Mussolinis War

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Mussolini S War

Author : John Gooch
ISBN : 9780241185711
Genre : History
File Size : 80.19 MB
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'It is hard to imagine a finer account, both of the sweep of Italy's wars, and of the characters caught up in them' Caroline Moorhead, The Guardian From an acclaimed military historian, the definitive account of Italy's experience of the Second World War While staying closely aligned with Hitler, Mussolini remained carefully neutral until the summer of 1940. Then, with the wholly unexpected and sudden collapse of the French and British armies, Mussolini declared war on the Allies in the hope of making territorial gains in southern France and Africa. This decision proved a horrifying miscalculation, dooming Italy to its own prolonged and unwinnable war, immense casualties and an Allied invasion in 1943 which ushered in a terrible new era for the country. John Gooch's new book is the definitive account of Italy's war experience. Beginning with the invasion of Abyssinia and ending with Mussolini's arrest, Gooch brilliantly portrays the nightmare of a country with too small an industrial sector, too incompetent a leadership and too many fronts on which to fight. Everywhere - whether in the USSR, the Western Desert or the Balkans - Italian troops found themselves against either better-equipped or more motivated enemies. The result was a war entirely at odds with the dreams of pre-war Italian planners - a series of desperate improvizations against Allies who could draw on global resources and against whom Italy proved helpless. This remarkable book rightly shows the centrality of Italy to the war, outlining the brief rise and disastrous fall of the Italian military campaign.
Category: History

Mussolini S War

Author : Frank Joseph
ISBN : 9781906033569
Genre : History
File Size : 43.22 MB
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Among the great misconceptions of modern times is the assumption that Benito Mussolini was Hitler's junior partner, who made no significant contributions to the Second World War. That conclusion originated with Allied propagandists determined to boost Anglo-American morale, while undermining Axis cooperation. The Duce's failings, real or imagined, were inflated and ridiculed; his successes, pointedly demeaned or ignored. Italy's bungling navy, ineffectual army - as cowardly as it was ill-equipped - and air force of antiquated biplanes were handily dealt with by the Western Allies. So effective was this disinformation campaign that it became post-war history, and is still generally taken for granted even by otherwise well-informed scholars and students of World War Two. But a closer examination of recently disclosed, and often neglected, original source materials presents an entirely different picture. They shine new light, for example, on Italy's submarine service, the world's greatest in terms of tonnage, its boats sinking nearly three-quarters of a million tons of Allied shipping in three years' time. During a single operation, Italian 'human torpedoes' sank the battleships HMS Valiant and Queen Elizabeth, plus an eight-thousand-ton tanker, at their home anchorage in Alexandria, Egypt. By mid-1942, Mussolini's navy had fought its way back from crushing defeats to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to popular belief, his Fiat biplanes gave as good as they got in the Battle of Britain, and their monoplane replacements, such as the Macchi Greyhound, were state-of-the-art interceptors superior to the American Mustang. Savoia-Marchetti Sparrowhawk bombers accounted for seventy-two Allied warships and one hundred-ninety-six freighters before the Bagdolio armistice in 1943. On 7 June 1942, infantry of the Italian X Corps saved Rommel's XV Brigade near Gazala, in North Africa, from otherwise certain annihilation, while horse-soldiers of the Third Cavalry Division Amedeo Duca d'Aosta defeated Soviet forces on the Don River before Stalingrad the following August in history's last cavalry charge. As influential as these operations were on the course of World War Two, more potentially decisive was Mussolini's planned aggression against the United States' mainland. Postponed only at the last moment when its conventional explosives were slated for substitution by a nuclear device, New York City escaped an atomic attack by margins more narrow than previously understood. It is now known that Italian scientists led the world in nuclear research in 1939, and a four-engine Piaggio heavy bomber was modified to carry an atomic bomb five years later. These and numerous other disclosures combine to debunk lingering propaganda stereotypes of an inept, ineffectual Italian armed forces. That dated portrayal is rendered obsolete by a true-to-life account of the men and weapons of Mussolini's War.
Category: History

Mussolini In The First World War

Author : Paul O'Brien
ISBN : 9781845205584
Genre : History
File Size : 52.50 MB
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How did Benito Mussolini come to fascism? Standard accounts of the dictator have failed to explain satisfactorily the transition from his pre-World War I 'socialism' to his post-war fascism. This controversial new book is the first to examine closely Mussolini's political trajectory during the Great War as evidenced in his journalistic writings, speeches and war diary, as well as some previously unexamined archive material. The author argues that the 1914-18 conflict provided the catalyst for Mussolini to clarify his deep-rooted nationalist tendencies. He demonstrates that Mussolini's interventionism was already anti-socialist and anti-democratic in the early autumn of 1914 and shows how in and through the experience of the conflict the future duce fine-tuned his authoritarian and totalitarian vision of Italy in a state of permanent mobilization for war. Providing a radical new interpretation of one of the most important dictators of the twentieth century, Mussolini in the First World War will appeal to anyone who wants to learn more about the roots of fascism in modern Europe.
Category: History

Mussolini And The Origins Of The Second World War 1933 1940

Author : Robert Mallett
ISBN : 9781403937742
Genre : History
File Size : 57.7 MB
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The true nature of Mussolini's foreign policy during the late interwar period has been the subject of considerable controversy. Was Mussolini in reality pro-British, even as late as June 1940; or was his international policy more sinister and based on conquering a Fascist empire in North Africa and the Middle East? Robert Mallett makes use of much new archival evidence in order to answer this riddle of interwar history. Mallett argues that Mussolini had harboured imperial designs in the Mediterranean and Red Sea from as early as 1919, but that not until 1933, with the rise of Hitler, was it possible for Fascist Italy to pursue a programme of territorial expansion. Previously unpublished material also casts new light on the Nazi-Fascist relationship, revealing it to be at times paranoid, acrimonious and duplicitous on both sides. Although the book focuses on Italian policy, it provides an important reassessment of the Ethiopian Crisis, the Spanish Civil War, the Austro-German Anschluss, Munich and the run up to the Second World War. Mallett shows that it is erroneous to place excessive emphasis on the role of Adolf Hitler in subverting the interwar international order, and demonstrates that Mussolini was heavily implicated in the global conflict that erupted in September 1939.
Category: History

Mussolini

Author : Peter Neville
ISBN : 9780415249898
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 47.12 MB
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Although he could be both ruthless and opportunistic, Benito Mussolini was also driven by ideology and his desire to make Italy great. But conservative forces in the Italian establishment and factional warfare in his own fascist party were stumbling blocks to his policy, and ultimately Italy never became as fascist as Mussolini would have liked. Clear and engaging, this survey is key to the understanding of one of the most fascinating twentieth century European dictators.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Regio Esercito

Author : Patrick Cloutier
ISBN : 0557081815
Genre : Italy
File Size : 52.79 MB
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Regio Esercito: the Italian Royal Army in Mussolini's Wars, 1935-1943. A history of the Italian Army's campaigns in Ethiopia, Spain, North Africa, Greece, Yugoslavia, Russia, and Sicily. The Italian Army's Wars are examined from Italian, Russian, and German perspectives, among others. Includes translated Russian passages. Mr. Cloutier brings attention to Italian battlefield successes; he examines a few strategic situations of World War 2, and holds that Italian forces were at times a key asset, whose misuse by the Axis cost them important victories. 178 pages, 77 maps, 34 photos, numerous illustrations, and appendices.
Category: Italy

The Pope And Mussolini

Author : David I. Kertzer
ISBN : 9780679645535
Genre : Religion
File Size : 58.57 MB
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PULITZER PRIZE WINNER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. This groundbreaking work, based on seven years of research in the Vatican and Fascist archives, including reports from Mussolini’s spies inside the highest levels of the Church, will forever change our understanding of the Vatican’s role in the rise of Fascism in Europe. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. In most respects, they could not have been more different. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. Both were prone to sudden fits of temper and were fiercely protective of the prerogatives of their office. (“We have many interests to protect,” the Pope declared, soon after Mussolini seized control of the government in 1922.) Each relied on the other to consolidate his power and achieve his political goals. In a challenge to the conventional history of this period, in which a heroic Church does battle with the Fascist regime, Kertzer shows how Pius XI played a crucial role in making Mussolini’s dictatorship possible and keeping him in power. In exchange for Vatican support, Mussolini restored many of the privileges the Church had lost and gave in to the pope’s demands that the police enforce Catholic morality. Yet in the last years of his life—as the Italian dictator grew ever closer to Hitler—the pontiff’s faith in this treacherous bargain started to waver. With his health failing, he began to lash out at the Duce and threatened to denounce Mussolini’s anti-Semitic racial laws before it was too late. Horrified by the threat to the Church-Fascist alliance, the Vatican’s inner circle, including the future Pope Pius XII, struggled to restrain the headstrong pope from destroying a partnership that had served both the Church and the dictator for many years. The Pope and Mussolini brims with memorable portraits of the men who helped enable the reign of Fascism in Italy: Father Pietro Tacchi Venturi, Pius’s personal emissary to the dictator, a wily anti-Semite known as Mussolini’s Rasputin; Victor Emmanuel III, the king of Italy, an object of widespread derision who lacked the stature—literally and figuratively—to stand up to the domineering Duce; and Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, whose political skills and ambition made him Mussolini’s most powerful ally inside the Vatican, and positioned him to succeed the pontiff as the controversial Pius XII, whose actions during World War II would be subject for debate for decades to come. With the recent opening of the Vatican archives covering Pius XI’s papacy, the full story of the Pope’s complex relationship with his Fascist partner can finally be told. Vivid, dramatic, with surprises at every turn, The Pope and Mussolini is history writ large and with the lightning hand of truth.
Category: Religion

The Fascist Experience In Italy

Author : John Pollard
ISBN : 9781134819034
Genre : History
File Size : 76.4 MB
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This source book examines the development of Italian Fascism, and surveys the themes and issues of the movement. It spans from the emergence of the united Italian state in the nineteenth century, to the post-war aftermath of fascism. It provides: * analysis of propaganda and Mussolini's journalism * new documentary material, previously unavailable in English * an extensive range of other source material, including images * thematic coverage of major topics such as the transformation of agrarian and urban society * analysis of the political, social, and economic status of Italy * the legacy of fascism in modern Italy. John Pollard also includes extensive notes on sources as well as a glossary and guide to further reading.
Category: History

Education And The Second World War

Author : Roy Lowe
ISBN : 9781136590153
Genre : Education
File Size : 68.87 MB
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This was the first book which globally surveyed the impact of the Second World War on schooling. It offers fascinating comparisons of the impact of total war, both in terms of physical disruption and its effects on the ideology of schooling. By analysing the effects on the education systems of each of the participant nations the contributors throw new light on the responses made in different parts of the globe to the challenge of world-wide conflict.
Category: Education

The Bombing War

Author : Richard Overy
ISBN : 9780141927824
Genre : History
File Size : 73.88 MB
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The ultimate history of the Blitz and bombing in the Second World War, from Wolfson Prize-winning historian and author Richard Overy The use of massive fleets of bombers to kill and terrorize civilians was an aspect of the Second World War which continues to challenge the idea that Allies specifically fought a 'moral' war. For Britain, bombing became perhaps its principal contribution to the fighting as, night after night, exceptionally brave men flew over occupied Europe destroying its cities. The Bombing War radically overhauls our understanding of the War. It is the first book to examine seriously not just the most well-known parts of the campaign, but the significance of bombing on many other fronts - the German use of bombers on the Eastern Front for example (as well as much newly discovered material on the more familiar 'Blitz' on Britain), or the Allied campaigns against Italian cities. The result is the author's masterpiece - a rich, gripping, picture of the Second World War and the terrible military, technological and ethical issues that relentlessly drove all its participants into an abyss. Reviews: 'Magnificent ... must now be regarded as the standard work on the bombing war ... It is probably the most important book published on the history of he second world war this century' Richard J Evans, Guardian 'Monumental ... this is a major contribution to one of the most controversial aspects of the Second World War ... full of new detail and perspectives ... hugely impressive' James Holland, Literary Review 'This tremendous book does what the war it describes signally failed to do. With a well-thought-out strategy and precision, it delivers maximum force on its objectives ... The result is a masterpiece of the historian's art' The Times 'It is unlikely that a work of this scale, scope and merit will be surpassed' Times Higher Education 'What distinguishes Mr Overy's account of the bombing war from lesser efforts is the wealth of narrative detail and analytical rigour that he brings to bear' Economist 'Excellent ... Overy is never less than an erudite and clear-eyed guide whose research is impeccable and whose conclusions appear sensible and convincing even when they run against the established trends' Financial Times 'Hard to surpass. If you want to know how bombing worked, what it did and what it meant, this is the book to read' Times Literary Supplement About the author: Richard Overy is the author of a series of remarkable books on the Second World War and the wider disasters of the twentieth century. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia won both the Wolfson Prize for History and the Hessell-Tiltman Prize. He is Professor of History at the University of Exeter. Penguin publishes 1939: Countdown to War, The Morbid Age, Russia's War, Interrogations, The Battle of Britain and The Dictators. He lives in London.
Category: History

Benito Mussolini

Author : Brenda Haugen
ISBN : 075651892X
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 27.53 MB
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A biography of the prime minister of Italy who lead his country into World War II, befriended the Nazi leader of Germany, and was eventually executed by his own countrymen.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

The Fall Of Mussolini

Author : Philip Morgan
ISBN : 9780191578755
Genre : History
File Size : 26.66 MB
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The dramatic story of Mussolini's fall from power in July 1943, illuminating both the causes and the consequences of this momentous event. Morgan shows how Italians of all classes coped with the extraordinary pressures of wartime living, both on the military and home fronts, and how their experience of the country at war eventually distanced them from the dictator and his fascist regime. Looking beyond Mussolini's initial fall from power, Morgan examines how the Italian people responded to the invasion, occupation, and division of their country by Nazi German and Anglo-American forces - and how crucial the experience of this period was in shaping Italy's post-war sense of nationhood and transition to democracy.
Category: History

Mussolini S Shadow

Author : Ray Moseley
ISBN : 0300079176
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 54.51 MB
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Based on the diaries of Mussolini's daughter Edda, this is the first biography in English about Mussolini's son-in-law, who was found guilty of treason and shot after he joined with dissident Fascists to oust Mussolini. 26 illustrations.
Category: Biography & Autobiography

Dr Seuss Goes To War

Author : Richard H. Minear
ISBN : 9781595589903
Genre : Humor
File Size : 38.21 MB
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“A fascinating collection” of wartime cartoons from the beloved children’s author and illustrator (The New York Times Book Review). For decades, readers throughout the world have enjoyed the marvelous stories and illustrations of Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss. But few know the work Geisel did as a political cartoonist during World War II, for the New York daily newspaper PM. In these extraordinarily trenchant cartoons, Geisel presents “a provocative history of wartime politics” (Entertainment Weekly). Dr. Seuss Goes to War features handsome, large-format reproductions of more than two hundred of Geisel’s cartoons, alongside “insightful” commentary by the historian Richard H. Minear that places them in the context of the national climate they reflect (Booklist). Pulitzer Prize–winner Art Spiegelman’s introduction places Seuss firmly in the pantheon of the leading political cartoonists of our time. “A shocker—this cat is not in the hat!” —Studs Terkel
Category: Humor

Mussolini And Fascism

Author : Patricia Knight
ISBN : 0415279224
Genre : History
File Size : 70.89 MB
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The early twentieth century in Italy was a crucial period in its history. Mussolini and Fascism surveys all the important issues and topics of the period including the origins and rise of Fascism, Mussolini as Prime Minister and Dictator, the Totalitarian state, foreign policy and the Second World War. It also examines how Italian Fascism compared to other inter-war dictatorships.
Category: History

Access To History Italy The Rise Of Fascism 1915 1945 Third Edition

Author : Mark Robson
ISBN : 9781444150865
Genre : History
File Size : 89.24 MB
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The new editions of Access to History combine all the strengths of this well-loved series with a new design and features that allow all students access to the content and study skills needed to achieve exam success. The third edition of Italy: Liberalism and Fascism 1870-1945 has been revised to reflect the needs of the current specifications. The new edition starts by examining the weakness of Liberal Italy and how the First World War increased its problems, before going on to analysing and explaining the rise of Fascism and Mussolini's subsequent consolidation of power. It also includes detailed chapters on life in Fascist Italy, its economy, politcal system and foreign policy before concluding with an examination of why Mussolini's regime collapsed in 1943. Throughout the book, key dates, terms and issues are highlighted, and historical interpretations of key debates are outlined. Summary diagrams are included to consolidate knowledge and understanding of the period, and exam style questions and tips for each examination board provide the opportunity to develop exam skills.
Category: History

The International Context Of The Spanish Civil War

Author : Gaynor Johnson
ISBN : 9781443809436
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 64.3 MB
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This book, which consists of essays by leading scholars in the field of twentieth century international history, examines the wider context of one of the most bitter and bloody civil wars in European history - the Spanish Civil War. The chapters discuss all of the major debates that surround the ideological and political context of the war, including the extent to which it could be regarded as a 'dress rehearsal' for the Second World War. The book also debates the nature of civil war in the twentieth century and as such will be of interest to military and international historians as well as to historians of the history of ideas.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Mussolini And Italian Fascism

Author : Hamish Macdonald
ISBN : 0748733868
Genre : Education
File Size : 82.83 MB
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'The Pathfinder History' series is designed to help students make the transition from GCSE to A level. Each book provides the student with a structured route through the A level process and develops the skills needed for examination success.
Category: Education

Fascist Ideology

Author : Aristotle Kallis
ISBN : 9781134606580
Genre : History
File Size : 39.85 MB
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Fascist Ideology is a comparative study of the expansionist foreign policies of fascist Italy and Nazi Germany from 1922-1945. Fascist Ideology provides a comparative investigation of fascist expansionism by focusing on the close relations between ideology and action under Mussolini and Hitler. With an overview of the ideological motivations behind fascist expansionism and their impact on fascist policies, this book explores the two main issues which have dominated the historiographical debates on the nature of fascist expansionism: whether Italy's and Germany's particular expansionist tendancies can be attributed to a set of generic fascist values, or were shaped by the long term, uniquely national ambitions and developments since unification; whether the pursuit of expansion was opportunistic or followed a grand design in each case.
Category: History