Microanalysis Of Solids

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Microanalysis Of Solids

Author : B.G. Yacobi
ISBN : 9781489914927
Genre : Science
File Size : 74.43 MB
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The main objective of this book is to systematically describe the basic principles of the most widely used techniques for the analysis of physical, structural, and compositional properties of solids with a spatial resolution of approxi mately 1 ~m or less. Many books and reviews on a wide variety of microanalysis techniques have appeared in recent years, and the purpose of this book is not to replace them. Rather, the motivation for combining the descriptions of various mi croanalysis techniques in one comprehensive volume is the need for a reference source to help identify microanalysis techniques, and their capabilities, for obtaining particular information on solid-state materials. In principle, there are several possible ways to group the various micro analysis techniques. They can be distinguished by the means of excitation, or the emitted species, or whether they are surface or bulk-sensitive techniques, or on the basis of the information obtained. We have chosen to group them according to the means of excitation. Thus, the major parts of the book are: Electron Beam Techniques, Ion Beam Techniques, Photon Beam Techniques, Acoustic Wave Excitation, and Tunneling of Electrons and Scanning Probe Microscopies. We hope that this book will be useful to students (final year undergrad uates and graduates) and researchers, such as physicists, material scientists, electrical engineers, and chemists, working in a wide variety of fields in solid state sciences.
Category: Science

Scanning Electron Microscopy And X Ray Microanalysis

Author : Joseph I. Goldstein
ISBN : 9781493966769
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 70.3 MB
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This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners — engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers — will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope’s software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules – no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes an online supplement—an extensive "Database of Electron–Solid Interactions"—which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3
Category: Technology & Engineering

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Author : Andrzej W. Miziolek
ISBN : 9781139458313
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 20.17 MB
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Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technique for determining elemental composition. With the ability to analyse solids, liquids and gases with little or no sample preparation, it is more versatile than conventional methods and is ideal for on-site analysis. This is a comprehensive reference explaining the fundamentals of the LIBS phenomenon, its history and its fascinating applications across eighteen chapters written by recognized leaders in the field. Over 300 illustrations aid understanding. This book will be of significant interest to researchers in chemical and materials analysis within academia and industry.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Monte Carlo Modeling For Electron Microscopy And Microanalysis

Author : David C. Joy
ISBN : 0195358465
Genre : Computers
File Size : 63.98 MB
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This book describes for the first time how Monte Carlo modeling methods can be applied to electron microscopy and microanalysis. Computer programs for two basic types of Monte Carlo simulation are developed from physical models of the electron scattering process--a single scattering program capable of high accuracy but requiring long computation times, and a plural scattering program which is less accurate but much more rapid. Optimized for use on personal computers, the programs provide a real time graphical display of the interaction. The programs are then used as the starting point for the development of programs aimed at studying particular effects in the electron microscope, including backscattering, secondary electron production, EBIC and cathodo-luminescence imaging, and X-ray microanalysis. The computer code is given in a fully annotated format so that it may be readily modified for specific problems. Throughout, the author includes numerous examples of how such applications can be used. Students and professionals using electron microscopes will want to read this important addition to the literature.
Category: Computers

Scanning Electron Microscopy And X Ray Microanalysis

Author : Joseph Goldstein
ISBN : 9781461502159
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 51.49 MB
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This text provides students as well as practitioners with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers and the use of x-rays for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Separate chapters cover SEM sample preparation methods for hard materials, polymers, and biological specimens. In addition techniques for the elimination of charging in non-conducting specimens are detailed.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Scanning Electron Microscopy X Ray Microanalysis And Analytical Electron Microscopy

Author : Charles E. Lyman
ISBN : 9781461306351
Genre : Science
File Size : 68.5 MB
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During the last four decades remarkable developments have taken place in instrumentation and techniques for characterizing the microstructure and microcomposition of materials. Some of the most important of these instruments involve the use of electron beams because of the wealth of information that can be obtained from the interaction of electron beams with matter. The principal instruments include the scanning electron microscope, electron probe x-ray microanalyzer, and the analytical transmission electron microscope. The training of students to use these instruments and to apply the new techniques that are possible with them is an important function, which. has been carried out by formal classes in universities and colleges and by special summer courses such as the ones offered for the past 19 years at Lehigh University. Laboratory work, which should be an integral part of such courses, is often hindered by the lack of a suitable laboratory workbook. While laboratory workbooks for transmission electron microscopy have-been in existence for many years, the broad range of topics that must be dealt with in scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis has made it difficult for instructors to devise meaningful experiments. The present workbook provides a series of fundamental experiments to aid in "hands-on" learning of the use of the instrumentation and the techniques. It is written by a group of eminently qualified scientists and educators. The importance of hands-on learning cannot be overemphasized.
Category: Science

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Author : Ludwig Reimer
ISBN : 9783662135624
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.12 MB
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The aim of this book is to outline the physics of image formation, electron specimen interactions, imaging modes, the interpretation of micrographs and the use of quantitative modes "in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). lt forms a counterpart to Transmission Electron Microscopy (Vol. 36 of this Springer Series in Optical Sciences) . The book evolved from lectures delivered at the University of Münster and from a German text entitled Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie (Springer-Verlag), published in collaboration with my colleague Gerhard Pfefferkorn. In the introductory chapter, the principles of the SEM and of electron specimen interactions are described, the most important imaging modes and their associated contrast are summarized, and general aspects of eiemental analysis by x-ray and Auger electron emission are discussed. The electron gun and electron optics are discussed in Chap. 2 in order to show how an electron probe of small diameter can be formed, how the elec tron beam can be blanked at high frequencies for time-resolving exper iments and what problems have tobe taken into account when focusing.
Category: Science

Laser Microanalysis

Author : Lieselotte Moenke-Blankenburg
ISBN : UCAL:B4456368
Genre : Science
File Size : 65.78 MB
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Examines the state-of-the-art in laser microanalysis. First three chapters deal with analytical applications when a laser is a radiation source, effects of laser-target interactions, studies of microplasma generation, and laser microanalysis of solids. Second part of the book focuses on special techniques, methodical treatments, and the applications of laser microanalysis to chemistry, mineralogy, metallurgy, biology, medicine, archeology, environmental research, and forensic science.
Category: Science

Laser In Environmental And Life Sciences

Author : Peter Hering
ISBN : 9783662082553
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.69 MB
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This comprehensive reference work illustrates the state of the art of laser-induced analytical methods in environmental and life sciences via an interdisciplinary approach. Ky techniques for remote sensing in the atmosphere as well as diagnostic methods for soil, water and air contamination and exhaled breath are described. Each a prominent scientist, the authors report on their current research; demonstrate that multi-disciplinary applications are possible; and employ examples on how existing environmental diagnostic methods have found their way into the life sciences.
Category: Science

Characterization Of Porous Solids Ii

Author : KK Unger
ISBN : 0080887481
Genre : Science
File Size : 35.39 MB
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The Second IUPAC Symposium on the Characterization of Porous Solids (COPS-II) provided the opportunity for detailed discussion and appraisal of the most important techniques currently used for the characterization of porous materials, especially those of technological importance. The 82 selected papers and reviews contained in this volume are mainly concerned with the theoretical and experimental aspects of adsorption, fluid penetration, small-angle scattering and spectroscopic methods with their application in the study of adsorbents, catalysts, constructional materials, etc. Particular attention is given to the characterization of carbons, oxides, zeolites, clays, cement and polymers. The wide range of materials and techniques described in this book provide a useful and comprehensive reference source for academic and industrial scientists and technologists.
Category: Science

Concise Encyclopedia Of Materials Characterization

Author : R.W. Cahn
ISBN : 9781483287515
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 24.74 MB
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To use materials effectively, their composition, degree of perfection, physical and mechanical characteristics, and microstructure must be accurately determined. This concise encyclopledia covers the wide range of characterization techniques necessary to achieve this. Articles included are not only concerned with the characterization techniques of specific materials such as polymers, metals, ceramics and semiconductors but also techniques which can be applied to materials in general. The techniques described cover bulk methods, and also a number of specific methods to study the topography and composition of surface and near-surface regions. These techniques range from the well-established and traditional to the very latest including: atomic force microscopy; confocal optical microscopy; gamma ray diffractometry; thermal wave imaging; x-ray diffraction and time-resolved techniques. This unique concise encyclopedia comprises 116 articles by leading experts in the field from around the world to create the ideal guide for materials scientists, chemists and engineers involved with any aspect of materials characterization. With over 540 illustrations, extensive cross-referencing, approximately 900 references, and a detailed index, this concise encyclopedia will be a valuable asset to any materials science collection.
Category: Technology & Engineering