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European Union Law For International Business

Author : Bernard Bishop
ISBN : 9781139480918
Genre : Law
File Size : 65.22 MB
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Written specifically for exporters and those without legal training, this book is an introduction to the business laws of the European Union that need to be understood by those operating outside the EU. It is a practical guide to the regulatory and procedural issues that exporters and businesses need to be aware of. While providing an overview of how the EU operates as a governing body, the book addresses the key matters that exporters will face during their business transactions. Topics covered include: • Direct export transactions to the EU • Exporting via an agent or distributor • Customs laws and procedures • Resolving international business disputes • How to establish a permanent business presence within the EU The book uses case studies to illustrate how these transaction types can be applied to real world business dealings. It is an essential resource for anyone involved in international business with customers in the European Union.
Category: Law

The Fraud Rule In The Law Of Letters Of Credit A Comparative Study

Author : Xiang Gao
ISBN : 9789041198983
Genre : Law
File Size : 54.74 MB
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"Dr. Gao finds the best provisions and practices in respect of the fraud rule in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, and applies these standards to the reformulation of the fraud rule in the PRC. In the process be surveys the entire field of the fraud rule in the law of letters of credit in its substantive aspects, thus going deeper than mere banking law analyses and revealing, for the benefit of jurists everywhere, the fundamental legal issues that must underlie all sound judicial reasoning in the area. In more practical terms, this approach also allows judges to meet their essential responsibility - that of giving an answer when a case is put before them - with the widest and best possible degree of discernment."--BOOK JACKET.
Category: Law

American International Law Cases Fourth Series

Author : Oceana Editorial Board
ISBN : 9780199758920
Genre :
File Size : 32.36 MB
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AILC is an annual case law reporter that provides the full text of U.S. court opinions involving international law issues. The courts covered include all U.S. federal district courts, federal appellate courts, and the U.S. Supreme Court, as well as some state courts, the U.S. Court of Claims,the U.S. Court of International Trade, and the U.S. Tax Court. The series seeks to provide not every single case in which a court refers to international law but rather all cases that analyze at least one international law issue in depth. The list of subjects addressed by these volumes is vast and changes from year to year, with the inclusion and prominence of most topics turning on their prevalence in a given year's jurisprudence. Some consistently prominent topics are personal jurisdiction over foreign defendants, deportationprocedure, and double taxation. Over the last three editions (2006, 2007, and 2008), many topics have developed rapidly and constitute a correspondingly larger portion of the volumes, particularly Terrorism, the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, Forum Non Conveniens, and an entirely new, addedtopic: the National Security Exception (to deportation eligibility). The 2008 edition of AILC also features expanded sections on family law and on the detention of terrorist suspects. The U.S. war on terror and the crisis at Guantanamo have made that last topic a significant and dynamic component ofAILC. Each edition of AILC also comes framed with two practical resources for students and scholars. The first is an introductory editor's note that both reviews international law's major developments for the given year and explains to readers how to use the volumes. The second is a subject indexto allow for targeted research. Volume Eight of AILC involves issues involving aliens, such as deportation, extradition, aiding and transporting illegal aliens, and border entry. It also includes issues in international courts and issues surrounding war, belligerency, and neutrality. In Gherebi v. Obama, the petitioners,detainees at Guantanamo Bay, challenge the legality of their confinement by the government, seeking the issuance of writs of habeas corpus to secure their release from detention. The issue was whether the President has the authority to detain individuals as part of its ongoing military campaignagainst al-Quaeda and, if so, what is the scope of that authority. In Vinyls, Inc. v. United States, the issue was whether the Court of International Trade correctly concluded that the imported product, whose textile component is made entirely of man-made fibers, is a "product with textilecomponents in which man-made fibers predominate by weight over another single textile fiber." The court concluded that the Court of International Trade Correctly classified the subject goods.

Standby Letters Of Credit In International Trade

Author : Ramandeep Kaur Chhina
ISBN : 9789041146243
Genre : Law
File Size : 62.43 MB
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The question of what constitutes ‘fraud in the transaction’ with respect to international letters of credit varies considerably among jurisdictions. In proving allegations of fraud, it is crucial for the practitioner to know the relevant jurisdiction’s case law, especially if wider defences such as inducement, unconscionable conduct or bad faith must be invoked. In this book, the author argues that, whereas ‘fraud in the documents’ is generally sufficient in cases involving commercial letters of credit, standby letters of credit demand a wider fraud exception. The central issue – how wide that fraud exception should be – is what this book explores in depth.This author compares and critically examines the application of the fraud exception in four major trade jurisdictions – the United States, England, Canada, and Australia. With an overall focus on how each jurisdiction’s fraud tests treat the autonomy of standby letters of credit, she builds her arguments on such relevant sources and concepts as the following: when it can be shown that the beneficiary has ‘no bona fide belief’ in the validity of its claim demand guarantees; international initiatives (ICC Rules and the UN Convention on Independent Guarantee and Standby Letters of Credit); the Sztejn Rule; parameters of the ‘fraud in the transaction’ defence ‘materiality’ standard; prerequisites for injunctive relief; arguing ‘fraud in the formation of the contract’; performance bond cases; applying the ‘breach of good faith’ defence; ‘negative stipulation’ in the underlying contract; and equitable versus statutory/broader notion of unconscionability. The presentation includes detailed summaries and analyses of leading cases in all four jurisdictions. Lawyers and corporate counsel responsible for arguing claims or defences in letter of credit transactions will welcome the way the author's research and insight define the range of options in each case they handle. Academics also will appreciate the systematic way the book frames a complex area of international trade law.
Category: Law