Models Of Working Memory

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Models Of Working Memory

Author : Akira Miyake
ISBN : 0521587212
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 69.3 MB
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This volume offers a much-needed forum for comparing and contrasting existing models of working memory.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory

Author : Alan D. Baddeley
ISBN : 9780198521334
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22.81 MB
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This ground-breaking text, now in a paperback edition, describes a new model for temporary memory--the brief, nonpermanent storage of information necessary for learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Dr. Baddeley outlines the concept of working memory, which entails a central executive controller and a number of "slave" systems. Two of these systems are justified in terms of experimental results from both normal and brain damaged subjects. The concept of working memory is applied to the development of children's reading skills, and the cognitive deficits observed in patients suffering from frontal lobe damage are considered. Cognitive psychologists and advanced students in the field will welcome the paperback version of this acclaimed work.
Category: Social Science

Working Memory In Perspective

Author : Jackie Andrade
ISBN : 9781134616466
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 57.53 MB
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The Baddeley and Hitch (1974) Working Memory model holds a central place in experimental psychology and continues to be extremely successful in guiding and stimulating research in applied and theoretical domains. Yet the model now faces challenges from conflicting data and competing theories. In this book, experienced researchers in the field address the question: Will the model survive these challenges? They explain why it is so successful, evaluate its weaknesses with respect to opposing data and theories and present their vision of the future of the model in their particular area of research. The book includes a discussion of the "Episodic Buffer" component which has recently been added to the working memory model. The result is a comprehensive and critical assessment of the working memory model and its contribution to current research in human cognition, cognitive development, neuroscience and computational modelling. Furthermore, this collection serves as a case study to illustrate the range of factors that determine the success or failure of a theory and as a forum for discussing what researchers want from scientific theories. The book begins with an accessible introduction to the model for those new to the field and explains the empirical methods used in working memory research. It concludes by highlighting areas of consensus and suggesting a programme of research to address issues of continuing controversy. Working Memory in Perspective will be a valuable resource to students and researchers alike in the fields of human memory, language, thought and cognitive development.
Category: Psychology

A Critical Evaluation Of Baddeley And Hitch S Working Memory Models

Author : Max Korbmacher
ISBN : 9783668988163
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 69.58 MB
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Essay from the year 2019 in the subject Psychology - Cognition, grade: A, University of Abertay Dundee (School of Health and Social Sciences), course: Advanced Social and Cognitive Psychology, language: English, abstract: Early memory-models explained memory as a rather linear process of receiving sensory information, passing it on to short-term memory and later to long-term memory. To widen explanations of memory, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed their working memory model (WMM) offering an interacting link between sensory storages and long-term memory. Working memory (WM) can be defined as control-system with limited processing and storing-capacity, and WMM consists of phonological-loop (PL), visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS), central-executive (CE), and episodic-buffer (EB). In the following, these WMM-subsystems will be shortly described to then present and discuss evidence for each subsystem. Finally, the overall model will be evaluated, and practical applications presented.
Category: Psychology

Short Term And Working Memory

Author : Susan E. Gathercole
ISBN : 1841699187
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 35.48 MB
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This special issue ponders a detailed and contemporary analysis of the theoretical underpinnings of short-term and working memory. Articles focus on short-term memory for phonological, semantic, and spatial material, on executive function and on short-term forgetting. The empirical perspectives include the neuroimaging of short-term memory, short-term memory development and the neuropsychology and neurobiology of memory, in addition to laboratory-based experimental studies. Together, these articles identify significant current models and approaches to short-term and working memory, providing a broad set of perspectives which illustrate the wide impact of working memory on the understanding of human cognition.
Category: Psychology

Exploring Working Memory

Author : Alan Baddeley
ISBN : 9781351618526
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 26.50 MB
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In the World Library of Psychologists series, international experts present themselves career-long collections of what they judge to be their finest pieces - extracts from books, key articles, salient research findings, and their major theoretical and practical contributions. Alan Baddeley has an international reputation as an eminent scholar and pioneer in the field of human memory, and is principally known for the theory of working memory, devised with Graham Hitch. This model continues to be valuable today in recognising the functions of short-term memory. This volume includes a specially written introduction by Alan Baddeley which gives an overview of the start of his career and his entry into the field of Psychology. Throughout the book he also provides introductions to the selection of works included and contextualises them in relation to changes in the field during this time. Exploring Working Memory includes the author’s most influential publications on topics including short-term memory, the distinctions between short and long-term memory, the theory of working memory, the phonological loop, the concept of the central executive, and the episodic buffer. This exceptional selection concludes with an article giving a broad overview of the author’s current views on working memory and its relation to other theories in the field. Through his outstanding work Alan Baddeley has become known as a world-leading expert on human memory. Exploring Working Memory is a unique collection which will be of great interest to both students and researchers interested in human memory from psychology backgrounds.
Category: Psychology

Models Of Short Term Memory

Author : Susan E. Gathercole
ISBN : 9781134834822
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 57.78 MB
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This volume offers a collection of theoretical perspectives in the area of short-term memory. It contains overviews of models of short-term memory, with particular emphasis placed on the detailed description of the functioning of the models. The volume represents both computational approaches and theories expressed in more traditional verbal form. Models represented in the volume also cover both developmental and neuropsychological perspectives on short-term memory.; This book should appeal to active researchers in the area of memory, to graduate students, and to academics who wish to update their knowledge of this fast- developing are of research and theory. Final year undergraduates may also find this book of interest.
Category: Psychology

The Cognitive Neuroscience Of Working Memory

Author : Naoyuki Osaka
ISBN : 0198570392
Genre : Medical
File Size : 45.2 MB
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Working memory has been one of the most intensively studied systems in cognitive psychology. It is only relatively recently however that researchers have been able to study the neural processes might underlye working memory, leading to a proliferation of research in this domain. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory brings together world class researchers from around the world to summarize our current knowledge of this field, and directions for future research. An historical opening chapter by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch sets the context for the subsequent chapters. The scope of the book is exceptionally broad, providing a showcase for leading edge research on all contemporary concepts of working memory, using techniques from experimental psychology, from single cell recording, from neuropsychology, from cognitive neuroimaging and from computational modelling. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Working Memory will be an important reference text for all those seeking an authoritative and comprehensive synthesis of this field.
Category: Medical

Models Of Understanding Text

Author : Bruce K. Britton
ISBN : 9781317779650
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 33.81 MB
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What is text understanding? It is the dynamic process of constructing coherent representations and inferences at multiple levels of text and context, within the bottleneck of a limited-capacity working memory. The field of text and discourse has advanced to the point where researchers have developed sophisticated models of comprehension, and identified the particular assumptions that underlie comprehension mechanisms in precise analytical or mathematical detail. The models offer a priori predictions about thought and behavior, not merely ad hoc descriptions of data. Indeed, the field has evolved to a mature science. The contributors to this volume collectively cover the major models of comprehension in the field of text and discourse. Other books are either narrow -- covering only a single theoretical framework -- or do not focus on systematic modeling efforts. In addition, this book focuses on deep levels of understanding rather than language codes, syntax, and other shallower levels of text analysis. As such, it provides readers with up-to-date information on current psychological models specified in quantitative or analytical detail.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory And Academic Learning

Author : Milton J. Dehn
ISBN : 1118045165
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 56.63 MB
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Equipping school and child psychologists, and neuropsychologists with critical information on the role of working memory in learning and achievement, Working Memory and Academic Learning offers guidance on assessment tools, interventions, and current evidence-based best practices. Its specific, step-by-step guidance and hands-on case studies enables you to identify how working memory relates to academic attainment and how to apply this knowledge in professional practice.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory And Language

Author : Susan E. Gathercole
ISBN : 9781317775270
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 30.38 MB
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This book evaluates the involvement of working memory in five central aspects of language processing: vocabulary acquisition, speech production, reading development, skilled reading, and comprehension. The authors draw upon experimental, neuropsychological and developmental evidence in a wide-ranging evaluation of the contribution of two components of working memory to each aspect of language. The two components are the phonological loop, which is specialised for the processing and maintenance of verbal material, and the general-purpose processing system of the central executive. A full introduction to the application of the working memory model to normal adults, neuropsychological patients and children is provided in the two opening chapters. Non-experts within this area will find these chapters particularly useful in providing a clear statement of the current theoretical and empirical status of the working memory model. Each of the following chapters examines the involvement of working memory in one specialised aspect of language processing, in each case integrating the available experimental, neuropsychological and developmental evidence. The book will therefore be of direct relevance to researchers interested in both language processing and memory. Working Memory and Language is unique in that it draws together findings from normal adults, brain-damaged patients, and children. For each of these populations, working memory involvement in language processing ranging from the speech production to comprehension are evaluated. Working Memory and Language provides a comprehensive analysis of just what roles working memory does play in the processing of language.
Category: Psychology

Variation In Working Memory

Author : Christopher Jarrold
ISBN : 9780190290689
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 88.81 MB
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Variation in Working Memory explores individual variation in working memory. It includes a collection of chapters by American and British experts in the field, with an overview of key sections in normal adult variation, life span development, and pathology. This is the first collection with a focus on variation in working memory, and is a significant read for anyone interested in the most up-to-date research on brain processes and human cognition.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory

Author : Pierre Barrouillet
ISBN : 9781317628422
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 49.62 MB
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Working memory is the cognitive system in charge of the temporary maintenance of information in view of its on-going processing. Lying at the centre of cognition, it has become a key concept in psychological science. The book presents a critical review and synthesis of the working memory literature, and also presents an innovative new theory - the Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model. Tracing back the evolution of the concept of working memory, from its introduction by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974 and the development of their modal model, Barrouillet and Camos explain how an alternative conception could have been developed from the very beginning, and why it is needed today. This alternative model takes into account the temporal dynamics of mental functioning. The book describes a new architecture for working memory, and provides a description of its functioning, its development, the sources of individual differences, and hints about neural substrates. The authors address central and debated questions about working memory, and also more general issues about cognitive architecture and functioning. Working Memory: Loss and Reconstruction will be essential reading for advanced students and researchers of the psychology of memory.
Category: Psychology

Effects Of Nicotine On A Translational Model Of Working Memory

Author : David Alderson Macqueen
ISBN : OCLC:927113233
Genre : Cognitive psychology
File Size : 85.93 MB
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Cognitive research with human non-smokers has demonstrated that nicotine generally enhances performance on tasks of attention but, working memory does not appear to be affected. In contrast, nicotine has been shown to produce robust enhancements of working memory in non-human animals. To address this disparity, the present study investigated the effects of nicotine (2mg, 4mg nicotine gum, and placebo) on the performance of 30 non-smokers (15 male) completing a working memory task developed for rodents (the odor span task, OST). Nicotine has been reported to enhance OST performance in rodents and the present study sought to determine whether the effect is generalizable to human performance. In addition to completing the OST, participants completed a cognitive battery of clinical and experimental tasks assessing working memory and attention. This allowed for a direct comparison of OST performance to other commonly used measures of human cognition. Findings showed that nicotine was associated with dose dependent enhancements in sustained attention, as evidenced by increased hit accuracy on the rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task. However, nicotine failed to produce main effects on OST performance or on alternative measures of working memory (digit span, spatial span, letter-number sequencing, 2-back) or attention (digits forward, 0-back). Interestingly, enhancement of RVIP performance occurred concomitant to significant reductions in self-reported attention/concentration. Human OST performance was significantly related to N-back performance and, as in rodents, OST accuracy declined with increasing memory load. Given the similarity of human and rodent OST performance and the strong association observed between OST and visual 0-back accuracy, the OST may be particular useful for preclinical studies of conditions characterized by inattention.
Category: Cognitive psychology

Working Memory And Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Author : Tracy Packiam Alloway
ISBN : 9781135421359
Genre : HEALTH & FITNESS
File Size : 41.24 MB
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Short-term or working memory - the capacity to hold and manipulate information mentally over brief periods of time - plays an important role in supporting a wide range of everyday activities, particularly in childhood. Children with weak working memory skills often struggle in key areas of learning and, given its impact on cognitive abilities, the identification of working memory impairments is a priority for those who work with children with learning disabilities. Working Memory and Neurodevelopmental Disorders supports clinical assessment and management of working memory deficits by summarising the current theoretical understanding and methods of assessment of working memory. It outlines the working memory profiles of individuals with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders (including Down's syndrome, Williams syndrome, Specific Language Impairment, and ADHD), and identifies useful means of alleviating the anticipated learning difficulties of children with deficits of working memory. This comprehensive and informative text will appeal to academics and researchers in cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and developmental psychology, and will be useful reading for students in these areas. Educational psychologists will also find this a useful text, as it covers the role of working memory in learning difficulties specific to the classroom.
Category: HEALTH & FITNESS

On Human Memory

Author : Chizuko Izawa
ISBN : 9781135678746
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 56.32 MB
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The model of human memory proposed in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin has the distinction of having revolutionized information-processing theory. It catapulated a whole generation of cognitive psychologists into sustained research programs that continue to be productive year after year. The book's notable authors analyze and deliberate on the model's monumental scientific contributions to human learning and memory. They also challenge it and delve into its likely future evolution and impact on learning and memory. The volume was published in celebration of the 30th anniversary of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model and sets forth a provocative future for memory workers and learning theorists.
Category: Psychology

The Development Of Working Memory In Children

Author : Lucy Henry
ISBN : 9781446254196
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 84.60 MB
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Electronic Inspection Copy available for instructors here Using the highly influential working memory framework as a guide, this textbook provides a clear comparison of the memory development of typically developing children with that of atypical children. The emphasis on explaining methodology throughout the book gives students a real understanding about the way experiments are carried out and how to critically evaluate experimental research. The first half of the book describes the working memory model and goes on to consider working memory development in typically developing children. The second half of the book considers working memory development in several different types of atypical populations who have intellectual disabilities and/or developmental disorders. In addition, the book considers how having a developmental disorder and/or intellectual disabilities may have separate or combined effects on the development of working memory. The Development of Working Memory in Children is for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking courses in development/child psychology, cognitive development and developmental disorders.
Category: Psychology

Working Memory And Human Cognition

Author : John T. E. Richardson
ISBN : 0195356489
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 84.45 MB
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This new volume in the Counterpoints series compares and contrasts different conceptions of working memory, generally recognized as the human cognitive system responsible for temporary storage of information. The book includes proponents of several different views. Robert Logie discusses the theoretical and empirical utility of separating working memory into an articulatory loop, a phonological store, and a visuo-spatial sketchpad into visual and spatial subsystems. Patricia Carpenter provides evidence for a process view of working memory, arguing that both task-specific processing and general processing capabilities can account for the full range of working memory phenomena. She focuses on findings from reading comprehension and memory tasks suggesting that working memory is used to represent the set of skills and strategies necessary for complex tasks, while retaining residual capacity for use as a storage buffer. Lynn Hasher argues in favor of the new inhibitory model, with evidence drawn from the literature on aging and pathology that demonstrates parallels between memory disorders and normal memory functioning. Randall Engle addresses the issue of whether working memory resources are required for retrieval of information or whether that task is relatively automatic. Engle's empirical studies, in turn, bear directly on the positions of Carpenter, Hasher, and Logie. As interest in working memory is increasing at a rapid pace, an open discussion of the central issues involved is both useful and timely. This work serves this purpose for a wide audience of cognitive psychologists and their students.
Category: Psychology

An Introduction To Applied Cognitive Psychology

Author : Professor of Philosophy Mark Schroeder
ISBN : 9781135149116
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 49.93 MB
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An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology offers a student friendly review of recent research in the application of cognitive methods, theories and models to real-world scenarios. The authors approach cognitive psychology by looking at how people use basic cognitive skills in everyday environments. In this way, they explore how people use their knowledge to influence their behaviour in life, and throw light on the inter-relationships between each part of the cognitive system. The central areas of visual perception, attention, memory, language, thinking, decision making and human performance are covered, as in conventional cognitive textbooks, but they are addressed in terms of practical applications to skill training, expertise and skilled behaviour. Whereas experimental psychology often remains in the laboratory, this books will show undergraduates how the implications and methodological insights of theoretical work can be brought into the real world and vice versa.
Category: Psychology

Human Memory

Author : Alan D. Baddeley
ISBN : 0863774318
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 20.19 MB
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The models of how human memory works and developments in our understanding of the subject are explained and examined in this textbook for students and professionals. The author has tried to keep the style accessible for the general reader too
Category: Psychology