New Generic Technologies In Developing Countries

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New Generic Technologies In Developing Countries

Author : M.R. Bhagavan
ISBN : 9781349258369
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43.59 MB
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An examination of developing countries' ability to benefit from new generic technologies in the realms of information, communication, biotechnology and new materials. The book demonstrates why some developing countries have made considerable progress in absorbing the new technologies while most are still at the starting-blocks, and draws on the international donor community's experience to analyse appropriate aid policies and strategies.
Category: Business & Economics

Globalization Of Technology

Author : Prasada Reddy
ISBN : 9781848260849
Genre :
File Size : 80.54 MB
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Globalization of Technology is a component of Encyclopedia of Technology, Information, and Systems Management Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. This book on Globalization of Technology provides the essential aspects and fundamentals of Issues in Technology Transfer and Technological Capability Building such as: Techno-Economic Paradigms and Latecomer Industrialization; Knowledge Networks and the Internet; Technology Transfer: Vehicles, Conditions, Spillovers, and Policy Challenges; The Social Implications of Technological Development: Industrialization and Innovation as a Collective Process. This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.
Category:

Technology Transfer In The Developing Countries

Author : Manas Chatterji
ISBN : 9781349205585
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 53.28 MB
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The objective of this book is to present the problems and possibilities of transferring technology from the developed countries to the developing countries to raise their standard of living. It develops the conceptual issues, legal ramifications, empirical testing of mathematical models and case studies of different industries in many countries. It contains articles by distinguished scholars in the field, practitioners and government officials. It is an important supplement to the hands-on approach used by many private industries and national and international organizations. The unique feature of this book is that it is multidisciplinary and that it has a balanced combination of abstract theoretical approaches and practical considerations.
Category: Business & Economics

Intellectual Property Biogenetic Resources And Traditional Knowledge

Author : Graham Dutfield
ISBN : 9781136536274
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 35.58 MB
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Biogenetic resources - the critical biological and chemical materials that underpin so much of medicine, both modern and traditional, agriculture, and wider economic activity in so many fields - are at the centre of heated debate regarding their use, development, and ownership, and the issues of ethics and equity that impinge on all of these factors. This book is a comprehensive examination of the key issues, institutions and ideologies in this area, presenting definitions and explanations of the fundamentals of intellectual property rights (IPRs), biogenetic resources and traditional knowledge. It uses the insights from this to build a picture of how these factors interact in practice, bringing to the surface issues such as: the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, benefit sharing from the commercial use of biodiversity, biotechnological innovation and the transfer of technology, agriculture, food security, rural development, health and international justice. Part 1 describes the relevant international IPR laws, highlights the extent to which modern commerce depends on such resources, and traces the way in which modern IPR law has evolved to accommodate this dependence. Part 2 shows how stronger IPR protection in the area of life science innovation has given rise to controversies such as 'biopiracy', 'terminator' genes and genetic uniformity. Part 3 focuses on traditional knowledge, its nature, its importance, and the applicability of IPR-style protection. Part 4 covers the international negotiation and policy-making of the WTO, WIPO and CBD and the legislative initiatives of national governments of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Finally, Part 5 focuses on two developing country case studies - of India and Kenya - assessing whether they will be able to gain economic benefit from development of their natural resources within the current regulatory system and whether this will encourage the conservation and sustainable use of the resource base. With its multidisciplinary approach and breadth of coverage, this book will appeal both to those new to the subject and to those with professional and specialist interest, including students, academics, legal practitioners, government policy-makers and the private sector.
Category: Political Science

Technology Transfer

Author : Goel Cohen
ISBN : 9780761997702
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 68.29 MB
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This book identifies the major factors responsible for effective transfer of information and human expertise from an advanced country or a multinational corporation to the developing world.
Category: Business & Economics

The Globalization Of Corporate R D

Author : Prasada Reddy
ISBN : 9781134629138
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26.83 MB
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This book examines the implications of new trends of globalisation in corporate research and development. It looks in particular at aspects of integration in developing countries and the impact this will have on the host countries.
Category: Business & Economics

Agricultural Technologies For Market Led Development Opportunities In The 1990s

Author : Shawki M. Barghouti
ISBN : 0821324624
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85.57 MB
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Argentina has reformed its public finance system and reversed years of economic decline and deficit spending. This study recommends policy options to speed the already impressive progress. These options would expand the ambitious reform program already under way. This study shows how to sustain balanced public finances over the medium term. It describes ways to sustain price stability and economic growth while providing a cushion against unexpected downturns. Also examined are ways to improve social services while reducing the size of government. Researchers discuss key reforms that could boost the fiscal surplus by as much as 1.4 percent of gross domestic product. They look at ways to build tax revenues, reduce provincial finances, and make social security more equitable. They review methods to cut defense spending and revive a moribund education system. Additional policy options offered are reforms for housing and welfare programs and pension fund investments. The study suggests ways to improve the legal framework for a stronger central bank. Also reviewed are ways to eliminate unnecessary administrative agencies and to privatize public enterprises. The government's new health insurance program is examined. This program offers universal coverage. It lets contributors choose providers and includes subsidies for those who can't pay. It also requires a minimum package of health care at a set price.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Technology And Transition

Author : Abdelkader Djeflat
ISBN : 9781135217426
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 26.25 MB
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The Maghreb countries had a promising start in economic growth after independence. For the most part they thrived on industrialisation by import substitution; but unfortunately this strategy left them with macroeconomic and structural imbalances which together have effectively constrained their ability to compete in the world economic system and to catch up with the rapidly changing global techno-economic circumstances. Issues relating to aspects of technology transfer to the Maghreb, strategies for technological and resource development and the integration of education and R&D systems with the productive systems of the economies in the region are discussed along with relevant cases from Mexico, China, South Korea, India and Bangladesh.
Category: Business & Economics

Science Technology And Innovation Policy

Author : Pedro Conceicao
ISBN : 1567202713
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 69.9 MB
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Examines the impact of science and technology systems on economic and social development.
Category: Political Science

International Labour Documentation

Author : International Labour Office. Central Library and Documentation Bureau
ISBN : UOM:39015079893528
Genre : Labor
File Size : 42.22 MB
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Category: Labor

Generic

Author : Jeremy A. Greene
ISBN : 9781421414942
Genre : Medical
File Size : 85.79 MB
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Generic drugs are now familiar objects in clinics, drugstores, and households around the world. We like to think of these tablets, capsules, patches, and ointments as interchangeable with their brand-name counterparts: why pay more for the same? And yet they are not quite the same. They differ in price, in place of origin, in color, shape, and size, in the dyes, binders, fillers, and coatings used, and in a host of other ways. Claims of generic equivalence, as physician-historian Jeremy Greene reveals in this gripping narrative, are never based on being identical to the original drug in all respects, but in being the same in all ways that matter. How do we know what parts of a pill really matter? Decisions about which differences are significant and which are trivial in the world of therapeutics are not resolved by simple chemical or biological assays alone. As Greene reveals in this fascinating account, questions of therapeutic similarity and difference are also always questions of pharmacology and physiology, of economics and politics, of morality and belief. Generic is the first book to chronicle the social, political, and cultural history of generic drugs in America. It narrates the evolution of the generic drug industry from a set of mid-twentieth-century "schlock houses" and "counterfeiters" into an agile and surprisingly powerful set of multinational corporations in the early twenty-first century. The substitution of bioequivalent generic drugs for more expensive brand-name products is a rare success story in a field of failed attempts to deliver equivalent value in health care for a lower price. Greene’s history sheds light on the controversies shadowing the success of generics: problems with the generalizability of medical knowledge, the fragile role of science in public policy, and the increasing role of industry, marketing, and consumer logics in late-twentieth-century and early twenty-first century health care.
Category: Medical

Information Technology Policies And Applications In The Commonwealth Developing Countries

Author : Mayuri Odedra
ISBN : 0850924014
Genre : Commonwealth countries
File Size : 22.13 MB
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The main theme of this publication is a reminder that without a coherent national information technology policy which resonates clearly with national development objectives, and without a full understanding of the national, cultural and organisation context, a less than full return will be obtained for the investment of scarce resources.
Category: Commonwealth countries

The Economics Of New Health Technologies

Author : Joan Costa-Font
ISBN : 9780191580239
Genre : Medical
File Size : 67.80 MB
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Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certain technologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed analysis of what technological change is; to identify drivers of innovation in several healthcare areas; to present existing mechanisms and processes for ensuring and valuing efficiency and development in the use of medical technologies; and to analyse the impact of advances in medical technology on health, healthcare expenditure, and health insurance. Each of the seventeen chapters summarizes an important issue concerning the innovation debate and contributes to a better understanding of the role innovation has both at the macro level and at the delivery (meso) and micro level in the healthcare sector. The effectiveness of innovation in improving people's welfare depends on its diffusion and inception by the relevant agents in the health production process, and this book recognizes the multi-faceted contribution of policy makers, regulators, managers, technicians, consumers and patients to this technology change. This book offers the first truly global economic analysis of healthcare technologies, taking the subject beyond simply economic evaluation, and exploring the behavioural aspects, organization and incentives for new technology developments, and the adoption and diffusion of these technologies.
Category: Medical

The Diffusion Of Information Technology

Author : Ken Guy
ISBN : 0821332163
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 38.51 MB
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World Bank Discussion Paper No. 281.This study examines the best practices of eight OECD countries--Canada, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States--in designing national policies and programs to accelerate the effective use of information technology in support of industrial competitiveness. New technologies in computing, communications, and multimedia are changing the competitive advantage of industries, services, and entire economies. Enterprises must therefore increase their technological development and education through government assistance.The emerging experience is rich and diverse. The study draws on the tacit knowledge of the designers and implementors of national policies and programs to establish key rules-of-thumb for future programs. The authors outline broad directions for adapting these practices to the conditions of developing countries.
Category: Business & Economics