NATURAL EXPERIMENTS OF HISTORY

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Natural Experiments Of History

Author : Jared Diamond
ISBN : 9780674076723
Genre : History
File Size : 21.67 MB
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In eight case studies by leading scholars in history, archaeology, business, economics, geography, and political science, the authors showcase the “natural experiment” or “comparative method”—well-known in any science concerned with the past—on the discipline of human history. That means, according to the editors, “comparing, preferably quantitatively and aided by statistical analyses, different systems that are similar in many respects, but that differ with respect to the factors whose influence one wishes to study.” The case studies in the book support two overall conclusions about the study of human history: First, historical comparisons have the potential for yielding insights that cannot be extracted from a single case study alone. Second, insofar as is possible, when one proposes a conclusion, one may be able to strengthen one’s conclusion by gathering quantitative evidence (or at least ranking one’s outcomes from big to small), and then by testing the conclusion’s validity statistically.
Category: History

Quicklet On Natural Experiments Of History Edited By Jared Diamond And James A Robinson

Author : Nicole Silvester
ISBN : 9781614642855
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 34.27 MB
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Natural Experiments in History grew, in a way, out of co-editor Jared Diamond's book Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. In the earlier book, he spent a chapter looking at the Polynesian expansion as a near-perfect natural experiment in which a single ancestral Polynesian culture migrated to hundreds of islands in the Pacific Ocean, each with its own different geographic features. Because the culture that settled the islands was the same, any differences that developed between separate island societies could be largely attributed to the geography of the individual islands. At the conclusion of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Diamond noted that there were many other such natural experiments in history, just waiting to be studied, and he called for historians to pick up where he left off and see what else could be learned. Of course, scholars have been using such natural experiments for a long time, especially in other disciplines like archaeology and anthropology, but they have not been as popular in historical scholarship. With Natural Experiments of History the editors and authors hope to illustrate how natural experiments can be used to bring the rigours of the hard sciences to historical scholarship, both in descriptive and statistics-based studies.
Category: Literary Criticism

A History Of Spanish Institutions

Author : Thomas Baumert
ISBN : 9788417914899
Genre : Art
File Size : 75.54 MB
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Institutions and their history matter; and not only because they are crucial elements in explaining a country’s socio-political evolution, but also as determinant factors of economic development, wealth and prosperity. Usually, the history of institutions has been taught the point of view of legal science, an approach that made the topic little attractive and often difficult to assimilate for students of other fields such as Economics, Business Studies, Marketing and others. And precisely these groups are the ones that this book addresses. It presents, in a rigorous yet entertaining way the evolution of Spanish institutions the first human settlements in the peninsula to date and does so explaining the main points in a succinct, but well-contextualised form. For this purpose, each chapter combines the exposition of a given period’s historic facts with the description of its most characteristic institutions. Each chapter then complements its content by explaining the history of one notable symbol of Spain (its flag, the different coat of arms, feasts, orders, etcetera). This modular structure, together with the presentation of the information according to its degree of relevance, allows readers — depending on their specific interests and needs—, to adapt and combine the texts that compose this book as to optimise the results of their study. “The modern didactic approach followed by the authors, their understanding of institutions in a broader sense than usual, the extraordinary work of synthesis […] has produced a basic tool for the study of this subject, one that will give students fruitful results, even if they have very heterogeneous backgrounds in Spanish history.” Esther Valbuena
Category: Art

Natural Experiments In European Economic History

Author : Davide Werner Cantoni
ISBN : OCLC:655645498
Genre :
File Size : 33.43 MB
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The last essay analyzes the "Commercial Revolution" of the late Middle Ages. We present a new dataset that documents the economic transformation of the German lands of the Holy Roman Empire using information on the incorporation of cities and the establishment of markets. Using this dataset, we find that medieval universities, exogenously established in Germany as a result of the Papal Schism, supported increased economic activity. We argue that medieval universities affected market expansion by training thousands of individuals in the law; these individuals then went on to shape the legal institutions that enforced contracts and structured economic activity.
Category:

The Uses Of Experiment

Author : David Gooding
ISBN : 0521337682
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.44 MB
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Renowned scholars in history, sociology, philosophy and anthropology consider seventeenth and twentieth century weapon testing, particle physics, biology and other topics in an account of important and often famous experiments.
Category: Science

Sylva Sylvarum Or A Natural History In Ten Centuries

Author : Francis Bacon
ISBN : UCSF:31378008334495
Genre : Death
File Size : 48.32 MB
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"The natural histories in this book are full of descriptions and pictures. Their purpose if to build a true philosophy for the illumination of the understanding; the extracting of axioms, and the producing of many noble works and effects. It is hoped that this will be an advancement of learning and sciences." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Category: Death

The Measure Of Civilization

Author : Ian Morris
ISBN : 9781400844760
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 60.7 MB
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A groundbreaking look at Western and Eastern social development from the end of the ice age to today In the past thirty years, there have been fierce debates over how civilizations develop and why the West became so powerful. The Measure of Civilization presents a brand-new way of investigating these questions and provides new tools for assessing the long-term growth of societies. Using a groundbreaking numerical index of social development that compares societies in different times and places, award-winning author Ian Morris sets forth a sweeping examination of Eastern and Western development across 15,000 years since the end of the last ice age. He offers surprising conclusions about when and why the West came to dominate the world and fresh perspectives for thinking about the twenty-first century. Adapting the United Nations' approach for measuring human development, Morris's index breaks social development into four traits—energy capture per capita, organization, information technology, and war-making capacity—and he uses archaeological, historical, and current government data to quantify patterns. Morris reveals that for 90 percent of the time since the last ice age, the world's most advanced region has been at the western end of Eurasia, but contrary to what many historians once believed, there were roughly 1,200 years—from about 550 to 1750 CE—when an East Asian region was more advanced. Only in the late eighteenth century CE, when northwest Europeans tapped into the energy trapped in fossil fuels, did the West leap ahead. Resolving some of the biggest debates in global history, The Measure of Civilization puts forth innovative tools for determining past, present, and future economic and social trends.
Category: Social Science

Digital Anthropology

Author : Heather A. Horst
ISBN : 9780857852939
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 81.1 MB
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Anthropology has two main tasks: to understand what it is to be human and to examine how humanity is manifested differently in the diversity of culture. These tasks have gained new impetus from the extraordinary rise of the digital. This book brings together several key anthropologists working with digital culture to demonstrate just how productive an anthropological approach to the digital has already become. Through a range of case studies from Facebook to Second Life to Google Earth, Digital Anthropology explores how human and digital can be defined in relation to one another, from avatars and disability; cultural differences in how we use social networking sites or practise religion; the practical consequences of the digital for politics, museums, design, space and development to new online world and gaming communities. The book also explores the moral universe of the digital, from new anxieties to open-source ideals. Digital Anthropology reveals how only the intense scrutiny of ethnography can overturn assumptions about the impact of digital culture and reveal its profound consequences for everyday life. Combining the clarity of a textbook with an engaging style which conveys a passion for these new frontiers of enquiry, this book is essential reading for students and scholars of anthropology, media studies, communication studies, cultural studies and sociology.
Category: Social Science

On Global Justice

Author : Mathias Risse
ISBN : 9781400845507
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 81.24 MB
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Debates about global justice have traditionally fallen into two camps. Statists believe that principles of justice can only be held among those who share a state. Those who fall outside this realm are merely owed charity. Cosmopolitans, on the other hand, believe that justice applies equally among all human beings. On Global Justice shifts the terms of this debate and shows how both views are unsatisfactory. Stressing humanity's collective ownership of the earth, Mathias Risse offers a new theory of global distributive justice--what he calls pluralist internationalism--where in different contexts, different principles of justice apply. Arguing that statists and cosmopolitans seek overarching answers to problems that vary too widely for one single justice relationship, Risse explores who should have how much of what we all need and care about, ranging from income and rights to spaces and resources of the earth. He acknowledges that especially demanding redistributive principles apply among those who share a country, but those who share a country also have obligations of justice to those who do not because of a universal humanity, common political and economic orders, and a linked global trading system. Risse's inquiries about ownership of the earth give insights into immigration, obligations to future generations, and obligations arising from climate change. He considers issues such as fairness in trade, responsibilities of the WTO, intellectual property rights, labor rights, whether there ought to be states at all, and global inequality, and he develops a new foundational theory of human rights.
Category: Philosophy