On Sentence Interpretation

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On Sentence Interpretation

Author : Lyn Frazier
ISBN : 9789401145992
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 33.87 MB
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At present there exists no empirically-motivated theory of how perceivers assign a grammatically-permissible interpretation to a sentence. Implicit in many investigations of language comprehension is the idea that each constituent of a sentence is interpreted by the perceiver at the earliest conceivable point, using all potentially relevant sources of information. A variety of counter examples are presented to argue against this implicit theory of sentence interpretation. It is argued that an explicit alternative theory is needed to specify which decisions are made at which points during interpretive processing and to spell out the principles governing the processor's preferred choice at points of ambiguity or uncertainty. Several specific issues are taken concerning how the processor assigns a focal structure to an input sentence, how it identifies the topic of the sentence, how implicit restrictors on the domain of quantification are interpreted and how the identification of the content of a restrictor may guide the processor's use of discourse information. Exploiting intuitions about preferred interpretations of ambiguous sentences as well as the results of both old and new experimental studies, a theory of the preferred interpretation of Determiner Phrases is presented. This work explores important, but overlooked questions in on-line sentence interpretation and attempts to erect some of the scaffolding for an eventual theory of sentence interpretation.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Interpretation

Author : James Nolan
ISBN : 9781847698100
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60.12 MB
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In recent decades the explosive growth of globalization and regional integration has fuelled parallel growth in multilingual conferences. Although conference interpreting has come of age as a profession, interpreter training programs have had varied success, pointing to the need for an instructional manual which covers the subject comprehensively. This book seeks to fill that need by providing a structured syllabus and an overview of interpretation accompanied by exercises in various aspects of the art. It is meant to serve as a practical guide for interpreters and as a complement to interpreter training programs in the classroom and online, particularly those for students preparing for conference interpreting in international governmental and business settings. This expanded second edition includes additional exercises and provides direct links to a variety of web-based resources and practice speeches, also including additional language combinations.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

An On Line Computational Model Of Human Sentence Interpretation

Author : University of California, Berkeley. Computer Science Division
ISBN : UCAL:C3368445
Genre : Computational linguistics
File Size : 90.7 MB
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The model includes a theory of grammar called Construction-Based Interpretative Grammar (CIG) and an interpreter which uses the grammar to build an interpretation for single sentences. An implemen tation ofhte interpreter has been built called Sal.
Category: Computational linguistics

Boethius On Aristotle On Interpretation 1 3

Author : Boethius,
ISBN : 9781472500328
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 24.1 MB
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Boethius (c.480-c.525) wrote his highly influential second commentary on Aristotle's On Interpretation in Latin, but using the style of the Greek commentaries on Aristotle. It was part of his project to bring knowledge of Plato and Aristotle to the Latin-speaking world of his fellow Christians. The project was cruelly interrupted by his execution at the age of about 45, leaving the Latin world under-informed about Greek Philosophy for 700 years. Boethius reveals to us how On Interpretation was understood not only by himself, but also by some of the best Greek interpreters, especially Alexander and Porphyry. Alexander had insisted that its subject was composite thoughts, not composite sentences nor composite things - it is thoughts that are primarily true or false. Although Aristotle's first six chapters define name, verb, sentence, statement, affirmation and negation, Porphyry had claimed that Aristotelians believe in three types of name and verb, written, spoken and mental, in other words a language of the mind. Boethius discusses individuality and ascribes to Aristotle a view that each individual is distinguished by having a composite quality that is not merely unshared, but unshareable. Boethius also discusses why we can still say that the dead Homer is a poet, despite having forbidden us to say that the dead Socrates is either sick or well. But Boethius' most famous contribution is his interpretation of Aristotle's discussion of the threat of that tomorrow's events, for example a sea battle, will have been irrevocable 10,000 years ago, if it was true 10,000 years ago that there would be a sea battle on that day. In Boethius' later Consolation of Philosophy, written in prison awaiting execution, he offered a seminal conception of eternity to solve the related problem of future events being irrevocable because of God's foreknowledge of them. Boethius' influential commentary was part of his ideal of bringing Plato and Aristotle to the Latin-speaking world. Throughout the Latin Middle Ages, it remained the standard introduction to On Interpretation. This volume contains the first English translation of Boethius' commentary, as well as a detailed introduction, notes and bibliography.
Category: Philosophy

Sentence Processing

Author : Roger P. G. van Gompel
ISBN : 9781135047276
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 58.6 MB
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What are the psychological processes involved in comprehending sentences? How do we process the structure of sentences and how do we understand their meaning? Do children, bilinguals and people with language impairments process sentences in the same way as healthy monolingual adults? These are just some of the many questions that sentence processing researchers have tried to answer by conducting ever more sophisticated experiments, making this one of the most productive and exciting areas in experimental language research in recent years. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of this important field. It contains 10 chapters written by world-leading experts, which discuss influential theories of sentence processing and important experimental evidence, with a focus on recent developments in the area. The chapters also analyse research that has investigated how people process the structure and meaning of sentences, and how sentences are understood within their context. This comprehensive and authoritative work will appeal to students and researchers in the field of sentence processing, as well anyone with an interest in psychology and linguistics.
Category: Psychology

Syntactic Parsing Strategies In Italian

Author : M. de Vincenzi
ISBN : 0792312759
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The basic accomplishment of sentence processing research in the 1960s and 70s was to establish that perceivers assign structural representa­ tions to sentences (Fodor et al., 1974) and they do so systematically using the formation rules of the grammar (Forster, 1979). This may sound like a singularly unimpressive accomplishment to a contem­ porary linguist - mere proof of the obvious. But one must recall the extremely impoverished view of language and language processing prevalent in the U.S. in the 1950s. Processing mechanisms were thought to consist of slightly elaborated stimulus-response associations, and sentences were viewed as mere strings of concatenated words. On this view, understanding language comprehension was naturally equated with knowing how words and associations between them were learned. Consequently, language pro­ cessing was investigated by performing a seemingly endless series of tedious paired associate learning studies. The shift in the 1960s to a view of sentences emphasizing hierarchically organized structures con­ taining grammatical depencies between widely separated items was thus dramatic.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Cross Linguistic Variation In Sentence Processing

Author : Despoina Papadopoulou
ISBN : 9781402046902
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 77.36 MB
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This book argues in favour of cross-linguistic variation in sentence processing by providing empirical data from ambiguity resolution in Greek as L1 and L2. It is maintained that in highly inflected languages, like Greek, initial parsing decisions are determined by the interaction of morphological and lexical cues rather than by universal parsing principles.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Semantic Interpretation And The Resolution Of Ambiguity

Author : Graeme Hirst
ISBN : 052142898X
Genre : Computers
File Size : 31.45 MB
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In this particularly well written volume Graeme Hirst presents a theoretically motivated foundation for semantic interpretation (conceptual analysis) by computer, and shows how this framework facilitates the resolution of both lexical and syntactic ambiguities.
Category: Computers

On The Interpretation Of Treaties

Author : Ulf Linderfalk
ISBN : 9781402063626
Genre : Law
File Size : 37.38 MB
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This is the first comprehensive account of the modern international law of treaty interpretation expressed in 1969 Vienna Convention, Articles 31-33. As stated by the anonymous referee, it is the most theoretically advanced and analytically refined work yet accomplished on this topic. The style of writing is clear and concise, and the organisation of the book meets the demands of scholars and practitioners alike.
Category: Law

Reference To Abstract Objects In Discourse

Author : Nicholas Asher
ISBN : 0792322428
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 48.84 MB
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Reference to Abstract Objects in Discourse presents a novel framework and analysis of the ways we refer to abstract objects in natural language discourse. The book begins with a typology of abstract objects and related entities like eventualities. After an introduction to `bottom up, compositional' discourse representation theory (DRT) and to previous work on abstract objects in DRT (notably work on the semantics of the attitudes), the book turns to a semantic analysis of eventuality and abstract object denoting nominals in English. The book then substantially revises and extends the dynamic semantic framework of DRT to develop an analysis of anaphoric reference to abstract objects and eventualities that exploits discourse structure and the discourse relations that obtain between elements of the structure. A dynamic, semantically based theory of discourse structure (SDRT) is proposed, along with many illustrative examples. Two further chapters then provide the analysis of anaphoric reference to propositions VP ellipsis. The abstract entity anaphoric antecedents are elements of the discourse structures that SDRT develops. The final chapter discusses some logical and philosophical difficulties for a semantic analysis of reference to abstract objects. For semanticists, philosophers of language, computer scientists interested in natural language applications and discourse, philosophical logicians, graduate students in linguistics, philosophy, cognitive science and artificial intelligence.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Language And Interpretation In The Syriac Text Of Ben Sira

Author : W. Th Van Peursen
ISBN : 9789004163942
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 74.88 MB
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After subjecting the Syriac translation of Ben Sira to traditional philological analysis the author conducts computer-assisted linguistic studies of phrases, clauses and texts. He reaches particularly interesting proposals for a corpus-based description of phrase structure based on a so-called maximum matrix.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Functional Structure S Form And Interpretation

Author : Andrew Simpson
ISBN : 9781134431380
Genre : Foreign Language Study
File Size : 25.72 MB
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The issue of how interpretation results from the form and type of syntactic structures present in language is one which is central and hotly debated in both theoretical and descriptive linguistics. This volume brings together a series of eleven new cutting-edge essays by leading experts in East Asian languages which shows how the study of formal structures and functional morphemes in Chinese, Japanese and Korean adds much to our general understanding of the close connections between form and interpretation. This specially commissioned collection will be of interest to linguists of all backgrounds working in the general area of syntax and language change, as well as those with a special interest in Chinese, Japanese and Korean.
Category: Foreign Language Study

Speakers Listeners And Communication

Author : Gillian Brown
ISBN : 0521587050
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 25.84 MB
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In this book Gillian Brown draws on a wide range of examples of discourse analysis to explore the ways in which speakers and listeners use language collaboratively to talk about what they can see in front of them and about a series of events. She examines the conditions under which communication is successful, and the conditions under which it sometimes fails. The focus of her attention is upon the listener's role, as the listener tries to make sense of what the speaker says in a highly constrained context; her cognitive/pragmatic approach to discourse analysis both complements and challenges the sociological/anthropological perspectives on the subject which currently predominate. Gillian Brown is co-author of the well-known textbook Discourse Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1983).
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines