edition, is a thoroughly updated and comprehensive new edition of the very successful Plant Strategies and Vegetative Processes, which controversially proposed the existence of widely-recurring plant functional types with predictable relationships to vegetation structure and dynamics. This second edition uses evidence from many parts of the world to re-examine these concepts in the light of the enormous expansion in the literature. Features include: * A new section covering all aspects of ecosystem properties * New chapters on Assembling of Communities Rarification and Extinction Colonisation and Invasion * Principles and methodologies of a range of international tests including case study examples * Chapter summaries for a quick reference guide * Index of species names Written in a very readable style, this book is an invaluable reference source for researchers in the areas of plant, animal, and community ecology, conservation and land management. 'Written by one of the foremost authorities in the field, summarising over 35 years of research. A book all plant ecologists will want to read.' - Jonathan Silvertown, Department of Biological Sciences, The Open University, UK. 'The coverage is outstanding and comprehensive.' - Simon A. Levin, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, USA
Category: Science

Relationships Among Phenology Climate And Biomass Across Subtropical Forests In Argentina

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1051890648
Genre :
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Abstract: Phenology is a key ecosystem process that reflects climate–vegetation functioning, and is an indicator of global environmental changes. Recently, it has been suggested that land-use change and timber extraction promote differences in forest phenology. We use remote-sensing data to describe regional leaf phenological patterns in combination with field data from 131 plots in old-growth and disturbed forests distributed over subtropical forests of Argentina (54–65°W). We assessed how climate is related to phenological patterns, and analysed how changes in forest structural characteristics such as stock of above-ground biomass relate to the observed phenological signals across the gradient. We found that the first three axes of a principal component analysis explained 85% of the variation in phenological metrics across subtropical forests, ordering plots mainly along indicators of seasonality and productivity. At the regional scale, the relative importance of forest biomass in explaining variation in phenological patterns was about 15%. Climate showed the highest relative importance, with temperature and rainfall explaining Enhanced Vegetation Index metrics related to seasonality and productivity patterns (27% and 47%, respectively). Within forest types, climate explains the major fraction of variation in phenological patterns, suggesting that forest function may be particularly sensitive to climate change. We found that forest biomass contributed to explaining a proportion of leaf phenological variation within three of the five forest types studied, and this may be related to changes in species composition, probably as a result of forest use.
Category:

Ecological Communities And Processes In A Mojave Desert Ecosystem

Author : Philip W. Rundel
ISBN : 0521021413
Genre : Nature
File Size : 32.51 MB
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Deserts provide a harsh and inhospitable environment for plants and animals, and the ecosystem is correspondingly fragile and prone to disruption by a variety of external factors. This book presents an overview of plant and animal ecology in the Mojave Desert, concentrating on data from a number of major research projects in Rock Valley, Nevada. The resulting synthesis describes community structure and dynamics in desert e cosystems, and will be valuable to graduate students and researchers interested in desert ecology.
Category: Nature