MATERIALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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Materials And The Environment

Author : Michael F. Ashby
ISBN : 9780123859723
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 47.18 MB
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Materials and the Environment: Eco-Informed Material Choice, Second Edition, is the first book devoted solely to the environmental aspects of materials and their selection, production, use and disposal, by one of the world's foremost materials authorities. It explores human dependence on materials and its environmental consequences and provides perspective, background, methods, and data for thinking about and designing with materials to minimize their environmental impact. Organized into 15 chapters, this new edition looks at the history of our increasing dependence on materials and energy. It explains where materials come from and how they are used in a variety of industries, along with their life cycle and their relationship to energy and carbon. It also examines controls and economic instruments that hinder the use of engineering materials, considers sustainability from a materials perspective, and highlights the importance of low-carbon power and material efficiency. Furthermore, it discusses the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of engineering metals, polymers, ceramics, composites, and natural materials in relation to environmental issues. The volume includes new chapters on Materials for Low Carbon Power & and Material Efficiency, all illustrated by in-text examples and expanded exercises. There are also new case studies showing how the methods discussed in the book can be applied to real-world situations. This book is intended for instructors and students of Engineering, Materials Science and Industrial/Product Design, as well as for materials engineers and product designers who need to consider the environmental implications of materials in their designs. Introduces methods and tools for thinking about and designing with materials within the context of their role in products and the environmental consequences Contains numerous case studies showing how the methods discussed in the book can be applied to real-world situations Includes full-color data sheets for 40 of the most widely used materials, featuring such environmentally relevant information as their annual production and reserves, embodied energy and process energies, carbon footprints, and recycling data New to this edition: New chapter of Case Studies of Eco-audits illustrating the rapid audit method New chapter on Materials for Low Carbon Power examines the consequences for materials supply of a major shift from fossil-fuel based power to power from renewables New chapter exploring Material Efficiency, or design and management for manufacture to provide the services we need with the least production of materials Recent news-clips from the world press that help place materials issues into a broader context.are incorporated into all chapters End-of-chapter exercises have been greatly expanded The datasheets of Chapter 15 have been updated and expanded to include natural and man-made fibers
Category: Technology & Engineering

Novel Materials In The Environment

Author : Great Britain. Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution
ISBN : 0101746822
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 57.79 MB
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The Royal Commission's decision to study novel materials was motivated by concern about the potential for releases to the environment arising from increasing industrial applications of metals and minerals that have not previously been widely used and, secondly, by the embodiment of nanoparticles and nanotubes in a wide range of consumer products and specialist applications in fields such as medicine and environmental remediation. Most of the evidence received focused on nanomaterials - particles, fibres and tubes on the scale of a few billionths of a metre. Chapters 2 and 3 explore the extent to which novel substances are currently being deployed, the plausible pathways by which they might enter the environment, their likely environmental destinations in use or disposal and the possible consequences of their release to those destinations. Chapter 4 considers what arrangements would be most appropriate for the governance of emerging technologies under two conditions that pose serious constraints on any regulator. First is the condition of ignorance about the possible environmental impacts in the absence of any kind of track record for the technology. Second is the condition of ubiquity - the fact that new technologies no longer develop in a context of local experimentation but emerge as globally pervasive systems - which challenges both trial-and-error learning and attempts at national regulation. Both new governance approaches and modifications to existing ones are likely to be called for. They will need to be rooted in ideas of adaptive management that require multiple perspectives on the issues. The Commission's recommendations are based on the premise that it is the functionality of the material, not particle size or mode of production, which is critical for evaluating its potential impact on the environment or human health.
Category: Business & Economics

Microbiology For Minerals Metals Materials And The Environment

Author : Abhilash
ISBN : 9781482257304
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.76 MB
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Better Understand the Connection between Microbiology and the Inorganic World Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment links chemical, metallurgical, and other metal inherent systems with microbes, and analyzes the interdependence between them. Specifically intended to underscore the importance of microbes in environmental remediation in the mining industries, this text offers a basic and conceptual understanding of the role of microbes, and provides an extensive exploration of microbiology and metals. Each chapter is written by experts from research, industry and academia. The authors expand on the whole scale of microbiology applications relevant to minerals, metal, material, and environment. They elicit the applications of microbes for metal extraction (including mechanisms and methods) from primary ores/minerals and mining wastes, biomining and related concepts of microbial diversity and various operations, and molecular biology of microbes involved in such systems (extremophiles). They also address in detail biohydrometallurgy, biomineralisation, bioleaching, biobeneficiation, biosynthesis, and bioremediation and other related areas. This book: Includes bacterial leaching, hybrid leaching, and biosynthesis related to different metals Covers recent developments in alternative procedures with the use of extremophiles and leaching bacteria Explains the imperative importance of bacteria in minerals and metals sector Addresses microbial interventions for waste cleanup and upgradation of minerals Compares existing processes with the new ones to elicit their importance Provides case studies on all respective topics by eminent researchers A resource for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals involved in chemical/mining/metallurgical engineering/environmental science/microbiology, Microbiology for Minerals, Metals, Materials and the Environment skillfully explains the symbiotic relationship between microbiology and minerals-metals-materials, and utilizes experts from across the globe.
Category: Science

Rapid Methods For Analysis Of Biological Materials In The Environment

Author : Peter J. Stopa
ISBN : 0792363043
Genre : Science
File Size : 81.74 MB
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Contrary to common belief, infectious diseases are not as well under control as we would like. We are now at a crossroads regarding the impact of the environment on infectious diseases. Renewed interest in biological weapons and the emergence of new pathogens, coupled with a better understanding of the impact of infectious agents on other conventional diseases, has led us to realise that we can no longer remain complacent about the impact of infectious agents on human, animal and crop health. The present book first discusses current and emerging military and civilian policies on the environment. In addition, the impact of environmental biology on the future of space exploration is discussed, especially in reference to the Mars mission. There follows a discussion of the state of bacteria in the environment, with a presentation of current and emerging techniques of microbial investigation. Finally, two case studies are presented on the impact of these techniques on both political and environmental problems.
Category: Science

Protection Of Space Materials From The Space Environment

Author : J. Kleiman
ISBN : 9789401007146
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85.92 MB
Format : PDF
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This publication presents the proceedings of ICPMSE-4, the fourth international conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from the Low Earth Orbit Space Environment, held in Toronto April 23-24, 1998. The conference was hosted and organized by Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. (ITL), and held at the University ofToronto's Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS). Twenty two industrial companies, six universities and fourteen government agencies from Canada, USA, United Kingdom, France, Israel, Russia, Ukraine and the Netherlands were represented by over 75 participants indicating increasing international co-operation in this critical arena of protection of materials in space. Twenty-seven speakers, world experts in their fields, delivered talks on a wide variety of topics on various aspects of material protection in space. Representatives from the Canadian, American, European and Israeli space agencies as well as from leading space research laboratories ofmajor aerospace industries gathered at UTIAS to discuss the latest developments in the field of material and structure protection from the harsh space environment.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Materials Selection In Mechanical Design

Author : Michael F. Ashby
ISBN : 9780080952239
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 61.59 MB
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Understanding materials, their properties and behavior is fundamental to engineering design, and a key application of materials science. Written for all students of engineering, materials science and design, this book describes the procedures for material selection in mechanical design in order to ensure that the most suitable materials for a given application are identified from the full range of materials and section shapes available. Extensively revised for this fourth edition, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design is recognized as one of the leading materials selection texts, and provides a unique and genuinely innovative resource. Features new to this edition * Material property charts now in full color throughout * Significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject content * Fully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environment * Appendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updated * Revised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples Materials are introduced through their properties; materials selection charts (also available on line) capture the important features of all materials, allowing rapid retrieval of information and application of selection techniques. Merit indices, combined with charts, allow optimization of the materials selection process. Sources of material property data are reviewed and approaches to their use are given. Material processing and its influence on the design are discussed. New chapters on environmental issues, industrial engineering and materials design are included, as are new worked examples, exercise materials and a separate, online Instructor's Manual. New case studies have been developed to further illustrate procedures and to add to the practical implementation of the text. * The new edition of the leading materials selection text, now with full color material property charts * Includes significant revisions of chapters on engineering materials, processes and process selection, and selection of material and shape while retaining the book's hallmark structure and subject content * Fully revised chapters on hybrid materials and materials and the environment * Appendix on data and information for engineering materials fully updated * Revised and expanded end-of-chapter exercises and additional worked examples
Category: Technology & Engineering

Fundamentals Of Materials For Energy And Environmental Sustainability

Author : David S. Ginley
ISBN : 9781139502689
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38.18 MB
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How will we meet rising energy demands? What are our options? Are there viable long-term solutions for the future? Learn the fundamental physical, chemical and materials science at the heart of: • Renewable/non-renewable energy sources • Future transportation systems • Energy efficiency • Energy storage Whether you are a student taking an energy course or a newcomer to the field, this textbook will help you understand critical relationships between the environment, energy and sustainability. Leading experts provide comprehensive coverage of each topic, bringing together diverse subject matter by integrating theory with engaging insights. Each chapter includes helpful features to aid understanding, including a historical overview to provide context, suggested further reading and questions for discussion. Every subject is beautifully illustrated and brought to life with full color images and color-coded sections for easy browsing, making this a complete educational package. Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability will enable today's scientists and educate future generations.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Handbook Of Environmental Degradation Of Materials

Author : Myer Kutz
ISBN : 9781437734560
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 42.28 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Nothing stays the same for ever. The environmental degradation and corrosion of materials is inevitable and affects most aspects of life. In industrial settings, this inescapable fact has very significant financial, safety and environmental implications. The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials explains how to measure, analyse, and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors such as weather, seawater, and fire. Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what can be done to control them. The expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering knowhow, complementing their explanations and advice with Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensures that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment. The Handbook’s broad scope introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete,wood and textiles For each type of material, the book describes the kind of degradation that effects it and how best to protect it Case Studies show how organizations from small consulting firms to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects
Category: Technology & Engineering

Materials

Author : Michael F. Ashby
ISBN : 9780080994352
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 55.96 MB
Format : PDF
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Materials, Third Edition, is the essential materials engineering text and resource for students developing skills and understanding of materials properties and selection for engineering applications. This new edition retains its design-led focus and strong emphasis on visual communication while expanding its inclusion of the underlying science of materials to fully meet the needs of instructors teaching an introductory course in materials. A design-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applications. Highly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and properties. For instructors, a solutions manual, lecture slides, online image bank, and materials selection charts for use in class handouts or lecture presentations are available at http://textbooks.elsevier.com. The number of worked examples has been increased by 50% while the number of standard end-of-chapter exercises in the text has been doubled. Coverage of materials and the environment has been updated with a new section on Sustainability and Sustainable Technology. The text meets the curriculum needs of a wide variety of courses in the materials and design field, including introduction to materials science and engineering, engineering materials, materials selection and processing, and materials in design. Design-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applications Highly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and properties Chapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design process For instructors, a solutions manual, lecture slides, online image bank and materials selection charts for use in class handouts or lecture presentations are available at http://textbooks.elsevier.com Links with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software. See www.grantadesign.com for information NEW TO THIS EDITION: Text and figures have been revised and updated throughout The number of worked examples has been increased by 50% The number of standard end-of-chapter exercises in the text has been doubled Coverage of materials and the environment has been updated with a new section on Sustainability and Sustainable Technology
Category: Technology & Engineering