Motivation And Reinforcement

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Motivation And Reinforcement

Author : Robert Schramm
ISBN : 9781447748366
Genre : Education
File Size : 51.48 MB
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One of Lulu's best sellers of all time, the second edition of the book Educate Toward Recovery is now called Motivation and Reinforcement: Turning the Tables on Autism. This book is the ultimate guide to home based autism intervention. It is a forward-thinking guide that translates the Verbal Behavior Approach to ABA into everyday language. With over 100 new pages of material including new Chapters on Social Skills, Behavior Plans, Token Economies, and Advanced Instructional Control methods, this book is a must have even for those who own the 2006 version. International ABA/VB presenter Robert Schramm, explains how you can keep your child engaged in motivated learning throughout his entire day without forcing participation, blocking escape, or nagging procedures. M&R is the full realization of modern ABA/VB Autism Intervention and a great resource for parents, teachers, and therapists working with a child with autism as well as BCBA's looking for ways to improve their approach.
Category: Education

Motivated Reinforcement Learning

Author : Kathryn E. Merrick
ISBN : 9783540891871
Genre : Computers
File Size : 88.53 MB
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Motivated learning is an emerging research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. Computational models of motivation extend reinforcement learning to adaptive, multitask learning in complex, dynamic environments – the goal being to understand how machines can develop new skills and achieve goals that were not predefined by human engineers. In particular, this book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment. This book covers the design, application and evaluation of computational models of motivation in reinforcement learning. The authors start with overviews of motivation and reinforcement learning, then describe models for motivated reinforcement learning. The performance of these models is demonstrated by applications in simulated game scenarios and a live, open-ended virtual world. Researchers in artificial intelligence, machine learning and artificial life will benefit from this book, as will practitioners working on complex, dynamic systems – in particular multiuser, online games.
Category: Computers

Power Of Reinforcement The

Author : Stephen Ray Flora
ISBN : 9780791485989
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 59.57 MB
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Makes the controversial argument that reinforcement is a real and valuable force in human behavior.
Category: Social Science

Motivating Employees

Author : Sharlyn J. Lauby
ISBN : 1562863975
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 71.77 MB
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Knowing how to motivate employees is critical for an organization's ability to get results. When employees are not motivated properly, their productivity drops and key milestones and deadlines are missed. Motivation determines the direction of an employee's behavior (that is, what the employee chooses to do), the level of effort an employee puts into his or her work, and the level of persistence that an employee has when faced with obstacles. This Infoline will help managers and trainers who train managers to understand and master this important piece of the organizational productivity puzzle.
Category: Business & Economics

Assessment Of Young Developmentally Disabled Children

Author : Theodore D. Wachs
ISBN : 0306427338
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 25.6 MB
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Our knowledge of the cognitive and social-emotional functioning of developmentally disabled infants and preschoolers derives, in large part, from our assessment of such children. This book has been developed to familiarize readers with the characteristics of developmentally disabled children, and to introduce to readers aspects of measurement that are of relevance to the assessment of atypical infants and preschoolers. The book has been developed with clinicians and prospective clinicians in mind. These are individuals who are committed to the care and education of developmentally disabled infants and preschoolers and the families of those children. The book has thus been written to provide support for the use of assessment data in planning early interven tion programs. Of special note in the development of this edited book is that it is divided into four major parts with interrelated chapters in each part. The authors of chapters in Parts II and III had access to the chapters in Part I before writing their chapters. The summary chap ters found in Part IV were similarly written by authors having access to all chapters in Parts I-III. This approach to the development of an edited book was chosen as a way of ensuring an integration of major concepts throughout the book. This process is also a reflection of our belief that assessment is an interdisciplinary process, involving the syn thesis of a number of diverse interests.
Category: Psychology

The Neurobiology Of Motivation And Reward

Author : James Stellar
ISBN : 9781461580324
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 62.10 MB
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This book was conceived many years ago as an abstract goal for a father-son team when the father was working in university administration and the son was just getting into the academic business. Eventually, the father returned to the laboratory, the son began to get his feet on the ground, and the goal became concrete. Now the work is finished, and our book enters the literature as, we hope, a valuable contribution to understanding the terribly complex and subtle problem of the neuro biology of motivated behaviors. We would also like the book to stand as a personal mark of a cooperative relationship between father and son. This special relationship between the authors gave us an extra dimension of pleasure in writing the book, and it would delight us if it gave anyone else an extra dimension of enjoyment from reading it. One thing we hope happens is that anyone or simply considering entering similar considering a similar partnership, of this book as encouragement. Such re fields, will take the existence lationships are highly satisfying if both parties take care to protect the partnership. When we actually sat down to write the book, we were humbled by the immense literature and the smallness of both our conceived space for putting it down and of our brains for processing all the information.
Category: Psychology

The Alignment Problem Machine Learning And Human Values

Author : Brian Christian
ISBN : 9780393635836
Genre : Science
File Size : 36.12 MB
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A jaw-dropping exploration of everything that goes wrong when we build AI systems and the movement to fix them. Today’s “machine-learning” systems, trained by data, are so effective that we’ve invited them to see and hear for us—and to make decisions on our behalf. But alarm bells are ringing. Recent years have seen an eruption of concern as the field of machine learning advances. When the systems we attempt to teach will not, in the end, do what we want or what we expect, ethical and potentially existential risks emerge. Researchers call this the alignment problem. Systems cull résumés until, years later, we discover that they have inherent gender biases. Algorithms decide bail and parole—and appear to assess Black and White defendants differently. We can no longer assume that our mortgage application, or even our medical tests, will be seen by human eyes. And as autonomous vehicles share our streets, we are increasingly putting our lives in their hands. The mathematical and computational models driving these changes range in complexity from something that can fit on a spreadsheet to a complex system that might credibly be called “artificial intelligence.” They are steadily replacing both human judgment and explicitly programmed software. In best-selling author Brian Christian’s riveting account, we meet the alignment problem’s “first-responders,” and learn their ambitious plan to solve it before our hands are completely off the wheel. In a masterful blend of history and on-the ground reporting, Christian traces the explosive growth in the field of machine learning and surveys its current, sprawling frontier. Readers encounter a discipline finding its legs amid exhilarating and sometimes terrifying progress. Whether they—and we—succeed or fail in solving the alignment problem will be a defining human story. The Alignment Problem offers an unflinching reckoning with humanity’s biases and blind spots, our own unstated assumptions and often contradictory goals. A dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, it takes a hard look not only at our technology but at our culture—and finds a story by turns harrowing and hopeful.
Category: Science

Complete Mba

Author : Rittik Chandra
ISBN : 9783730935798
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70.80 MB
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"COMPLETE MBA" is the ULTIMATE GUIDE to provide knowledge of the underlying theoretical background and knowledge of management practice. This book comprises most important subjects such as: 1.BUSINESS ETHICS 2.BUSINESS LAWS 3.BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 4.ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 5.FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT 6.BANKING 7.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT 8.MARKETING MANAGEMENT 9.PROJECT MANAGEMENT 10.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 11.INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 12.RESEARCH METHODS IN MANAGEMENT 13.ENTREPRENEURSHIP The major objectives of this book , i.e. "COMPLETE MBA" are as follows: Foster knowledge of different business, administration and management disciplines. Appreciate the practice of management Develop critical thinking and analytical skills Develop problem solving and decision making skills Understand team dynamics and team work in the workplace Develop skills to write succinct reports and present reports to stakeholders Make students career ready for positions in business and management.
Category: Business & Economics

Cognition In Human Motivation And Learning

Author : G. D'ydewalle
ISBN : 9781134918058
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 89.9 MB
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Published in the year 1982 Cognition in Human Motivation and Learning is a valuable contribution to the field of Cognitive Psychology.
Category: Psychology

Practicum In Adapted Physical Activity

Author : Claudia Emes
ISBN : 0736045619
Genre : Education
File Size : 33.87 MB
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No other workbook will help students learn more, remember more, and take more from their experience than Practicum in Adapted Physical Activity. Whether students' practica are in adapted physical activity, adapted physical education, therapeutic recreation, general special education, or any program that includes people with disabilities, this workbook will help them prepare for their experience and evaluate it through journal writing, self-assessment, and critical reflective thinking. The book will help ground them in an abilities-based approach to adapted physical activity. And, ultimately, it will enhance their success in their budding careers. Practicum in Adapted Physical Activity provides students with these opportunities: - Experience and respond to a variety of settings and challenges when working with people with disabilities - Process and assimilate their practicum experience and hone their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills - Evaluate their performances as teachers and leaders and their approaches to working with people with disabilities - Prepare for job hunting through portfolio-building experiences while sharpening their teaching and leading skills -Create a reflective journal of their personal learning experiences during the practicum This hands-on workbook, through the use of its real-life scenarios, self-evaluation checklists, handy tips, and reflective journaling exercises, leads students toward a greater understanding of the structure and purposes of a variety of experiences in practica. It helps them plan strategies for improved field performance, enhances the relationship with their mentor-teachers and leaders, and provides a variety of ways to reflect on the practicum experience and record insights for future reference. It also offers professional portfolio-building tools, assisting students in job hunting. In doing all this, it prepares students to be effective field professionals. Part I prepares students for their practicum as they learn about service delivery and the tools and strategies to make the practicum successful. It also explores motivational aspects and inclusive teaming. Part II focuses on different types of practicum supervision, various learning styles, and assessment tools. In Part III, students learn how to evaluate their experiences, reviewing their competencies, evaluating their programs, and taking with them lessons learned as they leave their practica. The exercises in each chapter help them explore and retain the salient information from their practica. Practicum in Adapted Physical Activity can be used in conjunction with a variety of textbooks, or it can stand alone alongside a practicum experience. This workbook helps students apply the principles they learn, promotes their development as practitioners, and helps them make the most of their practicum experience--all while they prepare for professional employment.
Category: Education

Neural Circuits Underlying Emotion And Motivation Insights From Optogenetics And Pharmacogenetics

Author : Anton Ilango
ISBN : 9782889195343
Genre : Neural circuitry
File Size : 43.1 MB
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Application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, feeding, arousal and motivated behaviors has provided crucial insights into brain function. Expression of light sensitive proteins into specific neurons and subsequent stimulation by light (optogenetics) to control neuronal activity or expression of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) in specific neuronal populations with subsequent activation or suppression of neuronal activity by an otherwise inert ligand (pharmacogenetics) provides control over defined elements of neural circuits. These novel tools have provided a more in depth understanding into several questions about brain function. These include: • Regulation of sleep-wake transition by the interaction of hypocretin neurons of lateral hypothalamus and nor adrenergic neurons of the locus coruleaus • Regulation of feeding by AGRP and POMC neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus • Place preference and positive reinforcement by activation of DA neuron of VTA • Place aversion by activation of VTA GABA and lateral habenula neurons • Opposing influences on reinforcement by activation of D1 and D2 expressing medium spiny neurons of dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens The list still grows... From cell type specific manipulations to signaling properties in the cell (Dietz et al 2012) with unprecedented temporal resolution, these tools revolutionize the exploration of pathways/connectivity. Recent years also witnessed the extension of applying these tools from studying emotional valence and motivated behavior to reactivation of memory. c-fos based genetic approaches allowed us to integrate light sensitive opsins or DREADD receptor into specific neurons that are activated by certain learning events (for example fear) (Garner et al 2012; Liu et al 2012). In this Research Topic, we welcome researchers to contribute original research articles, review articles, methods and commentary on topics utilizing optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, motivation, reinforcement and memory. We believe the Research Topic will shine light on various questions we have about brain function by using novel optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools and will hopefully inspire ongoing research to overcome the hurdles of using these tools to advance clinical applications.
Category: Neural circuitry

Theory Of Motivation

Author : Robert C. Bolles
ISBN : UOM:39015066088918
Genre : Motivation (Psychology)
File Size : 73.27 MB
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Category: Motivation (Psychology)

Intrinsically Motivated Learning In Natural And Artificial Systems

Author : Gianluca Baldassarre
ISBN : 9783642323751
Genre : Computers
File Size : 28.13 MB
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It has become clear to researchers in robotics and adaptive behaviour that current approaches are yielding systems with limited autonomy and capacity for self-improvement. To learn autonomously and in a cumulative fashion is one of the hallmarks of intelligence, and we know that higher mammals engage in exploratory activities that are not directed to pursue goals of immediate relevance for survival and reproduction but are instead driven by intrinsic motivations such as curiosity, interest in novel stimuli or surprising events, and interest in learning new behaviours. The adaptive value of such intrinsically motivated activities lies in the fact that they allow the cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills that can be used later to accomplish fitness-enhancing goals. Intrinsic motivations continue during adulthood, and in humans they underlie lifelong learning, artistic creativity, and scientific discovery, while they are also the basis for processes that strongly affect human well-being, such as the sense of competence, self-determination, and self-esteem. This book has two aims: to present the state of the art in research on intrinsically motivated learning, and to identify the related scientific and technological open challenges and most promising research directions. The book introduces the concept of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems, reviews the relevant literature, offers insights from the neural and behavioural sciences, and presents novel tools for research. The book is organized into six parts: the chapters in Part I give general overviews on the concept of intrinsic motivations, their function, and possible mechanisms for implementing them; Parts II, III, and IV focus on three classes of intrinsic motivation mechanisms, those based on predictors, on novelty, and on competence; Part V discusses mechanisms that are complementary to intrinsic motivations; and Part VI introduces tools and experimental frameworks for investigating intrinsic motivations. The contributing authors are among the pioneers carrying out fundamental work on this topic, drawn from related disciplines such as artificial intelligence, robotics, artificial life, evolution, machine learning, developmental psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. The book will be of value to graduate students and academic researchers in these domains, and to engineers engaged with the design of autonomous, adaptive robots. The contributing authors are among the pioneers carrying out fundamental work on this topic, drawn from related disciplines such as artificial intelligence, robotics, artificial life, evolution, machine learning, developmental psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. The book will be of value to graduate students and academic researchers in these domains, and to engineers engaged with the design of autonomous, adaptive robots.
Category: Computers

Social Purpose And Schooling

Author : Jerald E. Paquette
ISBN : 185000921X
Genre : Education
File Size : 89.7 MB
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Critically analyzes claims made about alternative arrangements for education, in the light of the major, popularly understood social and political agendas, and of the much less understood and articulated assumptions and issues that underlie those agendas. Paper edition (unseen) $21. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Category: Education

Russian Contributions To Invertebrate Behavior

Author : Yuri Burmistrov
ISBN : 0275945251
Genre : Nature
File Size : 48.69 MB
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This edited collection examines research in invertebrate learning that is being performed by Russian behavioral scientists.
Category: Nature

Advanced Business

Author : David Needham
ISBN : 0435453165
Genre : Business
File Size : 51.95 MB
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Everything you need to cover the compulsory units of the AVCE specification can be found in the student-friendly textbook. The Tutor's Resource File contains all the extra materials, ideas and support to get the very best from your students.
Category: Business

Intrinsic Motivation And Self Determination In Human Behavior

Author : Edward L. Deci
ISBN : 9781489922717
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 66.15 MB
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Early in this century, most empirically oriented psychologists believed that all motivation was based in the physiology of a set of non-nervous system tissue needs. The theories of that era reflected this belief and used it in an attempt to explain an increasing number of phenomena. It was not until the 1950s that it became irrefutably clear that much of human motivation is based not in these drives, but rather in a set of innate psychological needs. Their physiological basis is less understood; and as concepts, these needs lend themselves more easily to psycho logical than to physiological theorizing. The convergence of evidence from a variety of scholarly efforts suggests that there are three such needs: self-determination, competence, and interpersonal relatedness. This book is primarily about self-determination and competence (with particular emphasis on the former), and about the processes and structures that relate to these needs. The need for interpersonal relat edness, while no less important, remains to be explored, and the findings from those explorations will need to be integrated with the present theory to develop a broad, organismic theory of human motivation. Thus far, we have articulated self-determination theory, which is offered as a working theory-a theory in the making. To stimulate the research that will allow it to evolve further, we have stated self-determination theory in the form of minitheories that relate to more circumscribed domains, and we have developed paradigms for testing predictions from the various minitheories.
Category: Psychology

Intrinsic Motivation

Author : Edward L. Deci
ISBN : 9781461344469
Genre : Science
File Size : 79.32 MB
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As I begin to write this Preface, I feel a rush of excitement. I have now finished the book; my gestalt is coming into completion. Throughout the months that I have been writing this, I have, indeed, been intrinsically motivated. Now that it is finished I feel quite competent and self-determining (see Chapter 2). Whether or not those who read the book will perceive me that way is also a concern of mine (an extrinsic one), but it is a wholly separate issue from the intrinsic rewards I have been experiencing. This book presents a theoretical perspective. It reviews an enormous amount of research which establishes unequivocally that intrinsic motivation exists. Also considered herein are various approaches to the conceptualizing of intrinsic motivation. The book concentrates on the approach which has developed out of the work of Robert White (1959), namely, that intrinsically motivated behaviors are ones which a person engages in so that he may feel competent and self-determining in relation to his environment. The book then considers the development of intrinsic motiva tion, how behaviors are motivated intrinsically, how they relate to and how intrinsic motivation is extrinsically motivated behaviors, affected by extrinsic rewards and controls. It also considers how changes in intrinsic motivation relate to changes in attitudes, how people attribute motivation to each other, how the attribution process is motivated, and how the process of perceiving motivation (and other internal states) in oneself relates to perceiving them in others.
Category: Science

Effective Management

Author : Chuck Williams
ISBN : 9781305480728
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79.80 MB
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Discover how award-winning educator and author Chuck Williams does management like no one else with the latest edition of EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT. Whether you prefer to listen, see, read, or act, you will find the learning style or combination of learning approaches that appeal to you in this innovative, streamlined text and media-driven package. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Category: Business & Economics

Texplore Temporal Difference Reinforcement Learning For Robots And Time Constrained Domains

Author : Todd Hester
ISBN : 9783319011684
Genre : Computers
File Size : 71.66 MB
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This book presents and develops new reinforcement learning methods that enable fast and robust learning on robots in real-time. Robots have the potential to solve many problems in society, because of their ability to work in dangerous places doing necessary jobs that no one wants or is able to do. One barrier to their widespread deployment is that they are mainly limited to tasks where it is possible to hand-program behaviors for every situation that may be encountered. For robots to meet their potential, they need methods that enable them to learn and adapt to novel situations that they were not programmed for. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a paradigm for learning sequential decision making processes and could solve the problems of learning and adaptation on robots. This book identifies four key challenges that must be addressed for an RL algorithm to be practical for robotic control tasks. These RL for Robotics Challenges are: 1) it must learn in very few samples; 2) it must learn in domains with continuous state features; 3) it must handle sensor and/or actuator delays; and 4) it should continually select actions in real time. This book focuses on addressing all four of these challenges. In particular, this book is focused on time-constrained domains where the first challenge is critically important. In these domains, the agent’s lifetime is not long enough for it to explore the domains thoroughly, and it must learn in very few samples.
Category: Computers