Linguistic Structure In Language Processing

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Linguistic Structure And Change

Author : Thomas Berg
ISBN : 0198236727
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 67.29 MB
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Thomas Berg analyses language as a psychological phenomenon in order to reach a clearer understanding of why the structure of language is the way it is and how it changes. He claims that real explanations of the structure of language can only emerge by establishing connections between language and its context. The explanatory power of one of these contexts, the psychological one, is examined in detail.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistic Structure In Language Processing

Author : G.N. Carlson
ISBN : 9789400927292
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 39.7 MB
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The papers in this volume are intended to exemplify the state of experimental psycho linguistics in the middle to later 1980s. Our over riding impression is that the field has come a long way since the earlier work of the 1950s and 1960s, and that the field has emerged with a renewed strength from a difficult period in the 1970s. Not only are the theoretical issues more sharply defined and integrated with existing issues from other domains ("modularity" being one such example), but the experimental techniques employed are much more sophisticated, thanks to the work of numerous psychologists not necessarily interested in psycholinguistics, and thanks to improving technologies unavailable a few years ago (for instance, eye-trackers). We selected papers that provide a coherent, overall picture of existing techniques and issues. The volume is organized much as one might organize an introductory linguistics course - beginning with sound and working "up" to mean ing. Indeed, the first paper, Rebecca Treiman's, begins with considera tion of syllable structure, a phonological consideration, and the last, Alan Garnham's, exemplifies some work on the interpretation of pro nouns, a semantic matter. In between are found works concentrating on morphemes, lexical structures, and syntax. The cross-section represented in this volume is by necessity incom plete, since we focus only on experimental work directed at under standing how adults comprehend and produce language. We do not include any works on language acquisition, first or second.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistic Structures Processing

Author : Antonio Zampolli
ISBN : UOM:39015000581630
Genre : Artificial intelligence
File Size : 68.45 MB
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Category: Artificial intelligence

Linguistic Fundamentals For Natural Language Processing

Author : Emily M. Bender
ISBN : 9781627050128
Genre : Computers
File Size : 55.79 MB
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages
Category: Computers

Morphological Structure In Language Processing

Author : R. Harald Baayen
ISBN : 9783110910186
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 86.68 MB
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This volume brings together a series of studies of morphological processing in Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (French, Italian), and Slavic (Polish, Serbian) languages. The question of how morphologically complex words are organized and processed in the mental lexicon is addressed from different theoretical perspectives (single and dual route models), for different modalities (auditory and visual comprehension, writing), and for language development. Experimental work is reported, as well as computational and statistical modeling. Thus, this volume provides a useful overview of the range of issues currently attracting reseach at the intersection of morphology and psycholinguistics.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Reading And Language Processing

Author : John M. Henderson
ISBN : 9781317759560
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 78.57 MB
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This volume was designed to identify the current limits of progress in the psychology of reading and language processing in an information processing framework. Leaders in their fields of interest, the chapter authors couple current theoretical analyses with new, formally presented experiments. The research -- cutting-edge and sometimes controversial -- reflects the prevailing analysis that language comprehension results in numerous levels of representation, including surface features, lexical properties, linguistic structures, and idea networks underlying a message as well as the situations to which a message refers. As a group, the chapters highlight the impact that input modality -- auditory or written -- has on comprehension. Finally, the studies also capture the evolution of new topic matter and ongoing debates concerning the competing paradigms, global proposals, and methods that form the foundation of the enterprise. The book presents current accounts of research on word-, sentence-, and text-processing. It will prove informative for experimental psychologists as well as investigators in cognitive science disciplines such as computer science, linguistics, and educational psychology. The book will also be very helpful to graduate students who wish to develop expertise in the psychology of language processes. For them, it collects, in a single volume, readings that are representative of progress concerning many central problems in the field. As such, it is distinct from the numerous collected volumes that concentrate on a single issue. Complete author and subject indexes facilitate effective use of the volume.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistic Structure Prediction

Author : Noah A. Smith
ISBN : 9781608454051
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 87.72 MB
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A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. We also survey natural language processing problems to which these methods are being applied, and we address related topics in probabilistic inference, optimization, and experimental methodology. Table of Contents: Representations and Linguistic Data / Decoding: Making Predictions / Learning Structure from Annotated Data / Learning Structure from Incomplete Data / Beyond Decoding: Inference
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Advances In Chinese Spoken Language Processing

Author : Chin-Hui Lee
ISBN : 9789812772961
Genre : Computers
File Size : 80.42 MB
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After decades of research activity, Chinese spoken language processing (CSLP) has advanced considerably both in practical technology and theoretical discovery. In this book, the editors provide both an introduction to the field as well as unique research problems with their solutions in various areas of CSLP. The contributions represent pioneering efforts ranging from CSLP principles to technologies and applications, with each chapter encapsulating a single problem and its solutions.A commemorative volume for the 10th anniversary of the international symposium on CSLP in Singapore, this is a valuable reference for established researchers and an excellent introduction for those interested in the area of CSLP.
Category: Computers

Natural Language Processing And Computational Linguistics 2

Author : Zakaria Kurdi
ISBN : 9781848219212
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 29.71 MB
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Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the intersection of fields such as Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, and Cognitive Psychology. This book presents in four chapters the state of the art and fundamental concepts of key NLP areas. Are presented in the first chapter the fundamental concepts in lexical semantics, lexical databases, knowledge representation paradigms, and ontologies. The second chapter is about combinatorial and formal semantics. Discourse and text representation as well as automatic discourse segmentation and interpretation, and anaphora resolution are the subject of the third chapter. Finally, in the fourth chapter, I will cover some aspects of large scale applications of NLP such as software architecture and their relations to cognitive models of NLP as well as the evaluation paradigms of NLP software. Furthermore, I will present in this chapter the main NLP applications such as Machine Translation (MT), Information Retrieval (IR), as well as Big Data and Information Extraction such as event extraction, sentiment analysis and opinion mining.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Natural Language Processing With Python

Author : Steven Bird
ISBN : 9780596555719
Genre : Computers
File Size : 66.71 MB
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This book offers a highly accessible introduction to natural language processing, the field that supports a variety of language technologies, from predictive text and email filtering to automatic summarization and translation. With it, you'll learn how to write Python programs that work with large collections of unstructured text. You'll access richly annotated datasets using a comprehensive range of linguistic data structures, and you'll understand the main algorithms for analyzing the content and structure of written communication. Packed with examples and exercises, Natural Language Processing with Python will help you: Extract information from unstructured text, either to guess the topic or identify "named entities" Analyze linguistic structure in text, including parsing and semantic analysis Access popular linguistic databases, including WordNet and treebanks Integrate techniques drawn from fields as diverse as linguistics and artificial intelligence This book will help you gain practical skills in natural language processing using the Python programming language and the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) open source library. If you're interested in developing web applications, analyzing multilingual news sources, or documenting endangered languages -- or if you're simply curious to have a programmer's perspective on how human language works -- you'll find Natural Language Processing with Python both fascinating and immensely useful.
Category: Computers

Automatic Ambiguity Resolution In Natural Language Processing

Author : Alexander Franz
ISBN : 3540620044
Genre : Computers
File Size : 83.39 MB
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This is an exciting time for Artificial Intelligence, and for Natural Language Processing in particular. Over the last five years or so, a newly revived spirit has gained prominence that promises to revitalize the whole field: the spirit of empiricism. This book introduces a new approach to the important NLP issue of automatic ambiguity resolution, based on statistical models of text. This approach is compared with previous work and proved to yield higher accuracy for natural language analysis. An effective implementation strategy is also described, which is directly useful for natural language analysis. The book is noteworthy for demonstrating a new empirical approach to NLP; it is essential reading for researchers in natural language processing or computational linguistics.
Category: Computers

Morphological Aspects Of Language Processing

Author : Feldman, Louis
ISBN : 0805813586
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 86.49 MB
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It is now well established that phonological -- and orthographic -- codes play a crucial role in the recognition of isolated words and in understanding the sequences of words that comprise a sentence. However, words and sentences are organized with respect to morphological as well as phonological components. It is thus unfortunate that the morpheme has received relatively little attention in the experimental literature, either from psychologists or linguists. Due to recent methodological developments, however, now is an opportune time to address morphological issues. In the experimental literature, there is a tendency to examine various psycholinguistic processes in English and then to assume that the account given applies with equal significance to English and to other languages. Written languages differ, however, in the extent to which they capture phonological as contrasted with morphological units. Moreover, with respect to the morpheme, languages differ in the principle by which morphemes are connected to form new words. This volume focuses on morphological processes in word recognition and reading with an eye toward comparing morphological processes with orthographic and phonological processes. Cross-language comparisons are examined as a tool with which to probe universal linguistic processes, and a variety of research methodologies are described. Because it makes the experimental literature in languages other than English more accessible, this book is expected to be of interest to many readers. It also directs attention to the subject of language processing in general -- an issue which is of central interest to cognitive psychologists and linguists as well as educators and clinicians.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Connectionist Psycholinguistics

Author : Morten H. Christiansen
ISBN : 1567505953
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 46.68 MB
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Presents a survey on Connectionist Psycholinguists by leading researchers in this fast-developing field.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Cross Linguistic Perspectives On Language Processing

Author : M. de Vincenzi
ISBN : 9789401139496
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 65.30 MB
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Recent studies in psycho linguistics have ranged through a variety of languages. In this trend, which has no precedent, studies in language processing have followed studies in language acquisition and theoretical linguistics in considering language universals in a broader scope than only in English. Since the beginning of the century, studies in language acquisition have produced a vast body of data from a number of Indoeuropean languages, and the emphasis on the universal has preceded the emphasis on the particular (see (Slobin 1985) for a review). Nowadays, the research in the field advances by means of a continuous linking between the cross-linguistic uniformities and the individual language influences on development. The level of language universals is continuously refined as the data from a number of languages contribute to the elaboration of a more distinctive picture of the language of children. The first cross-linguistic studies in theoretical linguistics appeared at the end of the seventies. Within the Chomskian paradigm, the reference to the Romance languages caused a shift from a rule-based toward a principle-based formalism (Chomsky 1981, 1995); within alternative theories, the reduced prominence of the pure phrase structure component in favor of the lexicon and/or the functional relations (see, e.g., Lexical Functional Grammar (Bresnan 1982), Relational Grammar (Perlmutter 1983)) sought empirical support in languages exhibiting deep structural differences with respect to English (e.g. Bantu, Malayalam, Romance and Slavic languages Warlpiri). The M. De Vincenzi and V. Lombardo (eds.), Cross-linguistic Perspectives on Language Processing, 1-19.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Mediating Between Concepts And Grammar

Author : Holden Härtl
ISBN : 9783110919585
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 37.76 MB
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Researchers with backgrounds in theoretical linguistics, computational linguistics, psycholinguistics, and psychology have contributed to the interdisciplinary discussion of the interface between conceptual representations and linguistic structures. This book fills a critical gap in cognitive science. The study implements the objective of determining the impact that adjoining non-linguistic cognitive systems have on linguistic encoding, the mapping between representations, and the requirements of language processing. In this setting event conceptualization and verbalization is treated as one central phenomenon from the different interdisciplinary viewpoints. Theoretical analyses are confronted with psycholinguistic findings about the processing of event representations. Further empirical issues like the influence of visual perception on speech become apparent since we are primarily concerned with the overall architecture of the language processing system as an integral part of the cognitive endowment. Here, the lexicon is recognized as a mediator between linguistic and non-linguistic, semantic and syntactic components. The volume constitutes a major contribution to knowledge in the field and will be of value to an interdisciplinary audience.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Foundations Of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Author : Christopher D.. Manning
ISBN : 0262133601
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 78.85 MB
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An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistics And Aphasia

Author : Ruth Lesser
ISBN : 9781317901280
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 81.23 MB
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Linguistics and Aphasia is a major study of recent developments in applying psycholinguistics and pragmatics to the study of acquired language disorders (aphasia) and their remediation. Psycholinguistic analyses of aphasia interpret disorders in terms of damaged modules and processes within what was once a normal language system. These analyses have progressed to the point that they now routinely provide a model-based rationalefor planning patient therapy. Through a series of case studies, the authors show how the psycholinguistic analysis of aphasia can be assessed for its effectiveness in clinical practice. Pragmatic approaches to the study of aphasia are of more recent origin. Ruth Lesser and Lesley Milroy evaluate their considerable significance to the study of aphasia and their relevance to practical issues of diagnosis and treatment. Controversial analysis, in particular, offers a fruitful and productive framework within which to assess the functional adequacy of the language used by aphasic speakers in everyday contexts.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Limits Of Syntactic Variation

Author : Theresa Biberauer
ISBN : 9789027290663
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 75.62 MB
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Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Parallel Natural Language Processing

Author : Geert Adriaens
ISBN : 0893918695
Genre : Computers
File Size : 56.14 MB
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Parallel processing is not only a general topic of interest for computer scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence, but it is gaining more and more attention in the community of scientists studying natural language and its processing (computational linguists, AI researchers, psychologists). The growing need to integrate large divergent bodies of knowledge in natural language processing applications, or the belief that massively parallel systems are the only ones capable of handling the complexities and subtleties of natural language, are just two examples of the reasons for this increasing interest.
Category: Computers