Overcoming Barriers To Deployment Of Plug In Electric Vehicles

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Overcoming Barriers To Deployment Of Plug In Electric Vehicles

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309372206
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.55 MB
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In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration's goal of putting millions of alternative-fuel vehicles on the road have all highlighted PEVs as a transportation alternative. Consumers are also beginning to recognize the advantages of PEVs over conventional vehicles, such as lower operating costs, smoother operation, and better acceleration; the ability to fuel up at home; and zero tailpipe emissions when the vehicle operates solely on its battery. There are, however, barriers to PEV deployment, including the vehicle cost, the short all-electric driving range, the long battery charging time, uncertainties about battery life, the few choices of vehicle models, and the need for a charging infrastructure to support PEVs. What should industry do to improve the performance of PEVs and make them more attractive to consumers? At the request of Congress, Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles identifies barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles and recommends ways to mitigate these barriers. This report examines the characteristics and capabilities of electric vehicle technologies, such as cost, performance, range, safety, and durability, and assesses how these factors might create barriers to widespread deployment. Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles provides an overview of the current status of PEVs and makes recommendations to spur the industry and increase the attractiveness of this promising technology for consumers. Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.
Category: Science

Overcoming Barriers To Electric Vehicle Deployment

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309284516
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46.58 MB
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The electric vehicle offers many promises-increasing U.S. energy security by reducing petroleum dependence, contributing to climate-change initiatives by decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, stimulating long-term economic growth through the development of new technologies and industries, and improving public health by improving local air quality. There are, however, substantial technical, social, and economic barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles, including vehicle cost, small driving range, long charging times, and the need for a charging infrastructure. In addition, people are unfamiliar with electric vehicles, are uncertain about their costs and benefits, and have diverse needs that current electric vehicles might not meet. Although a person might derive some personal benefits from ownership, the costs of achieving the social benefits, such as reduced GHG emissions, are borne largely by the people who purchase the vehicles. Given the recognized barriers to electric-vehicle adoption, Congress asked the Department of Energy (DOE) to commission a study by the National Academies to address market barriers that are slowing the purchase of electric vehicles and hindering the deployment of supporting infrastructure. As a result of the request, the National Research Council (NRC)-a part of the National Academies-appointed the Committee on Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment. This committee documented their findings in two reports-a short interim report focused on near-term options, and a final comprehensive report. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment fulfills the request for the short interim report that addresses specifically the following issues: infrastructure needs for electric vehicles, barriers to deploying the infrastructure, and possible roles of the federal government in overcoming the barriers. This report also includes an initial discussion of the pros and cons of the possible roles. This interim report does not address the committee's full statement of task and does not offer any recommendations because the committee is still in its early stages of data-gathering. The committee will continue to gather and review information and conduct analyses through late spring 2014 and will issue its final report in late summer 2014. Overcoming Barriers to Electric-Vehicle Deployment focuses on the light-duty vehicle sector in the United States and restricts its discussion of electric vehicles to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), which include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The common feature of these vehicles is that their batteries are charged by being plugged into the electric grid. BEVs differ from PHEVs because they operate solely on electricity stored in a battery (that is, there is no other power source); PHEVs have internal combustion engines that can supplement the electric power train. Although this report considers PEVs generally, the committee recognizes that there are fundamental differences between PHEVs and BEVs.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Plug In Electric Vehicle Grid Integration

Author : Islam Safak Bayram
ISBN : 9781630814731
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 36.22 MB
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This authoritative new resource provides a comprehensive introduction to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including critical discussions on energy storage and converter technology. The architecture and models for sustainable charging infrastructures and capacity planning of small scale fast charging stations are presented. This book considers PEVs as mobile storage units and explains how PEVS can provide services to the grid. Enabling technologies are explored, including energy storage, converter, and charger technologies for home and park charging. The adoption of EV is discussed and examples are given from the individual battery level to the city level. This book provides guidance on how to build and design sustainable transportation systems. Optimal arrival rates, optimal service rates, facility location problems, load balancing, and demand forecasts are covered in this book. Time-saving MATLAB code and background tables are included in this resource to help engineers with their projects in the field.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Intelligent Transportation And Planning Breakthroughs In Research And Practice

Author : Management Association, Information Resources
ISBN : 9781522552116
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 74.96 MB
Format : PDF
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From driverless cars to vehicular networks, recent technological advances are being employed to increase road safety and improve driver satisfaction. As with any newly developed technology, researchers must take care to address all concerns, limitations, and dangers before widespread public adoption. Intelligent Transportation and Planning: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice is an innovative reference source for the latest academic material on the applications, management, and planning of intelligent transportation systems. Highlighting a range of topics, such as automatic control, infrastructure systems, and system architecture, this publication is ideally designed for engineers, academics, professionals, and practitioners actively involved in the transportation planning sector.
Category: Transportation

Applied Behavioral Economics Research And Trends

Author : Ianole, Rodica
ISBN : 9781522518273
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 50.16 MB
Format : PDF
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Interdisciplinary factors in the modern business realm have significant impacts on economic agents within organizations. These behavioral influences affect multiple decision-making processes on both the individual and organizational levels. Applied Behavioral Economics Research and Trends provides a comprehensive examination of the social, psychological, and emotional factors in organizational behavior and economic decision-making and how these issues provide a deeper understanding of various economic behaviors. Highlighting relevant coverage across a range of topics, such as consumer behavior, inter-temporal choices, and self-employment, this book is ideally designed for managers, researchers, professionals, graduate students, and practitioners seeking scholarly material on the implications of behavioral economics across numerous industries.
Category: Business & Economics

Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1061394524
Genre :
File Size : 29.13 MB
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Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.
Category:

Identifying And Overcoming Critical Barriers To Widespread Second Use Of Pev Batteries

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1066630165
Genre :
File Size : 34.90 MB
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Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.
Category:

Chancen Und Risiken Der Elektromobilit T In Der Schweiz

Author : Rainer Zah
ISBN : 9783728134875
Genre :
File Size : 65.72 MB
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Elektrofahrzeuge können einen Beitrag zu umweltfreundlicherem Verkehr leisten - Voraussetzung ist, dass sie mit CO2-armem Strom betrieben werden. Aber auch Fahrzeuge mit Verbrennungsmotor werden in Zukunft deutlich effizienter werden. Der CO2-Ausstoss der schweizerischen Autoflotte wird daher trotz Bevölkerungs- und Mobilitätswachstum zurückgehen. Dieser Trend zu weniger Energieverbrauch wird durch die Elektromobilität zusätzlich gefördert. Vor allem kleinere und leichtere Fahrzeuge lassen sich gut elektrifizieren - dank Fortschritten in der Batterietechnik zunehmend ohne Kompromisse. Energieversorger und ÖV-Betreiber fördern den Trend, indem sie die Nutzung urbaner Kleinwagen und gemischter Mobilitätsformen erleichtern. Mehr Elektromobilität führt zu geringeren Treibstoffzoll-Einnahmen, was Finanzierungslücken bewirkt und den Wechsel hin zu einer fahrleistungs- und effizienzabhängigen Besteuerung beschleunigt. Sie reduziert auch die Abhängigkeit von Erdöl und erlaubt die Integration erneuerbarer, lokal erzeugter Elektrizität. Demgegenüber beschleunigt sich die Verlagerung der Umweltbelastung von der Strasse hin zu Herstellung und Entsorgung. Nachhaltige Elektromobilität erfordert daher auch die Ausweitung des energiepolitischen Sichtfeldes auf den ganzen Lebenszyklus und ein Schliessen der Ressourcen-Kreisläufe.
Category:

Journal Of The House Of Representatives Of The United States

Author : United States. Congress. House
ISBN : HARVARD:32044116475559
Genre : CD-ROMs
File Size : 79.97 MB
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Some vols. include supplemental journals of "such proceedings of the sessions, as, during the time they were depending, were ordered to be kept secret, and respecting which the injunction of secrecy was afterwards taken off by the order of the House".
Category: CD-ROMs

Integrating U S Climate Energy And Transportation Policies

Author : Liisa Ecola
ISBN : UOM:39015075645435
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 72.28 MB
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Three workshops on policies for mitigating climate change brought together representatives of government, industry, advocacy groups, and the research community to address the interconnection of climate change mitigation policy with the key sectors of energy and transportation. Competing energy and transportation interests can hamper progress in climate change; here, they shared different perspectives and identified some common points of view.
Category: Political Science

Transport Energy And Co2

Author : International Energy Agency
ISBN : MINN:31951D028769520
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.99 MB
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Car ownership is set to triple by 2050, trucking activity will double and air travel could increase fourfold. This book examines how to enable mobility without accelerating climate change. it finds that if changes are made to the way people travel, adoption of technologies to improve vehicle efficiency and a shift to low-CO2 fuels, it is possible to move onto a different pathway where transport CO2 emissions by 2050 are far below current levels, at costs that are lower than many assume. the report discusses the prospects for shifting more travel to the most efficient modes and reducing travel growth rates, improving vehicle fuel efficiency by up to 50% using cost-effective, incremental technologies, and moving toward electricity, hydrogen, and advanced biofuels to achieve a more secure and sustainable transport future. If governments implement strong policies to achieve this scenario, transport can play its role and dramatically reduce CO2 emissions by 2050.
Category: Science