Nitrates And Nitrites In Food And Water

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Nitrates And Nitrites In Food And Water

Author : Michael J Hill
ISBN : 0747600678
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44.39 MB
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From the Introduction With regard to nitrate and nitrite, the perceived hazards are to the ecological balance in rivers and lakes, and to human health. Increased nitrate levels in river water lead to increased growth of algae and consequent decrease in the level of biologically available oxygen (BAO). In extreme forms, the algae form unsightly blooms on the water surface, and the BAO level falls below that necessary to support fish and other animal life. At this extreme, there is little dispute that efforts should be made to restore the ecological balance, and this is best achieved by reversing the increase in nitrate concentration that caused the problem. The health hazards are less clear, but include the risk of methaemoglobinaemia in young infants and the possible risk of gastric cancer, particularly in certain high-risk patient groups. These health risks have led to legislation to control the exposure of humans to nitrate from drinking water and as a food additive . . . What can be done about this and how can the problem be solved (if, indeed, there is a problem)? It is normal practice to add nitrate and nitrite to food as a cosmetic and as a preservative. Is this necessary? If so, how much do we need to add? Are there alternatives? What effect does added nitrate have on total nitrate exposure of humans? . . . In this book, we have attempted to answer, or at least to give the background to, some of the questions. . . .
Category: Medical

Food Preservatives

Author : Nicholas J. Russell
ISBN : 9780387300429
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40.78 MB
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For centuries man has treated food to prolong its edible life, and nowadays both traditional and modern preservatives are used widely to ensure the satisfactory maintenance of quality and safety of foods. There continues to be increased public concern about the use of food additives, including preservatives, resulting from a perception that some of them may have deleterious effects on health. However, as eating habits have changed with an emphasis on what has been popularly termed a `healthy diet', there is at the same time a concern that reduction in preservative usage could lead to loss of safety and protection from food poisoning. While some preservatives are coming under increasing regulatory pressure others, particularly more natural ones, are receiving increased attention and gaining in importance and acceptability. This book supports the continued safe and effective use of preservatives within these current constraints. It therefore gives detailed information on the practical use of the major antimicrobial preservatives. Uniquely, it couples this with current understanding of their modes of action, at the levels of cellular physiology and biochemistry, in such a way as to provide a sound scientific basis for their efficacy. Such an approach also encourages the future logical development and use of preservatives.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Fertility

Author : Ronald Ross Watson
ISBN : 9780128009932
Genre : Medical
File Size : 70.44 MB
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Handbook of Fertility: Nutrition, Diet, Lifestyle and Reproductive Health focuses on the ways in which food, dietary supplements, and toxic agents, including alcohol and nicotine affect the reproductive health of both women and men. Researchers in nutrition, diet, epidemiology, and endocrinology will find this comprehensive resource invaluable in their long-term goal of understanding and improving reproductive health. This book brings together a broad range of experts researching the different aspects of foods and dietary supplements that promote or detract from reproductive health. Section One contains several overview chapters on fertility, how it is assessed, and how it can be affected by different metabolic states, nutritional habits, dietary supplements, the action of antioxidants, and lifestyle choices. Sections Two and Three consider how male and female fertility are affected by obesity, metabolic syndrome, hormonal imbalance, and even bariatric surgery. Section Four explores the ways diet, nutrition, and lifestyle support or retard the success of in vitro fertilization, while Section Five explores how alcohol and other drugs of abuse lower fertility in both women and men. Explores how alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs of abuse disrupt and impair reproductive health Reviews studies of common conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome and their effect on fertility and reproductive health Investigates the components of foods and dietary supplements, in particular oxidative stress and antioxidants Presents the nutritional effects of foods and dietary supplements and their benefits and risks relating to reproductive health
Category: Medical

Food Nutrition And The Nitric Oxide Pathway

Author : Nathan S. Bryan
ISBN : 9781932078848
Genre : Medical
File Size : 37.5 MB
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This book provides a scientific analysis of the effects of foods and nutrients on the NO pathway in humans. Contributors to the book clarify novel chemical and biochemical connections between dietary intake and nitric oxide, particularly in cases of NO deficiency. In this context, the book addresses how specific foods can restore nitric oxide production and bioactivity—without medical interventions. A variety of evidential data is presented showing how NO-rich dietary elements are implicated in disease prevention and modulation. The book offers new knowledge for food technologists, food manufacturers, nutrition researchers, and healthcare practitioners. From the Foreword by Louis J. Ignarro, Nobel Laureate in Physiology/Medicine "The body of work contained in this volume, linking NO to food and nutrition, may have revolutionary implications in terms of developing strategies to combat heart disease and many other contemporary diseases associated with NO deficiency. Proving that a natural and inexpensive regimen of foods rich in nitric oxide activity does restore NO homeostasis can have profound effects on human health…The research presented in this text provides an important expansion of NO work…(and) Dr. Nathan Bryan, the editor…is to be congratulated for…communicating new knowledge and assembling the world's experts in their fields."
Category: Medical

Handbook Of Food Powders

Author : Bhesh Bhandari
ISBN : 9780857098672
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.40 MB
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Many food ingredients are supplied in powdered form, as reducing water content increases shelf life and aids ease of storage, handling and transport. Powder technology is therefore of great importance to the food industry. The Handbook of food powders explores a variety of processes that are involved in the production of food powders, the further processing of these powders and their functional properties. Part one introduces processing and handling technologies for food powders and includes chapters on spray, freeze and drum drying, powder mixing in the production of food powders and safety issues around food powder production processes. Part two focusses on powder properties including surface composition, rehydration and techniques to analyse the particle size of food powders. Finally, part three highlights speciality food powders and includes chapters on dairy powders, fruit and vegetable powders and coating foods with powders. The Handbook of food powders is a standard reference for professionals in the food powder production and handling industries, development and quality control professionals in the food industry using powders in foods, and researchers, scientists and academics interested in the field. Explores the processing and handling technologies in the production of food powders Examines powder properties, including surface composition, shelf life, and techniques used to examine particle size Focusses on speciality powders such as dairy, infant formulas, powdered egg, fruit and vegetable, and culinary and speciality products
Category: Technology & Engineering

Hygiene In Food Processing

Author : H. L. M. Lelieveld
ISBN : 9780857098634
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.8 MB
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The hygienic processing of food concerns both potential hazards in food products and the regulation, design, and management of food processing facilities. This second edition of Hygiene in Food Processing gives a revised overview of the practices for safe processing and incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants. Part one addresses microbial risks in foods and the corresponding regulation in the European Union. Part two discusses the hygienic design of food factory infrastructure, encompassing the design and materials for the factory itself, as well as food processing equipment. This edition includes a new chapter on the control of compressed gases used to pneumatically operate equipment. Part three focuses on cleaning and disinfection practices in food processing. The chapter on cleaning in place also considers more cost-effective systems, and complements the additional chapter on maintenance of equipment. These chapters also explore issues such as the hygiene of workers, potential infection by foreign bodies, and pest control. Further, the chapter on microbiological sampling explains how to calculate the risk of contamination depending on the product's environment. This essential second edition is useful to professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry. It provides a comprehensive, yet concise and practical reference source for food plant managers, suppliers of food processing equipment, building contractors, and food inspectors looking for an authoritative introduction to hygiene regulation, hygienic design, and sanitation. Provides a revised overview of the practices for safe processing Incorporates additional chapters concerning pest control, microbiological environmental sampling, and the economics of food plants This essential second edition is useful for professionals responsible for hygiene in the food industry
Category: Technology & Engineering

Foods Nutrients And Food Ingredients With Authorised Eu Health Claims

Author : Michele Jeanne Sadler
ISBN : 9780857098481
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 53.44 MB
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Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims provides an overview of how health claims are regulated in the European Union, as well as detailed scientific and regulatory information about permitted health claims for particular types of foods and ingredients. Part one provides a background to the regulation of health claims in Europe. Part two focuses on authorised disease risk reduction claims, claims relating to children’s development, and health and proprietary claims. Part three sets out ingredients with permitted “general function claims, including choline, creatine, sweeteners, dietary lactase supplements, and polyphenols in olive oil. Part four outlines foods and nutrients with permitted health claims, with chapters on vitamins and minerals, proteins, meat, fish, water, and the replacement of saturated fats. Foods, Nutrients and Food Ingredients with Authorised EU Health Claims is the go-to resource for R&D managers and technical managers in the food, and beverage and dietary supplements industry, product development managers, health professionals and academic researchers in the field. Provides a comprehensive overview of foods and food substances that have achieved approved health claims in Europe under Regulation EC 1924/2006 Covers properties and applications of each ingredient, as well as evidence for the health claim and how it benefits consumers Outlines the importance of each claim in product development and marketing and regulatory issues such as conditions of use
Category: Technology & Engineering

Emerging Food Packaging Technologies

Author : Kit L Yam
ISBN : 9780857095664
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 89.61 MB
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The successful employment of food packaging can greatly improve product safety and quality, making the area a key concern to the food processing industry. Emerging food packaging technologies reviews advances in packaging materials, the design and implementation of smart packaging techniques, and developments in response to growing concerns about packaging sustainability. Part one of Emerging food packaging technologies focuses on developments in active packaging, reviewing controlled release packaging, active antimicrobials and nanocomposites in packaging, and edible chitosan coatings. Part two goes on to consider intelligent packaging and how advances in the consumer/packaging interface can improve food safety and quality. Developments in packaging material are analysed in part three, with nanocomposites, emerging coating technologies, light-protective and non-thermal process packaging discussed, alongside a consideration of the safety of plastics as food packaging materials. Finally, part four explores the use of eco-design, life cycle assessment, and the utilisation of bio-based polymers in the production of smarter, environmentally-compatible packaging. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Emerging food packaging technologies is an indispensable reference work for all those responsible for the design, production and use of food and beverage packaging, as well as a key source for researchers in this area. Reviews advances in packaging materials, the design and implementation of smart packaging techniques, and developments in response to growing concerns about packaging sustainability Considers intelligent packaging and how advances in the consumer/packaging interface can improve food safety and quality Examines developments in packaging materials, nanocomposites, emerging coating technologies, light-protective and non-thermal process packaging and the safety of plastics as food packaging materials
Category: Technology & Engineering

Advances In Microbial Food Safety

Author : J Sofos
ISBN : 9781782421153
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.68 MB
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Research and legislation in food microbiology continue to evolve, and outbreaks of foodborne disease place further pressure on the industry to provide microbiologically safe products. This second volume in the series Advances in Microbial Food Safety summarises major recent advances in this field, and complements volume 1 to provide an essential overview of developments in food microbiology. Part one opens the book with an interview with a food safety expert. Part two provides updates on single pathogens, and part three looks at pathogen detection, identification and surveillance. Part four covers pathogen control and food preservation. Finally, part five focuses on pathogen control management. Extends the breadth and coverage of the first volume in the series Includes updates on specific pathogens and safety for specific foods Reviews both detection and management of foodborne pathogens
Category: Technology & Engineering

Determining Mycotoxins And Mycotoxigenic Fungi In Food And Feed

Author : Sarah De Saeger
ISBN : 9780857090973
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42.50 MB
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Mycotoxins - toxic secondary metabolites produced by mycotoxigenic fungi – pose a significant risk to the food chain. Indeed, they may be the most hazardous of all food contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity and legislative limits on their levels in food and feed continue to be developed worldwide. Rapid and reliable methods for the determination of both mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food and feed are therefore essential. This book reviews current and emerging methods in this area. Part one focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation and clean-up and key determination techniques, such as chromatographic separation, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods. Part two then goes on to describe quality assurance, official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed. Topics covered include laboratory accreditation, method validation and measurement uncertainty. The development and analysis of biomarkers for mycotoxins are discussed in part three. Individual chapters focus on detecting exposure in humans and animals. Part four is concerned with the processes involved in determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed. It also describes the identification of genes and gene clusters involved in mycotoxin synthesis, as well as DNA barcoding of toxigenic fungi. Finally, part five explores some of the emerging methods for mycotoxin analysis, ranging from bio-sensing to spectroscopic techniques. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Determining mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed is a standard reference for all those concerned with reducing mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. Focuses on the essentials of mycotoxin determination, covering sampling, sample preparation, clean-up and key determination techniques Documents quality assurance and official methods and performance criteria for determining mycotoxins in food and feed Explores the processes of determining mycotoxigenic fungi in food and feed including the identification of genes and gene clusters
Category: Technology & Engineering

Advances In Food And Beverage Labelling

Author : Paul Berryman
ISBN : 9781782420934
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 39.60 MB
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Advances in Food and Beverage Labelling reviews recent advances in labelling research and regulation, covering issues such as nutrition and hazard information, traceability, health claims and standardisation, as well as new labelling technologies and consumer issues. The EU Food Information Regulation will come into force in December 2014 and the book is designed to provide timely and useful information to manufacturers in this area, as well as on a global scale. Part one covers the different types of information that can, or must be present on a food label. Part two looks at recent developments in food labelling technology, regulations and enforcement. Brings together contributions from industry, trade bodies, government and academia. Offers timely advice for those concerned with the legal framework for food labelling, with information about the EU Food Information Regulation, as well as the US market. Reviews issues surrounding nutrition and health claims and GM, ethical and environmental labelling.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Food Enrichment With Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Author : Charlotte Jacobsen
ISBN : 9780857098863
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 48.80 MB
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Omega-3 fatty acids provide many health benefits, from reducing cardiovascular disease to improving mental health, and consumer interest in foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is increasing. Formulating a product enriched with these fatty acids that is stable and has an acceptable flavour is challenging. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids provides an overview of key topics in this area. Part one, an introductory section, reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits. Chapters in part two explore the stabilisation of both fish oil itself and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Part three focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids, including meat products, by the modification of animal diets and other methods, infant formula and baked goods. Finally, part four highlights new directions in the field and discusses algal oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids and labelling and claims in foods containing omega-3 fatty acids. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids is a standard reference for professionals in the functional foods industry involved with research, development and quality assessment and for researchers in academia interested in food lipids, oxidation and functional foods. Provides a comprehensive overview of formulating a product enriched with omega-3 fatty acids that is stable, provides many health benefits and has an acceptable flavour Reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits and explores the stabilisation of fish oil and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids Focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids and highlights new directions in the field
Category: Technology & Engineering

Microbial Production Of Food Ingredients Enzymes And Nutraceuticals

Author : Brian McNeil
ISBN : 9780857093547
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 28.83 MB
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Bacteria, yeast, fungi and microalgae can act as producers (or catalysts for the production) of food ingredients, enzymes and nutraceuticals. With the current trend towards the use of natural ingredients in foods, there is renewed interest in microbial flavours and colours, food bioprocessing using enzymes and food biopreservation using bacteriocins. Microbial production of substances such as organic acids and hydrocolloids also remains an important and fast-changing area of research. Microbial production of food ingredients, enzymes and nutraceuticals provides a comprehensive overview of microbial production of food ingredients, enzymes and nutraceuticals. Part one reviews developments in the metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms and advances in fermentation technology in the production of fungi, yeasts, enzymes and nutraceuticals. Part two discusses the production and application in food processing of substances such as carotenoids, flavonoids and terponoids, enzymes, probiotics and prebiotics, bacteriocins, microbial polysaccharides, polyols and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Microbial production of food ingredients, enzymes and nutraceuticals is an invaluable guide for professionals in the fermentation industry as well as researchers and practitioners in the areas of biotechnology, microbiology, chemical engineering and food processing. Provides a comprehensive overview of microbial flavours and colours, food bioprocessing using enzymes and food biopreservation using bacteriocins Begins with a review of key areas of systems biology and metabolic engineering, including methods and developments for filamentous fungi Analyses the use of microorganisms for the production of natural molecules for use in foods, including microbial production of food flavours and carotenoids
Category: Technology & Engineering

Electron Beam Pasteurization And Complementary Food Processing Technologies

Author : Suresh Pillai
ISBN : 9781782421085
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73.92 MB
Format : PDF
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Food safety is a constant challenge for the food industry, and food irradiation technology has developed significantly since its introduction, moving from isotope irradiation to the use of electron beam technology. Electron Beam Pasteurization and Complementary Food Processing Technologies explores the application of electron beam pasteurization in conjunction with other food processing technologies to improve the safety and quality of food. Part one provides an overview of the issues surrounding electron beam pasteurization in food processing. Part two looks at different thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies that complement irradiation. Finally, a case study section on the commercial applications of e-beam processing provides examples from industry.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Sensory Analysis For Food And Beverage Quality Control

Author : David Kilcast
ISBN : 9781845699512
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 57.63 MB
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Producing products of reliable quality is vitally important to the food and beverage industry. In particular, companies often fail to ensure that the sensory quality of their products remains consistent, leading to the sale of goods which fail to meet the desired specifications or are rejected by the consumer. This book is a practical guide for all those tasked with using sensory analysis for quality control (QC) of food and beverages. Chapters in part one cover the key aspects to consider when designing a sensory QC program. The second part of the book focuses on methods for sensory QC and statistical data analysis. Establishing product sensory specifications and combining instrumental and sensory methods are also covered. The final part of the book reviews the use of sensory QC programs in the food and beverage industry. Chapters on sensory QC for taint prevention and the application of sensory techniques for shelf-life assessment are followed by contributions reviewing sensory QC programs for different products, including ready meals, wine and fish. A chapter on sensory QC of products such as textiles, cosmetics and cars completes the volume. Sensory analysis for food and beverage quality control is an essential reference for anyone setting up or operating a sensory QC program, or researching sensory QC. Highlights key aspects to consider when designing a quality control program including sensory targets and proficiency testing Examines methods for sensory quality control and statistical data analysis Reviews the use of sensory quality control programs in the food and beverage industry featuring ready meals, wine and fish
Category: Technology & Engineering

Encapsulation Technologies And Delivery Systems For Food Ingredients And Nutraceuticals

Author : Nissim Garti
ISBN : 9780857095909
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85.18 MB
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Improved technologies for the encapsulation, protection, release and enhanced bioavailability of food ingredients and nutraceutical components are vital to the development of future foods. Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques. Part one provides an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, discussing challenges in system development and analysis of interaction with the human gastrointestinal tract. Processing technologies for encapsulation and delivery systems are the focus of part two. Spray drying, cooling and chilling are reviewed alongside coextrusion, fluid bed microencapsulation, microencapsulation methods based on biopolymer phase separation, and gelation phenomena in aqueous media. Part three goes on to investigate physicochemical approaches to the production of encapsulation and delivery systems, including the use of micelles and microemulsions, polymeric amphiphiles, liposomes, colloidal emulsions, organogels and hydrogels. Finally, part four reviews characterization and applications of delivery systems, providing industry perspectives on flavour, fish oil, iron micronutrient and probiotic delivery systems. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals is an authoritative guide for both industry and academic researchers interested in encapsulation and controlled release systems. Provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques in encapsulation technologies and delivery systems Chapters in part one provide an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, while part two discusses processing technologies for encapsulation and delivery systems Later sections investigate physicochemical approaches to the production of encapsulation and delivery systems and review characterization and applications of delivery systems
Category: Technology & Engineering

Cereal Grains For The Food And Beverage Industries

Author : Elke K Arendt
ISBN : 9780857098924
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 60.76 MB
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Cereals are a staple of the human diet and have a significant effect on health. As a result, they are of major significance to the food industry. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries provides a comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species, from their composition to their use in food products. The book reviews the major cereal species, starting with wheat and triticale before covering rye, barley and oats. It goes on to discuss other major species such as rice, maize, sorghum and millet, as well as pseudo-cereals such as buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth. Each chapter reviews grain structure, chemical composition (including carbohydrate and protein content), processing and applications in food and beverage products. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries is an essential reference for academic researchers interested in the area of cereal grains and products. It is also an invaluable reference for professionals in the food and beverage industry working with cereal products, including ingredient manufacturers, food technologists, nutritionists, as well as policy-makers and health care professionals. A comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species Chapters review each of the following species: Wheat, Maize, Rice, Barley, Triticale, Rye, Oats, Sorghum, Millet, Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth Reviews grain structure, chemical composition, processing and applications in food and beverage products for each of the considered grains
Category: Technology & Engineering