LOST ENLIGHTENMENT

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Lost Enlightenment

Author : S. Frederick Starr
ISBN : 9780691165851
Genre : History
File Size : 29.81 MB
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In this sweeping and richly illustrated history, S. Frederick Starr tells the fascinating but largely unknown story of Central Asia's medieval enlightenment through the eventful lives and astonishing accomplishments of its greatest minds--remarkable figures who built a bridge to the modern world. Because nearly all of these figures wrote in Arabic, they were long assumed to have been Arabs. In fact, they were from Central Asia--drawn from the Persianate and Turkic peoples of a region that today extends from Kazakhstan southward through Afghanistan, and from the easternmost province of Iran through Xinjiang, China. Lost Enlightenment recounts how, between the years 800 and 1200, Central Asia led the world in trade and economic development, the size and sophistication of its cities, the refinement of its arts, and, above all, in the advancement of knowledge in many fields. Central Asians achieved signal breakthroughs in astronomy, mathematics, geology, medicine, chemistry, music, social science, philosophy, and theology, among other subjects. They gave algebra its name, calculated the earth's diameter with unprecedented precision, wrote the books that later defined European medicine, and penned some of the world's greatest poetry. One scholar, working in Afghanistan, even predicted the existence of North and South America--five centuries before Columbus. Rarely in history has a more impressive group of polymaths appeared at one place and time. No wonder that their writings influenced European culture from the time of St. Thomas Aquinas down to the scientific revolution, and had a similarly deep impact in India and much of Asia. Lost Enlightenment chronicles this forgotten age of achievement, seeks to explain its rise, and explores the competing theories about the cause of its eventual demise. Informed by the latest scholarship yet written in a lively and accessible style, this is a book that will surprise general readers and specialists alike.
Category: History

Lost Enlightenment

Author : Frederick S. Starr
ISBN : 9789351361862
Genre : History
File Size : 51.95 MB
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This is the story of remarkable people, astonishing achievements and eventful lives, of a culture that lay the foundations for the modern world - a rich, exciting and largely forgotten history In this sweeping and richly illustrated history, S. Frederick Starr tells the fascinating but largely unknown story of Central Asia's medieval enlightenment through the eventful lives and astonishing accomplishments of its greatest minds and remarkable figures who built a bridge to the modern world. Lost Enlightenment recounts how, between 800 and 1200, Central Asia led the world in trade and economic development, the size and sophistication of its cities, the refinement of its arts and, above all, in the advancement of knowledge in many fields. It chronicles this forgotten age of achievement, seeks to explain its rise, and explores the competing theories about the cause of its eventual demise. Informed by the latest scholarship, yet written in a lively and accessible style, this is a book that will surprise general readers and specialists alike.
Category: History

Reclaiming The Enlightenment

Author : Stephen Eric Bronner
ISBN : 9780231500982
Genre : History
File Size : 59.28 MB
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This book tackles an obvious yet profound problem of modern political life: the disorientation of intellectuals and activists on the left. As the study of political history and theory has been usurped by cultural criticism, a confusion over the origins
Category: History

Religious Affections

Author : Jonathan Edwards
ISBN : 9780300158410
Genre : Literary Collections
File Size : 38.11 MB
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This volume contains Edwards’ most mature and persistent attempt to judge the validity of the religious development in eighteenth-century America known as the Great Awakening. In developing criteria for such judgment he attacked at the same time one of the fundamental questions facing all religion: how to distinguish genuine from spurious piety? The Awakening created much bitter controversy; on the one side stood the emotionalists and enthusiasts, and on the other the rationalists, for whom religion was essentially a matter of morality or good conduct and the acceptance of properly formulated doctrine. Edwards, with great analytical skill and enormous biblical learning, showed that both sides were in the wrong. He attacked both a "lifeless morality” as too pale as to be the essence of religion, and he rejected the excesses of a purely emotional religion more concerned for sensational effects than for the inner transformation of the self, which was, for him, the center of genuine Christianity.
Category: Literary Collections

Aid Paradoxes In Afghanistan

Author : Nematullah Bizhan
ISBN : 9781351692656
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27.29 MB
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The relationship between aid and state building is highly complex and the effects of aid on weak states depend on donors’ interests, aid modalities and the recipient’s pre-existing institutional and socio-political conditions. This book argues that, in the case of Afghanistan, the country inherited conditions that were not favourable for effective state building. Although some of the problems that emerged in the post-2001 state building process were predictable, the types of interventions that occurred—including an aid architecture which largely bypassed the state, the subordination of state building to the war on terror, and the short horizon policy choices of donors and the Afghan government—reduced the effectiveness of the aid and undermined effective state building. By examining how foreign aid affected state building in Afghanistan since the US militarily intervened in Afghanistan in late 2001 until the end of President Hamid Karzai’s first term in 2009, this book reveals the dynamic and complex relations between the Afghan government and foreign donors in their efforts to rebuild state institutions. The work explores three key areas: how donors supported government reforms to improve the taxation system, how government reorganized the state’s fiscal management system, and how aid dependency and aid distribution outside the government budget affected interactions between state and society. Given that external revenue in the form of tribute, subsidies and aid has shaped the characteristics of the state in Afghanistan since the mid-eighteenth century, this book situates state building in a historical context. This book will be invaluable for practitioners and anyone studying political economy, state building, international development and the politics of foreign aid.
Category: Business & Economics

Essence With The Elixir Of Enlightenment

Author : A H Almaas
ISBN : 1578630444
Genre : Religion
File Size : 75.42 MB
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Enlightenment is not what many think it is, nor is the path to attain it. A. H. Almaas presents myth-shattering aspects of reality that allow true seekers to pass through to a "spiritual reality".
Category: Religion

Wisdom Justice And Charity

Author : Suzanne Morton
ISBN : 9781442666467
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62.76 MB
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One of Canada’s first social workers, Jane B. Wisdom had an active career in social welfare that spanned almost the first half of the twentieth century. Competent, thoughtful, and trusted, she had a knack for being in important places at pivotal moments. Wisdom’s transnational career took her from Saint John to Montreal, New York City, Halifax, and Glace Bay, as well as into almost every field of social work. Her story offers a remarkable opportunity to uncover what life was like for front-line social workers in the profession’s early years. In Wisdom, Justice, and Charity, historian Suzanne Morton uses Wisdom’s professional life to explore how the welfare state was built from the ground up by thousands of pragmatic and action-oriented social workers. Wisdom’s career illustrates the impact of professionalization, gender, and changing notions of the state – not just on those in the emergent profession of social work but also on those in need. Her life and career stand as a potent allegory for the limits and possibilities of individual action.
Category: Social Science

The Enlightenment

Author : Norman Hampson
ISBN : 9780141937137
Genre : History
File Size : 88.43 MB
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Armed with the insights of the scientific revolution, the men of the Enlightenment set out to free mankind from its age-old cocoon of pessimism and superstition and establish a more reasonable world of experiment and progress. Yet by the 1760s, this optimism about man and society had almost evaporated. In the works of Rousseau, Kant and Goethe, there was discernible a new inner voice, and an awareness of individual uniqueness which had eluded their more self-confident predecessors. The stage was set for the revolutionary crisis and the rise of Romanticism. In this book, Norman Hampson follows through certain dominant themes in the Enlightenment, and describes the contemporary social and political climate, in which ideas could travel from the salons of Paris to the court of Catherine the Great - but less easily from a master to his servant. On such vexed issues as the role of ideas in the "rise of the middle class" he provides a new and realistic approach linking intellectual and social history.
Category: History

Deciphering The Lost Symbol

Author : Christopher Hodapp
ISBN : 9781569757734
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 50.46 MB
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DISCOVER THE SECRETIVE BROTHERHOOD BEHIND DAN BROWN'S THE LOST SYMBOL Freemason influence on the founding of Washington, D.C., is evident throughout the city's buildings, statues and monuments--but it's written in coded symbols that few people understand. Dan Brown's new thriller sends symbologist detective Robert Langdon through the capital to unravel its Masonic secrets. Now in Deciphering The Lost Symbol, Freemason expert Christopher L. Hodapp compares each clue and plot twist in Brown's story to the true facts. *Discover the meaning of "The Lost Word" *Decode Masonic and alchemical symbolism *Explore the innermost rooms of Masonic lodges and temples *Visit the restricted area of the U.S. Capitol and other landmarks *Uncover secret patterns in Washington, D.C.'s maps and monuments *Crack the codes buried in The Lost Symbol's artwork and puzzles
Category: Literary Criticism

Politics And Popular Culture

Author : Leah A. Murray
ISBN : 9781443823111
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 72.57 MB
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In recent years we have seen a continuation and perhaps even acceleration in the trend of popular culture having a discernible effect on politics. From The Daily Show to candidates’ use of Facebook and MySpace, politics have opened up to new technologies as we come online for the next generation. Our political world has become popularized, or our popular world has become politicized in a new way, facilitated by the entertainment media and new technologies. This volume’s authors attempt to make sense of the changing political popular world through a series of interdisciplinary essays that explore the ramifications of popular cultural depictions of politics drawing on literature in a variety of fields: political science, history, literature, fine arts and communications. We explore three major phenomena in a politicized popular culture. First, we explore the role that the entertainment media play in understanding politics. What is interesting about our fictional political worlds is we are allowed, as a people, to consider different political ideals without the baggage of our last vote or our ideology. We can step outside ourselves and challenge the way we think on particular issues. Second, we explore the real world of politics as it has been shaped over the last century of new technology. As powerful a medium television proved to be to politics, the latest technological breakthroughs have proved to be a paradigmatic shift. From Twitter to Facebook, our politicians are able to keep in almost constant contact with their constituencies, which has vast implications for the way political discourse will progress. Third, we explore what happens when the real world and media collide. Entertainment media change their messages when major political events happen such as the case when spymaster tropes were forced to evolve when 9/11 changed the international dynamic. Robert Ludlum’s Jason Bourne series had to be conceptualized on film in a new way after this event. The more connected our political world and our popular world become, and given the trends, we can only assume they will become increasingly intertwined, the more important it is for us to understand how these connections affect the world. This volume is a powerful pass at comprehending all that is happening across the politicized popular world.
Category: Political Science