Membrane Dynamics And Domains

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Membrane Dynamics And Domains

Author : Peter J. Quinn
ISBN : 9781475758061
Genre : Science
File Size : 43.95 MB
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The fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure formulated by Singer and Nicolson in the early 1970s has proven to be a durable concept in terms of the principles governing the organization of the constituent lipids and proteins. During the past 30 or so years a great deal of information has accumulated on the composition of various cell membranes and how this is related to the dif ferent functions that membranes perform. Nevertheless, the task of explaining particular functions at the molecular level has been hampered by lack of struc tural detail at the atomic level. The reason for this is primarily the difficulty of crystallizing membrane proteins which require strategies that differ from those used to crystallize soluble proteins. The unique exception is bacteriorhodopsin of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium which is interpolated into a membrane that is neither fluid nor in a mosaic configuration. To date only 50 or so membrane proteins have been characterised to atomic resolution by diffraction methods, in contrast to the vast data accumulated on soluble proteins. Another factor that has been difficult to explain is the reason why the lipid compliment of membranes is often extremely complex. Many hundreds of different molecular species of lipid can be identified in some membranes. Remarkably, the particular composition of each membrane appears to be main tained within relatively narrow limits and its identity distinguished from other morphologically-distinct membranes.
Category: Science

Gtpases Regulating Membrane Dynamics

Author : W. E. Balch
ISBN : 0121828093
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.1 MB
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GTPases that regulate the myriad of membrane fission events that facilitate the assembly and disassembly of COPII (Sar1), COPI (ARF) and clathrin coats (dynamin) involved in exocytic and endocytic trafficking pathways and mitochrondrial organization remain a major challenge for future investigations to understand membrane architecture of eukaryotic cells. This volume of MIE provides a comprehensive set of articles describing the use and application of state-of-the-art methodologies to identify and characterize these GTPases and their rapidly expanding list of regulators and effectors. Methodologies focused on biochemical, molecular and advanced imaging techniques provide a wealth of investigational tools for those currently in the field and those entering the field. Many of the methodologies are generally applicable to study of these GTPases in vitro and in vivo to elucidate function in regulation of cell proliferation and signaling in normal tissue and in disease. *Comprehensive collection of GTPases (ARF, Sar1, Dynamin) GTPases involved in vesicle coat assembly and membrane fission *Identification and characterization of GTPase GEFs, GAPs and effectors *General methodologies to study GTPase function in vitro and in vivo
Category: Science

The Giant Vesicle Book

Author : Rumiana Dimova
ISBN : 9781351648554
Genre : Science
File Size : 69.38 MB
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Giant vesicles are widely used as a model membrane system, both for basic biological systems and for their promising applications in the development of smart materials and cell mimetics, as well as in driving new technologies in synthetic biology and for the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. The reader is guided to use giant vesicles, from the formation of simple membrane platforms to advanced membrane and cell system models. It also includes fundamentals for understanding lipid or polymer membrane structure, properties and behavior. Every chapter includes ideas for further applications and discussions on the implications of the observed phenomena towards understanding membrane-related processes. The Giant Vesicle Book is meant to be a road companion, a trusted guide for those making their first steps in this field as well as a source of information required by experts. Key Features • A complete summary of the field, covering fundamental concepts, practical methods, core theory, and the most promising applications • A start-up package of theoretical and experimental information for newcomers in the field • Extensive protocols for establishing the required preparations and assays • Tips and instructions for carefully performing and interpreting measurements with giant vesicles or for observing them, including pitfalls • Approaches developed for investigating giant vesicles as well as brief overviews of previous studies implementing the described techniques • Handy tables with data and structures for ready reference
Category: Science

A Dynamic Interplay Between Membranes And The Cytoskeleton Critical For Cell Development And Signaling

Author : Clément Thomas
ISBN : 9782889193233
Genre :
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Various cellular processes underlying plant development and response to environmental cues rely on a dynamic interplay between membranes and the cytoskeleton, e.g. vesicle and organelle trafficking, endocytosis, exocytosis, and signal transduction. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of such interplay has been achieved and several critical links between membranes and the cytoskeleton have been characterized. As an example, recent work has clarified how auxin promotes the reorganization of cortical actin filaments by the activation of Rho GTPase pathways, and how such reorganization in turn locally modifies endocytosis and/or exocytosis and directs asymmetric distribution of PIN family of auxin transporters. Another recent achievement is the characterization of the Rho- and microtubule-driven mechanism by which the cell wall architecture is established. In particular, the elegant work by Oda and Fukuda (Science 337 p.1333, 2012) provides evidence that secondary wall patterning in xylem vessel primarily relies on two processes: a local activation of the plant Rho GTPase ROP11 and a mutual, MIDD1-mediated, inhibitory interaction between active ROP domains and cortical microtubules. Additional examples include recent genetic evidence that microtubule and actin filament interacting/regulatory proteins, such as MAP65-1 and capping protein, function as transducers of membrane lipid signaling into changes in cytoskeleton dynamics and organization. This Research Topic aims at collecting a comprehensive set of articles dealing with cellular processes involving membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. Its scope extends beyond the specific fields defined by the above examples and includes intracellular trafficking, host-pathogen interactions, response to biotic and abiotic stresses and hormonal regulation of growth. We hope that this Research Topic will also highlight critical questions that need to be addressed in the future. We welcomed Original Research Articles, Technical/Methodological Advances (e.g. analysis of cytoskeleton dynamics close to membranes), Reviews and Mini Reviews that can expand our understanding of how and why membranes and the cytoskeleton interact.
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Membrane Dynamics And Signaling

Author : E. Edward Bittar
ISBN : UOM:39015029466888
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.19 MB
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Volumes 5A and 5B of Fundamentals of Medical Cell Biology are a treatment of several key subjects, including cellular signaling. One profitable way to tackle both volumes is to read them with care but without endeavouring to master most of the details. Then should follow a more plodding study, chapter by chapter. Such a strategy is also urged in respect of the preceding volumes. Although each chapter is only as detailed as space permits, it should in the case of the student serve as an incentive to the study of the original papers.
Category: Science

Cellular Domains

Author : Ivan R. Nabi
ISBN : 1118015746
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.41 MB
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Cellular domains play vital roles in a wide range of cellular functions. Defining cellular domains and understanding the molecular basis of their formation is essential to the study of cell functionality. This authoritative reference provides the most comprehensive analysis available on cellular domains, with emphasis on the definition and molecular composition of the domain as well as the functional implications of domain organization.
Category: Science

Membrane Microdomain Signaling

Author : Mark P. Mattson
ISBN : 9781592598038
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.61 MB
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Cutting-edge articles review our current understanding of lipid microdomain signaling mechanisms and their physiological and pathological importance. The book describes the role of lipid rafts in learning, memory, and cancer, presents the emerging evidence that lipid rafts play critical roles in signaling pathways and the regulation of synaptic function in the nervous system, and shows how alterations in lipid raft metabolism are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Techniques are also described for the isolation of lipid rafts, the analysis of the lipid and protein components of lipid rafts, the imaging of lipid rafts in living cells, and the analysis of signal transduction in lipid rafts.
Category: Science

Artificial And Reconstituted Membrane Systems

Author : J. Robin Harris
ISBN : 9781461393627
Genre : Science
File Size : 44.74 MB
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This collection of 11 chapters is devoted to a survey of artificial and reconsti tuted membrane systems. These are fundamental themes and areas of great current importance in membrane biochemistry. They also relate well to the founding concept of this series, namely, to present studies that progressively work toward and provide us with an "integrated view of the cell. " In this volume, it is the application of a wide range of physiochemical and biochemi cal techniques to the study of membrane lipids and proteins which serves to demonstrate the significant progress that has been made in this field over the past 25 years. From the understanding of simplified artificial systems, it is hoped that it will ultimately be possible to gain a more accurate understanding of natural biological membranes, in all their diversity. This book is an appropriate successor to Volume 13 of the series, which deals with fluorescence studies on biological membranes. Indeed, the present chapter by Lesley Davenport and colleagues was originally due for inclusion in Volume 13, but has been held over for inclusion in this volume, where it integrates remarkably well with the other topics. The extremely varied and interesting contents of this volume are now briefly outlined. In Chapter I, Jacqueline A. Reynolds and Darrell R. McCaslin pres ent a pertinent survey of the interaction of detergents with membrane lipids and proteins, together with an assessment of the reconstitution process.
Category: Science

International Review Of Cytology

Author : Kwang W. Jeon
ISBN : 9780080495552
Genre : Science
File Size : 65.83 MB
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The acclaimed International Review of Cytology series presents current advances and reviews in cell biology, both plant and animal. Aricles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth. Contributors to this volume include Yosef Gruenbaum, Sergey Razin, Johanna M. van der Wouden, J. M. Mitchison, Ora A. Weisz, and Anne Regnier-Vigourous. Presents current advances and reviews in cell biology, both plant and animal Articles address structure and control of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, control of cell development and differentiation, and cell transformation and growth Contributors to this volume include Yosef Gruenbaum, Sergey Razin, Johanna M. van der Wouden, J. M. Mitchison, Ora A. Weisz, and Anne Regnier-Vigourous
Category: Science

Evolutionary Computation In Bioinformatics

Author : Gary B. Fogel
ISBN : 1558607978
Genre : Computers
File Size : 47.10 MB
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This book offers a definitive resource that bridges biology and evolutionary computation. The authors have written an introduction to biology and bioinformatics for computer scientists, plus an introduction to evolutionary computation for biologists and for computer scientists unfamiliar with these techniques.
Category: Computers

Cell Membrane Nanodomains

Author : Alessandra Cambi
ISBN : 9781482209914
Genre : Medical
File Size : 44.73 MB
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Cell Membrane Nanodomains: From Biochemistry to Nanoscopy describes recent advances in our understanding of membrane organization, with a particular focus on the cutting-edge imaging techniques that are making these new discoveries possible. With contributions from pioneers in the field, the book explores areas where the application of these novel techniques reveals new concepts in biology. It assembles a collection of works where the integration of membrane biology and microscopy emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of this exciting field. Beginning with a broad description of membrane organization, including seminal work on lipid partitioning in model systems and the roles of proteins in membrane organization, the book examines how lipids and membrane compartmentalization can regulate protein function and signal transduction. It then focuses on recent advances in imaging techniques and tools that foster further advances in our understanding of signaling nanoplatforms. The coverage includes several diffraction-limited imaging techniques that allow for measurements of protein distribution/clustering and membrane curvature in living cells, new fluorescent proteins, novel Laurdan analyses, and the toolbox of labeling possibilities with organic dyes. Since superresolution optical techniques have been crucial to advancing our understanding of cellular structure and protein behavior, the book concludes with a discussion of technologies that are enabling the visualization of lipids, proteins, and other molecular components at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. It also explains the ins and outs of the rapidly developing high- or superresolution microscopy field, including new methods and data analysis tools that exclusively pertain to these techniques. This integration of membrane biology and advanced imaging techniques emphasizes the interdisciplinary nature of this exciting field. The array of contributions from leading world experts makes this book a valuable tool for the visualization of signaling nanoplatforms by means of cutting-edge optical microscopy tools.
Category: Medical

Endosomes

Author : Ivan Dikic
ISBN : 0387399518
Genre : Science
File Size : 28.38 MB
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Endosomes are a heterogeneous population of endocytic vesicles and tubules that have captivated the interest of biologists for many years, partly due to their important cellular functions and partly due to their intriguing nature and dynamics. Endosomes represent a fascinating interconnected network of thousands of vesicles that transport various cargoes, mainly proteins and lipids, to distant cellular destinations. How endosomes function, what co-ordinates the molecular determinants at each step of their dynamic life cycle and what their biological and medical relevance is, are among the questions addressed in this book.
Category: Science

Proteins

Author : Gregor Anderluh
ISBN : 1441963278
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21.7 MB
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Formation of transmembrane pores is a very effective way of killing cells. It is thus not surprising that many bacterial and eukaryotic toxic agents are pore-forming proteins. Pore formation in a target membrane is a complex process composed of several steps; proteins need to attach to the lipid membrane, possibly aggregate in the plane of the membrane and finally form a pore by inserting part of the polypeptide chain across the lipid bilayer. Structural information about toxins at each stage is indispensible for the biochemical and molecular biological studies that aim to - derstand how pores are formed at the molecular level. There are currently only two Staphylococcus aureus and hemolysin E from Escherichia coli. Therefore, what we know about these proteins was obtained over many years of intense experimentation. We have nevertheless, in the last couple of years, witnessed a significant rise in structural information on the soluble forms of pore-forming proteins. Surprisingly, many unexpected similarities with other proteins were noted, despite extremely low or insignificant sequence similarity. It appears that lipid membrane binding and formation of transmembrane channels is achieved in many cases by a limited repertoire of structures. This book describes how several of the important pore forming toxin families achieve membrane bi- ing and which structural elements are used for formation of transmembrane pores. Our contributors have thus provided the means for a comparative analysis of several unrelated families.
Category: Medical

Protein Kinase C

Author : Lodewijk V. Dekker
ISBN : 0306478633
Genre : Science
File Size : 66.67 MB
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Protein Kinase C is a pivotal component of the mechanism that allows a cell to respond to its changing environment. In this book, the most significant advances in recent basic research on Protein Kinase C are explained by active researchers in the field. The first seven chapters provide a comprehensive account of the fundamental structural and biochemical properties of Protein Kinase C. The remaining chapters contain overviews of the function of Protein Kinase C, both in lower organisms and in mammalian cells, the latter with a focus on immune cells and nerve cells. This book is the only recent publication devoted entirely to Protein Kinase C and forms a major point of reference for those active in the field. In addition it will appeal to those with a general interest in biochemistry, cell biology, immunology and neurobiology.
Category: Science

Protein Lipid Interactions

Author : C.Reyes Mateo
ISBN : 3540852824
Genre : Science
File Size : 82.81 MB
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Biological membranes have long been identified as key elements in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell defense communication, photosynthesis, signal transduction, and motility; thus they emerge as primary targets in both basic and applied research. This book brings together in a single volume the most recent views of experts in the area of protein–lipid interactions, providing an overview of the advances that have been achieved in the field in recent years, from very basic aspects to specialized technological applications. Topics include the application of X-ray and neutron diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy, and high-resolution NMR to the understanding of the specific interactions between lipids and proteins within biological membranes, their structural relationships, and the implications for the biological functions that they mediate. Also covered in this volume are the insertion of proteins and peptides into the membrane and the concomitant formation of definite lipid domains within the membrane.
Category: Science

Functional Organization Of Vertebrate Plasma Membrane

Author :
ISBN : 9780124171169
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.29 MB
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Current Topics in Membranes is targeted toward scientists and researchers in biochemistry and molecular and cellular biology, providing the necessary membrane research to assist them in discovering the current state of a particular field and in learning where that field is heading. This volume covers recent breakthroughs in understanding the molecular and cellular basis for patterning vertebrate plasma membranes. A special emphasis is placed on physiological function with chapters covering signaling in the nervous system and heart, vision, and the immune system. consolidates subjects normally dispersed in the literature presents in one volume a subject that has undergone a recent molecular revolution authors are primary contributors and in some cases the founding figures in their fields
Category: Science

Specialised Membrane Domains Of Plasmodesmata Plant Intercellular Nanopores

Author : Jens Tilsner
ISBN : 9782889193684
Genre :
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Plasmodesmata (PD) are plant-specific intercellular nanopores defined by specialised domains of the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), both of which contain unique proteins, and probably different lipid compositions than the surrounding bulk membranes. The PD membranes form concentric tubules with a minimal outer diameter of only 50 nm, and the central ER strand constricted to ~10-15 nm, representing one of the narrowest stable membrane tubules in nature. This unique membrane architecture poses many biophysical, structural and functional questions. PM continuity across PD raises the question as to how a locally confined membrane site is established and maintained at PD. There is increasing evidence that the PM within PD may be enriched in membrane ‘rafts’ or TET web domains. Lipid rafts often function as signalling platforms, in line with the emerging view of PD as central players in plant defense responses. Lipid-lipid immiscibility could also provide a mechanism for membrane sub- compartmentalisation at PD. Intricate connections of the PM to the wall and the underlying cytoskeleton and ER may anchor the specialised domains locally. The ER within PD is even more strongly modified. Its extreme curvature suggests that it is stabilised by densely packed proteins, potentially members of the reticulon family that tubulate the cortical ER. The diameter of the constricted ER within PD is similar to membrane stalks in dynamin-mediated membrane fission during endocytosis and may need to be stabilised against spontaneous rupture. The function of this extreme membrane constriction, and the reasons why the ER is connected between plant cells remain unknown. Whilst the technically challenging search for the protein components of PD is ongoing, there has been significant recent progress in research on biological membranes that could benefit our understanding of PD function. With this Research Topic, we therefore aim to bring together researchers in the PD field and those in related areas, such as membrane biophysics, membrane composition and fluidity, protein-lipid interactions, lateral membrane heterogeneity, lipid rafts, membrane curvature, and membrane fusion/fission. We wish to address questions such as: - What mechanisms restrict lateral mobility of proteins and lipids along the PD membranes? - How can specific proteins be targeted to and turned over from membrane domains with restricted lateral access? - What elements (lipids, proteins, membrane curvature, packing order, thickness etc.) may contribute to the identity of PD membranes? - How do the structural and functional features of PD compare to other ER-PM contact sites? - How is the high curvature of the PD ER stabilised and what are possible functions of such a tightly constricted membrane tubule? - Do PD need to be prevented from spontaneous collapse and sealing? - What technologies are available to address these questions that can underpin PD research? We welcome interested individuals to contribute their expertise and develop new hypotheses on the particular biological and biophysical questions posed by PD. We are particularly looking for articles (Original Research Articles, Technical Advances and State-of-the-Art reviews) that would expand on or challenge current perceptions of PD and stimulate discussion.
Category:

Biologiske Skrifter

Author : Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskab
ISBN : CORNELL:31924101481186
Genre : Biology
File Size : 76.27 MB
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Category: Biology