On Inequality

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Discourse On Inequality

Author : Jean-Jacques Rousseau
ISBN : 9781775416951
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 23.54 MB
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The searing indictment of man-made inequality in all its many forms that Rousseau offers in Discourse on Inequality is a must-read for philosophy buffs and supporters of social justice. This artfully composed argument sets forth the core elements of Rousseau's philosophical views, including his unique take on Hobbes' concept of nature and natural law.
Category: Philosophy

A Discourse On Inequality

Author : Jean-Jacques Rousseau
ISBN : 9780141920009
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 39.32 MB
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In A Discourse on Inequality Rousseau sets out to demonstrate how the growth of civilization corrupts man’s natural happiness and freedom by creating artificial inequalities of wealth, power and social privilege. Contending that primitive man was equal to his fellows, Rousseau believed that as societies become more sophisticated, the strongest and most intelligent members of the community gain an unnatural advantage over their weaker brethren, and that constitutions set up to rectify these imbalances through peace and justice in fact do nothing but perpetuate them. Rousseau’s political and social arguments in the Discourse were a hugely influential denunciation of the social conditions of his time and one of the most revolutionary documents of the eighteenth-century.
Category: Political Science

Impact Of Fiscal Policy On Inequality And Poverty In The Arab Republic Of Egypt

Author : Gabriel Lara Ibarra
ISBN : OCLC:1120893620
Genre :
File Size : 66.33 MB
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This study assesses the redistributive impact of fiscal policy -- including expenditures and taxation -- in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Using a broadly applied methodology, a fiscal incidence analysis is conducted using survey and government data for fiscal year 2015. Evidence shows that Egyptian fiscal policy reduces income inequality, and that among individual fiscal programs, the largest reduction is due to public expenditures on the primary education system. Compared with similar countries, Egypt's overall fiscal policy placed it in the median of the distribution of inequality reduction. Fiscal policies in Egypt also led to a decrease in poverty, mostly from the flagship Tamween program. Poverty and inequality could be reduced more effectively if the country would shift away from spending on untargeted energy subsidies to more targeted transfers. The large gap between the government's expenditures and revenues helps explain the positive outcomes on poverty and inequality but poses challenges in the long term.
Category:

Poverty Inequality And Growth In Developing Countries

Author : Atsushi Maki
ISBN : 9781317444800
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 45.61 MB
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There are many problems regarding poverty, inequality and growth in developing countries in Asia and Africa. Policy makers at the national level and at international institutions such as the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and others have implemented various policies in order to decrease poverty and inequality. This book provides empirical observations on Asian countries and Africa. Each chapter provides theoretical and empirical analysis on regional case studies with an emphasis on policy implications. The book will be of use to many who wish to assess and improve policies in developing countries and mitigate poverty and inequality, and stimulate growth, by drawing on relevant empirical research and economic theories. Clearly, there have been numerous policy failures and the book aims to provide a basis for improving policies and outcomes based on relevant empirical observations.
Category: Business & Economics

Inside Inequality In The Arab Republic Of Egypt

Author : Paolo Verme
ISBN : 9781464801990
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52.64 MB
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This book joins four papers prepared in the framework of the Egypt inequality study financed by the World Bank. The first paper prepared by Sherine Al-Shawarby reviews the studies on inequality in Egypt since the 1950s with the double objective of illustrating the importance attributed to inequality through time and of presenting and compare the main published statistics on inequality. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a comprehensive review is carried. The second paper prepared by Branko Milanovic turns to the global and spatial dimensions of inequality. The objective here is to put Egypt inequality in the global context and better understand the origin and size of spatial inequalities within Egypt using different forms of measurement across regions and urban and rural areas. The Egyptian society remains deeply divided across space and in terms of welfare and this study unveils some of the hidden features of this inequality. The third paper prepared by Paolo Verme studies facts and perceptions of inequality during the period 2000-2009, the period that preceded the Egyptian revolution. The objective of this part is to provide some initial elements that could explain the apparent mismatch between inequality measured with household surveys and inequality aversion measured by values surveys. No such study has been carried out before in the Middle-East and North-Africa (MENA) region and this seemed a particular important and timely topic to address in the light of the unfolding developments in the Arab region. The fourth paper prepared by Sahar El Tawila, May Gadallah and Enas Ali A. El-Majeed assesses the state of poverty and inequality among the poorest villages of Egypt. The paper attempts to explain the level of inequality in an effort to disentangle those factors that derive from household abilities from those factors that derive from local opportunities. This is the first time that such study is conducted in Egypt. The book should be of interest to any observer of the political and economic evolution of the Arab region in the past few years and to poverty and inequality specialists that wish to have a deeper understanding of the distribution of incomes in Egypt and other countries in the MENA region.
Category: Business & Economics

Beliefs About Inequality

Author : James R. Kluegel
ISBN : 0202364291
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 24.19 MB
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Motivated by the desire to explain how Americans perceive and evaluate inequality and related programs and policies, the authors conducted a national survey of beliefs about social and economic inequality in America. Here they present the results of their research on the structure, determinants, and certain political and personal consequences of these beliefs. The presentations serve two major goals; to describe and explain the central features of Americans' images of inequality. Beliefs About Inequality begins with a focus on people's perceptions of the most basic elements of inequality: the availability of opportunity in society, the causes of economic achievements, and the benefits and costs of equality and inequality. The book's analysis of the public's beliefs on these key issues is based on fundamental theories of social psychology and lays the groundwork for understanding how Americans evaluate inequality-related policies. The authors discuss the ultimate determinants of beliefs and the implications of their findings for social policies related to inequality. They propose that attitudes toward economic inequality and related policy are influenced by three major aspects of the current American social, economic, and political environment: a stable "dominant ideology" about economic inequality; individuals' social and economic status; and specific beliefs and attitudes, often reflecting "social liberalism" shaped by recent political debates and events. "a superb piece of scholarship, combining substantive ambition and theoretical depth with analytical clarity and sophistication."--Public Opinion Quarterly James R. Kluegel is chairman of the Department of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is the author of Evaluating Contemporary Juvenile Justice. Eliot R. Smith is professor of psychology at Indiana University. He is the author of Social Psychology.
Category: Psychology

Handbook Of The Social Psychology Of Inequality

Author : Jane D. McLeod
ISBN : 9789401790024
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 76.15 MB
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This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of social psychological research on inequality for a graduate student and professional audience. Drawing on all of the major theoretical traditions in sociological social psychology, its chapters demonstrate the relevance of social psychological processes to this central sociological concern. Each chapter in the volume has a distinct substantive focus, but the chapters will also share common emphases on: • The unique contributions of sociological social psychology • The historical roots of social psychological concepts and theories in classic sociological writings • The complementary and conflicting insights that derive from different social psychological traditions in sociology. This Handbook is of interest to graduate students preparing for careers in social psychology or in inequality, professional sociologists and university/college libraries.
Category: Social Science

Health And Inequality

Author : Owen O'Donnell
ISBN : 9781781905548
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 52.79 MB
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This volume contains methodological and empirical research on the measurement and causes of health inequality from leading experts in health economics and economic inequality. It is essential reading for researchers working on health inequality and provides an immediate reconnaissance of the frontiers for those entering this exciting field.
Category: Business & Economics

The New Geography Of Global Income Inequality

Author : Glenn Firebaugh
ISBN : 0674036891
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27.56 MB
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The surprising finding of this book is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, global income inequality is decreasing. Critics of globalization and others maintain that the spread of consumer capitalism is dramatically polarizing the worldwide distribution of income. But as the demographer Glenn Firebaugh carefully shows, income inequality for the world peaked in the late twentieth century and is now heading downward because of declining income inequality across nations. Furthermore, as income inequality declines across nations, it is rising within nations (though not as rapidly as it is declining across nations). Firebaugh claims that this historic transition represents a new geography of global income inequality in the twenty-first century. This book documents the new geography, describes its causes, and explains why other analysts have missed one of the defining features of our era--a transition in inequality that is reducing the importance of where a person is born in determining his or her future well-being.
Category: Business & Economics

Migration And Inequality

Author : Tanja Bastia
ISBN : 9780415686853
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 88.33 MB
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The 'migration-development' nexus has emerged as an important area of both research and policy over the last ten years. However, most of the interest has focused on the potential that migration holds for poverty alleviation. Relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between migration and inequality, particularly on inequality as a consequence of migration. This is unfortunate, given that inequality is emerging as an important area of inquiry within development studies. This edited collection explores the relationship between migration and inequality in Africa, Asia and Latin America by taking into account economic and social inequalities. While the focus on inequality as opposed to poverty is in itself original, the book offers additional points of interest. First, it combines chapters on internal and international migration, thereby challenging the current focus in the migration literature that focuses almost exclusively on cross-border migration. Internal migration greatly outnumbers cross-border moves. Yet policy-makers as well as most studies focus on cross-border international migration. We are only just beginning to unravel the relationship between internal and cross-border migration. Second, the theme of inequality complements the existing focus in the migration-development nexus on issues of poverty. Third, the chapters focus on both economic and social inequalities, often combining an analysis of different types of inequalities. The book also covers governance and migrants' rights; gender and intersectionality; and health. The chapters in this edited volume make an original contribution to debates on the migration-development nexus as well as the literature on inequality, which often tends to focus on economic measurements of inequality at the expense of including a thorough analysis of social inequality.
Category: Business & Economics

Histories Of Global Inequality

Author : Christian Olaf Christiansen
ISBN : 9783030191634
Genre : History
File Size : 31.66 MB
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This book argues that inequality is not just about numbers, but is also about lived, historical experience. It supplements economic research and offers a comprehensive stocktaking of existing thinking on global inequality and its historical development. The book is interdisciplinary, drawing upon regional and national perspectives from around the world while seeking to capture the multidimensionality and multi-causality of global inequalities. Grappling with what economics offers – as well as its blind spots – the study focuses on some of today’s most relevant and pressing themes: discrimination and human rights, defences and critiques of inequality in history, decolonization, international organizations, gender theory, the history of quantification of inequality and the history of economic thought. The historical case studies featured respond to the need for wider historical research and to calls to examine global inequality in a more holistic manner. The Introduction 'Chapter 1 Histories of Global Inequality: Introduction' is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
Category: History

Measuring Inequality Of Opportunities In Latin America And The Caribbean

Author : Ricardo Paes de Barros
ISBN : 9780821377468
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 39.67 MB
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Equality of opportunity is about leveling the playing field so that circumstances such as gender, ethnicity, place of birth, or family background do not influence a person s life chances. Success in life should depend on people s choices, effort and talents, not to their circumstances at birth. 'Measuring Inequality of Opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean' introduces new methods for measuring inequality of opportunities and makes an assessment of its evolution in Latin America over a decade. An innovative Human Opportunity Index and other parametric and non-parametric techniques are presented for quantifying inequality based on circumstances exogenous to individual efforts. These methods are applied to gauge inequality of opportunities in access to basic services for children, learning achievement for youth, and income and consumption for adults.
Category: Business & Economics

Thinking About Inequality

Author : Yoram Amiel
ISBN : 0521466962
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 89.55 MB
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A non-technical analysis of inequality and income distribution, first published in 1999.
Category: Business & Economics

Nonfarm Income Inequality And Poverty In Rural Egypt And Jordan

Author : Richard H. Adams
ISBN :
Genre : Desarrollo rural - Egipto
File Size : 69.47 MB
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Nonfarm income has a greater impact on poverty and inequality in Egypt than in Jordan. In rural Egypt the poor receive almost 60 percent of their income from nonfarm sources, while in rural Jordan they receive less than 20 percent. The reason for this difference is land: in rural Egypt, agricultural land is very productive, but access is quite limited, and so the poor are "pushed" into nonfarm work; while in rural Jordan, land is not very productive and access is not highly prized. In both countries the best way to reduce poverty and inequality might be to focus on nonfarm unskilled labor.
Category: Desarrollo rural - Egipto

Inequality Of Opportunity

Author : Juan Gabriel Rodriguez
ISBN : 9781780520346
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58.83 MB
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Eight papers, both theoretical and applied, on the concept of equality of opportunity which says that a society should guarantee its members equal access to advantage regardless of their circumstances, while holding them responsible for turning that access into actual advantage by the application of effort.
Category: Business & Economics