NOTES-ON-THE-SYNTHESIS-OF-FORM

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Notes On The Synthesis Of Form

Author : Christopher Alexander
ISBN : 0674627512
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 72.79 MB
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"These notes are about the process of design: the process of inventing things which display new physical order, organization, form, in response to function." This book, opening with these words, presents an entirely new theory of the process of design. In the first part of the book, Christopher Alexander discusses the process by which a form is adapted to the context of human needs and demands that has called it into being. He shows that such an adaptive process will be successful only if it proceeds piecemeal instead of all at once. It is for this reason that forms from traditional un-self-conscious cultures, molded not by designers but by the slow pattern of changes within tradition, are so beautifully organized and adapted. When the designer, in our own self-conscious culture, is called on to create a form that is adapted to its context he is unsuccessful, because the preconceived categories out of which he builds his picture of the problem do not correspond to the inherent components of the problem, and therefore lead only to the arbitrariness, willfulness, and lack of understanding which plague the design of modern buildings and modern cities. In the second part, Mr. Alexander presents a method by which the designer may bring his full creative imagination into play, and yet avoid the traps of irrelevant preconception. He shows that, whenever a problem is stated, it is possible to ignore existing concepts and to create new concepts, out of the structure of the problem itself, which do correspond correctly to what he calls the subsystems of the adaptive process. By treating each of these subsystems as a separate subproblem, the designer can translate the new concepts into form. The form, because of the process, will be well-adapted to its context, non-arbitrary, and correct. The mathematics underlying this method, based mainly on set theory, is fully developed in a long appendix. Another appendix demonstrates the application of the method to the design of an Indian village.
Category: Architecture

The Synthesis Of Form

Author : Christopher Wolfgang John Alexander
ISBN : OCLC:76956955
Genre : Architectural design
File Size : 61.39 MB
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Category: Architectural design

The Evolution Of Designs

Author : Philip Steadman
ISBN : 9781134062331
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 68.19 MB
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This book tells the history of the many analogies that have been made between the evolution of organisms and the human production of artefacts, especially buildings. It examines the effects of these analogies on architectural and design theory and considers how recent biological thinking has relevance for design. Architects and designers have looked to biology for inspiration since the early 19th century. They have sought not just to imitate the forms of plants and animals, but to find methods in design analogous to the processes of growth and evolution in nature. This new revised edition of this classic work adds an extended Afterword covering recent developments such as the introduction of computer methods in design in the 1980s and ‘90s, which have made possible a new kind of ‘biomorphic’ architecture through ‘genetic algorithms’ and other programming techniques.
Category: Architecture

The New Science Of Cities

Author : Michael Batty
ISBN : 9780262019521
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 45.13 MB
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In The New Science of Cities, Michael Batty suggests that to understand cities we must view them not simply as places in space but as systems of networks and flows. To understand space, he argues, we must understand flows, and to understand flows, we must understand networks -- the relations between objects that comprise the system of the city. Drawing on the complexity sciences, social physics, urban economics, transportation theory, regional science, and urban geography, and building on his own previous work, Batty introduces theories and methods that reveal the deep structure of how cities function. Batty presents the foundations of a new science of cities, defining flows and their networks and introducing tools that can be applied to understanding different aspects of city structure. He examines the size of cities, their internal order, the transport routes that define them, and the locations that fix these networks. He introduces methods of simulation that range from simple stochastic models to bottom-up evolutionary models to aggregate land-use transportation models. Then, using largely the same tools, he presents design and decision-making models that predict interactions and flows in future cities. These networks emphasize a notion with relevance for future research and planning: that design of cities is collective action.
Category: Architecture

The Newmediareader

Author : Noah Wardrip-Fruin
ISBN : 0262232278
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 57.29 MB
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A sourcebook of historical written texts, video documentation, and working programs that form the foundation of new media. This reader collects the texts, videos, and computer programs--many of them now almost impossible to find--that chronicle the history and form the foundation of the still-emerging field of new media. General introductions by Janet Murray and Lev Manovich, along with short introductions to each of the texts, place the works in their historical context and explain their significance. The texts were originally published between World War II--when digital computing, cybernetic feedback, and early notions of hypertext and the Internet first appeared--and the emergence of the World Wide Web--when they entered the mainstream of public life. The texts are by computer scientists, artists, architects, literary writers, interface designers, cultural critics, and individuals working across disciplines. The contributors include (chronologically) Jorge Luis Borges, Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing, Ivan Sutherland, William S. Burroughs, Ted Nelson, Italo Calvino, Marshall McLuhan, Jean Baudrillard, Nicholas Negroponte, Alan Kay, Bill Viola, Sherry Turkle, Richard Stallman, Brenda Laurel, Langdon Winner, Robert Coover, and Tim Berners-Lee. The CD accompanying the book contains examples of early games, digital art, independent literary efforts, software created at universities, and home-computer commercial software. Also on the CD is digitized video, documenting new media programs and artwork for which no operational version exists. One example is a video record of Douglas Engelbart's first presentation of the mouse, word processor, hyperlink, computer-supported cooperative work, video conferencing, and the dividing up of the screen we now call non-overlapping windows; another is documentation of Lynn Hershman's Lorna, the first interactive video art installation.
Category: Social Science

The Phenomenon Of Architecture In Cultures In Change

Author : David Oakley
ISBN : 9781483279428
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 38.70 MB
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The Phenomenon of Architecture in Cultures in Change focuses on the study of architectural design and its impact in the developing world. The book first elaborates on architectural function and problems and building problems. Discussions focus on a unified form of classification to characterize building context, architecture and society, development process and the building process, understanding of architectural form, and exploring architecture. The text then ponders on economy, intentions, ideas, and method in design. Topics include method in design work, formal articulation and architectural expression, synthesis of critical approaches, architectural ideas, search for system in design work, and economy and the design process. The manuscript examines education and architecture and community, as well as urbanizing rural region, residential urban renewal, and town design service. The book is a dependable source of data for architects and researchers interested in the phenomenon of architecture.
Category: Architecture

The Innovator S Dilemma

Author : Clayton M. Christensen
ISBN : 9781422197585
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 81.81 MB
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Named one of 100 Leadership & Success Books to Read in a Lifetime by Amazon Editors An innovation classic. From Steve Jobs to Jeff Bezos, Clay Christensen’s work continues to underpin today’s most innovative leaders and organizations. The bestselling classic on disruptive innovation, by renowned author Clayton M. Christensen. His work is cited by the world’s best-known thought leaders, from Steve Jobs to Malcolm Gladwell. In this classic bestseller—one of the most influential business books of all time—innovation expert Clayton Christensen shows how even the most outstanding companies can do everything right—yet still lose market leadership. Christensen explains why most companies miss out on new waves of innovation. No matter the industry, he says, a successful company with established products will get pushed aside unless managers know how and when to abandon traditional business practices. Offering both successes and failures from leading companies as a guide, The Innovator’s Dilemma gives you a set of rules for capitalizing on the phenomenon of disruptive innovation. Sharp, cogent, and provocative—and consistently noted as one of the most valuable business ideas of all time—The Innovator’s Dilemma is the book no manager, leader, or entrepreneur should be without.
Category: Business & Economics

The Idea Of Design

Author : Victor Margolin
ISBN : 0262631660
Genre : Design
File Size : 32.31 MB
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An anthology of essays addressing the nature and practice of contemporary product and graphic design, selected from volumes four through nine of the international journal Design Issues. Themes include reflection on the nature of design, the meaning of products, and the place of design in world culture. Includes b & w photos and illustrations. c. Book News Inc.
Category: Design

Linkography

Author : Gabriela Goldschmidt
ISBN : 9780262027199
Genre : Computers
File Size : 87.57 MB
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The description of a method for the notation and analysis of the creative process in design, drawing on insights from design practice and cognitive psychology.
Category: Computers

Fractal Architecture

Author : James Harris
ISBN : 9780826352026
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 55.51 MB
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Throughout history, nature has served as an inspiration for architecture and designers have tried to incorporate the harmonies and patterns of nature into architectural form. Alberti, Charles Renee Macintosh, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Courbusier are just a few of the well- known figures who have taken this approach and written on this theme. With the development of fractal geometry--the study of intricate and interesting self- similar mathematical patterns--in the last part of the twentieth century, the quest to replicate nature’s creative code took a stunning new turn. Using computers, it is now possible to model and create the organic, self-similar forms of nature in a way never previously realized. In Fractal Architecture, architect James Harris presents a definitive, lavishly illustrated guide that explains both the “how” and “why” of incorporating fractal geometry into architectural design.
Category: Architecture