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Numerical Differential Protection

Author : Gerhard Ziegler
ISBN : 9783895786709
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 79.67 MB
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Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, transformers, busbars, and electric lines. Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing. The emphasis is then placed on the different variants of differential protection and their practical application illustrated by concrete examples. This is completed by recommendations for commissioning, testing and maintenance. Finally the design and management of modern differential protection is explained by means of the latest Siemens SIPROTEC relay series. As a textbook and standard work in one, this book covers all topics, which have to be paid attention to for planning, designing, configuring and applying differential protection systems. The book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of differential protection, as well as the experienced user entering the area of numerical differential protection. Furthermore, it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems. For the new edition all contents have been revised, extended and updated to the latest state-of-the-art of protective relaying.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Numerical Distance Protection

Author : Gerhard Ziegler
ISBN : 9783895786679
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 88.94 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems. This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for solving application problems. For this fourth edition all contents, especially the descriptions of numerical protection devices and the very useful appendix have been revised and updated.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Disturbance Analysis For Power Systems

Author : Mohamed A. Ibrahim
ISBN : 9780470916810
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.58 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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More than ninety case studies shed new light on power system phenomena and power system disturbances Based on the author's four decades of experience, this book enables readers to implement systems in order to monitor and perform comprehensive analyses of power system disturbances. Most importantly, readers will discover the latest strategies and techniques needed to detect and resolve problems that could lead to blackouts to ensure the smooth operation and reliability of any power system. Logically organized, Disturbance Analysis for Power Systems begins with an introduction to the power system disturbance analysis function and its implementation. The book then guides readers through the causes and modes of clearing of phase and ground faults occurring within power systems as well as power system phenomena and their impact on relay system performance. The next series of chapters presents more than ninety actual case studies that demonstrate how protection systems have performed in detecting and isolating power system disturbances in: Generators Transformers Overhead transmission lines Cable transmission line feeders Circuit breaker failures Throughout these case studies, actual digital fault recording (DFR) records, oscillograms, and numerical relay fault records are presented and analyzed to demonstrate why power system disturbances happen and how the sequence of events are deduced. The final chapter of the book is dedicated to practice problems, encouraging readers to apply what they've learned to perform their own system disturbance analyses. This book makes it possible for engineers, technicians, and power system operators to perform expert power system disturbance analyses using the latest tested and proven methods. Moreover, the book's many cases studies and practice problems make it ideal for students studying power systems.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Planning Guide For Power Distribution Plants

Author : Hartmut Kiank
ISBN : 9783895786655
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 46.85 MB
Format : PDF
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When planning an industrial power supply plant, the specific requirements of the individual production process are decisive for the design and mode of operation of the network and for the selection and design and ratings of the operational equipment. Since the actual technical risks are often hidden in the profound and complex planning task, planning decisions should be taken after responsible and careful consideration because of their deep effects on supply quality and energy efficiency. This book is intended for engineers and technicians of the energy industry, industrial companies and planning departments. It provides basic technical network and plant knowledge on planning, installation and operation of reliable and economic industrial networks. In addition, it facilitates training for students and graduates in this field. In an easy and comprehensible way, this book informs about solution competency gained in many years of experience. Moreover, it also offers planning recommendations and knowledge on standards and specifications, the use of which ensures that technical risks are avoided and that production and industrial processes can be carried out efficiently, reliably and with the highest quality.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Power System Switchgear And Protection

Author : Veerappan N. & Krishnamurthy S.R.
ISBN : 9788121932127
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 21.85 MB
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|Introduction|Operating Principles And Relays Construction|Apparatus Protection|Theory Of Arc Interruption|Fuses|Circuit Breakers|Protection Against Over Voltage|References
Category: Technology & Engineering

Switchgear And Protection

Author : M.V.Bakshi U.A.Bakshi
ISBN : 8184313306
Genre :
File Size : 67.37 MB
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Circuit Breakers - 1 : Circuit breakers : Elementary principles of arc interruption, Recovery, Restriking voltage and recovery voltages, Restriking phenomenon, Average and max. RRRV, Numerical problems, Current chopping and resistance switching, CB ratings and specifications : Types and Numerical problems, Auto reclosures.Circuit Breakers - 2 : Description and operation of following types of circuit breakers : Minimum oil circuit breakers, Air blast circuit breakers, Vaccum and SF6 circuit breakers.Electromagnetic and Static Relays : Principle of operation and construction of attracted armature, Balanced beam, Induction disc and induction cup relays.Relays classification : Instantaneous, DMT and IDMT types.Application of relays : Over current/Under voltage relays, Direction relays, Differential relays and percentage differential relays.Universal torque equation, Distance relays : Impedance, Reactance and mho and offset mho relays, Characteristics of distance relays and comparison.Static relays : Static relays versus electromagnetic relays.Generator Protection : Protection of generators against stator faults, Rotor faults, and abnormal conditions. Restricted earth fault and inter-turn fault protection, Numerical problems on % winding unprotected.Transformer Protection : Protection of transformers : Percentage differential protection, Numerical problem on design of CTs ratio, Buchholtz relay protection.Feeder and Busbar Protection : Protection of lines : Over current, Carrier current and three-zone distance relay protection using impedance relays, Translay relay.Protection of busbars - Differential protection.Neutral Grounding : Grounded and ungrounded neutral systems - Effects of ungrounded neutral on system performance, Methods of neutral grounding : Solid, Resistance, Reactance-Arcing grounds and grounding practices.Protection Against Overvoltages : Generation of overvoltages in power systems, Protection against lightning overvoltages - Valve type and Zinc-Oxide lightning arresters, Insulation and co-ordination-BIL, Impulse ratio, Standard impulse test wave, Volt-time characteristics and insulation co-ordination.

Digital Numerical Relays

Author : T.S.M. Rao
ISBN : 0070588554
Genre : Electric power systems
File Size : 44.32 MB
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The protective relay industry has kept pace with the technological advancements in the field. Currently, the industry is introducing digital/numerical relays as they provide sub-station protection, control and communication, and the recording of disturbances and faults. Digital/Numerical Relays addresses the urgent based need of manufacturers and users adopting this latest technology. Besides covering the current developments, the book also covers current research as well as commercial application of digital/numerical relays.
Category: Electric power systems

Electrical Notes

Author :
Genre :
File Size : 84.50 MB
Format : PDF
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Three Volume of Total 500 Pages (more than 110 Topics) in PDF format with watermark on each Page. Part-1 :Electrical Quick Data Reference: Part-2 :Electrical Notes: Part-3 :Electrical Calculation: Part-1 :Electrical Quick Data Reference: Measuring Units Electrical Equation Electrical Thumb Rules Electrical Quick Reference Electrical Quick Reference for Electrical Costing per square Meter Electrical Quick Reference for Electrical Voltage Limit Electrical Quick Reference for Earthing Conductor / Wire Electrical Quick Reference for Transformer Electrical Quick Reference for Capacitor Electrical Quick Reference for Cable / Gland Electrical Quick Reference for Current Transformer Electrical Quick Reference for Demand Factor-Diversity Factor Electrical Quick Reference for illuminance Level Electrical Quick Reference for IP Standard Electrical Quick Reference Motor &O/L Relay , Contactor for Starter Electrical Quick Reference for Motor Terminal Connections Electrical Safety Clearance Electrical Safety Clearances-Qatar General Electricity Electrical Safety Clearances-Indian Electricity Rules Electrical Safety Clearances-Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE) Electrical Safety Clearances-ETSA Utilities / British Standard Electrical Safety Clearances-UK Power Networks Electrical Safety Clearances-New Zealand Electrical Code (NZECP) Electrical Safety Clearances-Western Power Company Electrical Safety Clearance for Electrical Panel Electrical Safety Clearance for Transformer. Electrical Safety Clearance for Sub Station Equipment’s Typical Values of Sub Station Electrical Equipment’s. Minimum Acceptable Specification of CT for Metering Insulation Resistance (IR) Values Standard Makes & IS code for Electrical Equipment’s Abstract of Electrical Standard Abstract of CPWD In Internal Electrification Work Abstract of IE Rules for DP Structure Abstract of IS: 3043 Code for Earthing Practice Abstract of IS:5039 for Distribution Pillars (<1KV AC & DC) Abstract IS: 694 (Cable) / IS:1554 Abstract IS: 11892/ IS:15652 Abstract IS: 11171 Abstract IS: 1678 / IS:1445 Abstract IS: 1255 (Installation & Maintenance of Cable) Abstract IS: 694 Abstract IS: 1255 Abstract IS: 1554 / 5613 Abstract IS:11892 / 11171 Abstract IS:1678 / 1445 Abstract IS:5039(Distribution Pillars) Abstract IS: 5613 (1,2,3) HV Line Abstract of Indian Electricity Rules (IE Rules) Current Rating of Flexible Wire / Cable Part-2 :Electrical Notes: Direct On Line Starter Star-Delta Starter Motor Locked Rotor Terminology Three Phase Transformer Connection Vector Group of Transformer Difference between Power Transformer & Distribution Transformer Parallel Operation of Transformers Various Routine Test of Transformer Standard Transformer Accessories & Fittings Selection of Lighting Luminaries Different Type of Lamps and Control Gear What is Earthing Difference between Bonding, Grounding and Earthing Difference between Unearthed & Earthed Cables Low Voltage and High Voltage Cable Testing EHV/HV Cable Sheath Earthing HIPOT Testing Working Principle of ELCB/RCCB Difference between MCBMCCB ELCB RCBO RCCB Type of MCB & Distribution Board Electrical Questions & Answers Type and Specification of Fuse Basic of Current transformers Lighting Arrestor Cable Tray Cable Glands Vibration Damper in Transmission Line What is Ferranti Effect What is Corona Effect Harmonics and its Effects Demand Factor-Diversity Factor-Utilization Factor-Load Factor Guideline and Design Electrical Network for Building Small Area. Design Size-Type- Location of Capacitor in Electrical System Types of Overhead Conductors What is Power Factor 11KV/415V over Head Line’s Specification as per REC Analysis the Truth behind Household Power Savers How Reactive Power helpful to maintain a System Healthy Effects of High Voltage Transmission Lines on Humans and Plants How to save Electrical energy at Home Type of Electrical Power Distribution System Impact of Floating Neutral in Power Distribution Total Losses in Power Distribution & Transmission Lines Single Earthed Neutral and Multi Earthed Neutral Types of Neutral Earthing in Power Distribution Types and Revolution of Electrical Relay Part-3 :Electrical Calculation: Calculate Number of Earthing Pits for System Abstract of National Electrical Code for Size of Cable for Motors Abstract of National Electrical Code for Transformer’s Protection Abstract of over current Protection of Transformer (NEC 450.3) Calculate Size of Contactor, Fuse, C.B, O/L Relay of DOL Starter Calculate Size of Contactor, Fuse, C.B, O/L Relay of Star-Delta Starter Calculate Transformer Size & Voltage Drop due to starting of Motor Calculate TC Size & Voltage Drop due to starting of Motors Calculate Voltage Regulation for 11KV, 22KV, 33KV Overhead Line ( REC) Calculation Technical Losses of Distribution Line Calculate Cable Size and Voltage Drop of HT / LV Cable Calculate IDMT over Current Relay Setting (50/51) Calculate Size of Capacitor Bank / Annual Saving & Payback Period Calculate No of Street Light Pole Calculate No of Lighting Fixtures / Lumens for Indoor Lighting Calculate Street Light Pole Distance &Watt Area Calculate Short Circuit Current (Isc) Calculate Size of Bus bar

Electromagnetic Transient Analysis And Novel Protective Relaying Techniques For Power Transformers

Author : Xiangning Lin
ISBN : 9781118653852
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70.45 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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An advanced level examination of the latest developments in power transformer protection This book addresses the technical challenges of transformer malfunction analysis as well as protection. One of the current research directions is the malfunction mechanism analysis due to nonlinearity of transformer core and comprehensive countermeasures on improving the performance of transformer differential protection. Here, the authors summarize their research outcomes and present a set of recent research advances in the electromagnetic transient analysis, the application on power transformer protections, and present a more systematic investigation and review in this field. This research area is still progressing, especially with the fast development of Smart Grid. This book is an important addition to the literature and will enhance significant advancement in research. It is a good reference book for researchers in power transformer protection research and a good text book for graduate and undergraduate students in electrical engineering. Chapter headings include: Transformer differential protection principle and existing problem analysis; Malfunction mechanism analysis due to nonlinearity of transformer core; Novel analysis tools on operating characteristics of Transformer differential protection; Novel magnetizing inrush identification schemes; Comprehensive countermeasures on improving the performance of transformer differential protection An advanced level examination of the latest developments in power transformer protection Presents a new and systematic view of power transformer protection, enabling readers to design new models and consider fresher design approaches Offers a set of approaches to optimize the power system from a microeconomic point of view
Category: Technology & Engineering