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Author : D. P. Craig
ISBN : 9780486135632
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.42 MB
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Self-contained, systematic introduction examines application of quantum electrodynamics to interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules and explains the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter.

Author : Akbar Salam
ISBN : 9780470259306
Genre : Science
File Size : 42.27 MB
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The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics and itsapplication to a number of intermolecular interactions Considerable advances have taken place in quantumelectrodynamical theory of intermolecular forces. Virtuallyimpacting all areas of science, molecular quantum electrodynamics(MQED) has been successfully applied to numerous radiation-moleculeand molecule-molecule processes. Molecular QuantumElectrodynamics delves in depth into the MQED theory oflong-range intermolecular forces, offering a variety of physicalviewpoints and calculational techniques. The text provides an introduction and background on: Field theoretic treatments, including the second quantizedMaxwell field formulation Intermolecular potential and a semi-classical perturbationtheory treatment of short- and long-range forces Retarded dispersion interactions including discriminatoryforces Intermolecular interactions in a radiation field Energy shift and transfer rate in relation to specific two- andmany-body forces Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics provides an essentialresource for chemists, physicists, biophysicists, materialsscientists, and nanochemists interested in exploring the theory andapplication of MQED.

Author : Philip Allcock
ISBN : 3527403175
Genre : Science
File Size : 21.30 MB
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In recent years the generation of optical harmonics in molecular systems has become an area of increasing interest for a number of reasons. First, many organic crystals and polymeric solids prove not only to have usefully large optical nonlinearities but also to be surprisingly robust and thermally stable. Consequently the fabrication of organic materials for laser frequency conversion has become very much a growth area. At interfaces and in partially ordered systems, harmonic generation is now of considerable scientific interest through the detailed structural information it affords. And in molecular gases and liquids, processes of optical harmonic conversion present a powerful tool for the study of both static and dynamic effects of molecular orientation. Where the detailed nonlinear optical response of molecules is required, the application of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) brings both rigour and conceptual facility. Using this approach the authors address topics of direct experimental concern in a general formulation of theory for optical harmonics, with a particular focus on quantum optical and molecular aspects. A detailed basis is provided for the applications, enabling the characteristic features of optical nonlinearity to be examined in general terms. A great many of the optical phenomena subsequently addressed find wide application in nonlinear optics and chemical physics. Specifically, the book deals with coherent harmonic generation, both within and at interfaces between different media. It addresses elastic second harmonic (Hyper-Rayleigh) light scattering as well as the inelastic case normally referred to as Hyper-Raman scattering. Full and detailed tables and results are provided for the analysis of experimental observations.

Author : Ioan Merches
ISBN : 9781466580374
Genre : Science
File Size : 49.66 MB
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Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the branch of relativistic quantum field theory that deals specifically with the interactions between charged particles. It is widely used to solve problems in many areas of physics, such as elementary particles, atomic and molecular systems, and solid state physics. This accessible text, Basics of Quantum Electrodynamics, supplies a solid foundation in this dynamic area of physics, making a direct connection to the concepts of quantum mechanics familiar to the advanced undergraduate student. Chapters cover the general theory of free fields and the quantization of the scalar, electromagnetic, and spinorial fields, which prepares readers for understanding field interactions. The authors describe the general theory of field interactions, introducing the scattering matrix and the Feynman–Dyson graphs. They then discuss divergence-free second-order processes, such as Compton and Møller scattering, followed by divergent second-order processes, which cover vacuum polarization and mass and charge renormalization. Providing a modern, informative textbook, this volume illustrates the intimate connection between quantum mechanics and QED in two basic steps: the quantization of free fields, followed by the theory of their interactions. The text contains solved problems to facilitate the application of the theory, as well as a useful appendix on the theory of distributions. The step-by-step description of the quantization of various fields and the clear presentation of the most important interaction processes in QED make this textbook a useful guide for those studying physics at both the graduate and undergraduate level, as well as a reference for teachers and researchers in the field.

Author : Markus Reiher
ISBN : 9783527312924
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.43 MB
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Written by two researchers in the field, this book is a reference to explain the principles and fundamentals in a self–contained, complete and consistent way. Much attention is paid to the didactical value, with the chapters interconnected and based on each other. From the contents: ∗ Fundamentals ∗ Relativistic Theory of a Free Electron: Dirac´s Equation ∗ Dirac Theory of a Single Electron in a Central Potential ∗ Many–Electron Theory I: Quantum Electrodynamics ∗ Many–Electron Theory II: Dirac–Hartree–Fock Theory ∗ Elimination of the Small Component ∗ Unitary Transformation Schemes ∗ Relativistic Density Functional Theory ∗ Physical Observables and Molecular Properties ∗ Interpretive Approach to Relativistic Quantum Chemistry From beginning to end, the authors deduce all the concepts and rules, such that readers are able to understand the fundamentals and principles behind the theory. Essential reading for theoretical chemists and physicists.

This book collects research and review articles covering some recent trends in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, specifically the interaction of atoms or molecules within the quantum electromagnetic radiation field and the related physical effects. Specific topics covered are: two- and three-body dispersion interactions between atoms and molecules, both in the nonretarded van der Waals and the retarded Casimir–Polder regime; vacuum field fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and their effect in atomic systems; dispersion interactions between uniformly accelerating atoms and relation with the Fulling–Davies–Unruh effect; dynamics of atomic systems under strong electromagnetic fields; symmetries in quantum electrodynamics; and open quantum systems.

Author : Stephen Wilson
ISBN : UOM:39015051570755
Genre : Science
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Published in three volumes, this comprehensive reference work brings together in a single source for the first time, a detailed presentation of the most important theoretical concepts and methods for the study of molecules and molecular systems. The logical format of the Handbook allows the reader to progress from the foundations of the field to the most important and exciting areas of current research. Edited and written by an outstanding international team, and containing over 100 articles written by more than 50 contributors, it will be invaluable for both the expert researcher and the graduate student or postdoctoral worker active in any of the broad range of fields where these concepts and methods are important. Comprises three themed volumes: * Fundamentals * Molecular Electronic Structure * Molecules in the Physico-Chemical Environment: Spectroscopy, Dynamics and Bulk Properties * Presents detailed articles covering the key topics, presented in a didactic manner * Focuses both on theory and the relation of experiment to theory Volume 1, Fundamentals presents the foundations of molecular physics and quantum chemistry. It consists of 7 parts arranged as follows:- Part 1 Introduction Part 2 Elements of Quantum Mechanics Part 3 Orbital Models for Atomic, Molecular and Crystal Structure Part 4 Symmetry Groups and Molecular Structure Part 5 Second Quantization and Many-Body Methods Part 6 Approximate Separation of Electronic and Nuclear Motion Part 7 Quantum Electrodynamics of Atoms and Molecules The central problem of molecular physics and quantum chemistry is the description of atomic and molecular electronic structure. The development of appropriate models for the description of the effects of electron correlation and of relativity are key components of the analysis. Volume 2, Molecular Electronic Structure, addresses these topics, and consists of 7 parts arranged as follows: Part 1 Approximation methods Part 2 Orbital Models and Generalized Product Functions Part 3 Electron correlation Part 4 Relativistic molecular electronic structure Part 5 Electronic structure of large molecules Part 6 Computational quantum chemistry Part 7 Visualization and interpretation of molecular electronic structure In reality no molecular system exists in isolation. Molecules interact with other atoms and molecules, and with their environment. Volume 3, Molecules in the Physico-Chemical Environment - Spectroscopy, Dynamics and Bulk Properties, consists of 7 parts arranged as follows:- Part 1 Response theory and propagator methods Part 2 Interactions between molecules Part 3 Molecules in different environments Part 4 Molecular Electronic spectra Part 5 Atomic Spectroscopy and Molecular Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy Part 6 Molecular dynamics and dynamical processes Part 7 Bulk properties

Author : R. Moss
ISBN : 9789400956889
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 20.95 MB
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This book is primarily intended for graduate chemists and chemical physicists. Indeed, it is based on a graduate course that I give in the Chemistry Depart ment of Southampton University. Nowadays undergraduate chemistry courses usually include an introduction to quantum mechanics with particular reference to molecular properties and there are a number of excellent textbooks aimed specifically at undergraduate chemists. In valence theory and molecular spectroscopy physical concepts are often encountered that are normally taken on trust. For example, electron spin and the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron are usually accepted as postulates, although they are well understood by physicists. In addition, the advent of new techniques has led to experimental situations that can only be accounted for adequately by relatively sophisticated physical theory. Relativis tic corrections to molecular orbital energies are needed to explain X-ray photo electron spectra, while the use oflasers can give rise to multiphoton transitions, which are not easy to understand using the classical theory of radiation. Of course, the relevant equations may be extracted from the literature, but, if the underlying physics is not understood, this is a practice that is at best dissatisfy ing and at worst dangerous. One instance where great care must be taken is in the use of spectroscopically determined parameters to test the accuracy of elec tronic wave functions.

Author : Peter W. Atkins
ISBN : 9780199541423
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.68 MB
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This text unravels those fundamental physical principles which explain how all matter behaves. It takes us from the foundations of quantum mechanics, through quantum models of atomic, molecular, and electronic structure, and on to discussions of spectroscopy, and the electronic and magnetic properties of molecules.

Author : Walter Greiner
ISBN : 9783642822728
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.58 MB
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The fundamental goal of physics is an understanding of the forces of nature in their simplest and most general terms. Yet there is much more involved than just a basic set of equations which eventually has to be solved when applied to specific problems. We have learned in recent years that the structure of the ground state of field theories (with which we are generally concerned) plays an equally funda mental role as the equations of motion themselves. Heisenberg was probably the first to recognize that the ground state, the vacuum, could acquire certain prop erties (quantum numbers) when he devised a theory of ferromagnetism. Since then, many more such examples are known in solid state physics, e. g. supercon ductivity, superfluidity, in fact all problems concerned with phase transitions of many-body systems, which are often summarized under the name synergetics. Inspired by the experimental observation that also fundamental symmetries, such as parity or chiral symmetry, may be violated in nature, it has become wide ly accepted that the same field theory may be based on different vacua. Practical ly all these different field phases have the status of more or less hypothetical models, not (yet) directly accessible to experiments. There is one magnificent ex ception and this is the change of the ground state (vacuum) of the electron-posi tron field in superstrong electric fields.

Author : Paul R. Berman
ISBN : 0120922452
Genre : Science
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Quantum electrodynamics (QED), a theory about radiation fields, is the most accurate and widely applicable physical theory currently known. Cavity QED examines what happens to those radiation fields when they are confined to a cavity (a cavity can be thought of as an atomic pot-hole). Confined radiation fields interact quite differently with atoms than unconfined fields. This difference gives cavity QED the potential for some important applications that ordinary QED does not have, such as applications to laser technology, and to the high precision measurement of time and frequency.

Author : Greiner W. Hold
ISBN : 9781489921390
Genre : Technology & Engineering
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The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields was held at Lahnstein on the Rhine from 15-26 June, 1981. The school was devoted to the advances, theoretical and exper imental, in the physics of strong fields made during the past decade. The topic of the first week was almost exclusively quantum electrodynamics, with discussions of symmetry breaking in the ground state, of the physics of heavy ion collisions and of precision tests of perturbative quantum electrodynamics. This was followed in the second week by the presentation of a broad range of other areas where strong fields occur, reaching from nuclear physics over quantum chromodynamics to gravitation theory and astrophysics. We were fortunate to be able to call on a body of lecturers who not only have made considerable personal contributions to these advances but who are also noted for their lecturing skills. Their dedication for their subject was readily transmitted to the stu dents resulting in a very successful school. This enthusiasm is also reflected in their contributions to these Proceedings which, as I believe, will in time become a standard source of reference for future work on the physics of strong fields and will help to spread the benefits of the school to a larger audience than those who were able to attend. I regret that the Soviet colleagues Ya. B. Zeldovich and V. S. Popov were unable to participate.

Author : David L. Andrews
ISBN : 9781119009702
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 59.46 MB
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Covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonics. This volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Polarization States; Quantum Electrodynamics; Quantum Information and Computing; Quantum Optics; Resonance Energy Transfer; Surface Optics; Ultrafast Pulse Phenomena. Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics Chapters are written by top scientists in their field Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.

Author : Akbar Salam
ISBN : 9783319456065
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.72 MB
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This book provides details of the calculation of the interaction between two neutral polarizable atoms or molecules using molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED). To better understand the origin of this force, it briefly outlines molecular QED theory, the well-known van der Waals dispersion potential first evaluated by Casimir and Polder, who accounted for retardation effects. It presents different calculation schemes for the evaluation of the dispersion potential and also discusses energy shifts involving electric quadrupole and octupole moments, along with discriminatory dispersion potentials. Further, it explores in detail non-additive dispersion interaction energies between three-bodies, as well as the effects of higher multipole moment correction terms, and provides results for specific geometries such as collinear and equilateral triangles. Lastly, it computes near and far-zone asymptotic limits for both pair and many-body potentials, with the former shown to agree with less rigorous semi-classical calculations.

Author : G. Maroulis
ISBN : 9781607507420
Genre : Science
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The papers collected in this volume in honor of the late Stanisław Kielich cover an impressive range of modern subjects in molecular science. These subjects include, among others, the nonlinear optics of molecules, new approaches to the electronic structure of large molecules, the properties of carbon nanotubes, fluorescence polarization spectroscopy, computational studies of systems of fundamental interest to collision-induced spectroscopy, the simulation of fluids, NLO materials, chemical bonding in complex molecules, the NLO properties of functionalized DNA and the magnetic properties of molecular assemblies. Written by eminent specialists, the papers should offer valuable guidance to a wide community of graduate students and researchers.

Author : Ian P Grant
ISBN : 9780387350691
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.24 MB
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This book is intended for physicists and chemists who need to understand the theory of atomic and molecular structure and processes, and who wish to apply the theory to practical problems. As far as practicable, the book provides a self-contained account of the theory of relativistic atomic and molecular structure, based on the accepted formalism of bound-state Quantum Electrodynamics. The author was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1992.

Author : Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
ISBN : 0471184330
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.3 MB
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Photons and Atoms Photons and Atoms: Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics provides the necessary background to understand the various physical processes associated with photon-atom interactions. It starts with elementary quantum theory and classical electrodynamics and progresses to more advanced approaches. A critical comparison is made between these different, although equivalent, formulations of quantum electrodynamics. Using this format, the reader is offered a gradual, yet flexible introduction to quantum electrodynamics, avoiding formal discussions and excessive shortcuts. Complementing each chapter are numerous examples and exercises that can be used independently from the rest of the book to extend each chapter in many disciplines depending on the interests and needs of the reader.

In this book, an attempt to augment the physical representations about some phenomena of the quantum electrodynamics in relation to medical physics is made. First of all, the physical theory of an electromagnetic radiation quantum is developed. The Schrodingers equation for a quantum is found and solved. The quantum length, how it is radiated, what the role of a vacuum in these processes, etc. are shown. The explanation of the quark confinement reason (impossibility to leave a hadron by a quark) is given. With the help of the Feynmans diagram method, some physical processes playing an important role in medical physics are analysed in detail: annihilation of the electrons and positrons in photons, breaking of the electrons in an electric field of a nucleus, changing of the quantum polarisation direction at the interaction site with molecules, etc. The use of Feynmans diagram method makes the loss of some physical phenomena accompanying a researched physical process possible, in particular the Doppler effect. On the basis of the quantum electrodynamics, the modern methods of diagnostics are investigated: a positron-emission tomography and a magneto-resonant tomography. Their developmental processes are also discussed. This book will be useful to students and scientists whose interests lay in the fields of quantum electrodynamics and medical physics.