Ladoga And Onego Great European Lakes

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Ladoga And Onego Great European Lakes

Author : Leonid Rukhovets
ISBN : 9783540681458
Genre : Science
File Size : 52.14 MB
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Lakes Ladoga and Onego are the greatest lakes in Europe. With a surface area of 17891 km2 and a volume of 902 km3, the former is one of the top fifteen world’s freshwater lakes and is only slightly smaller than Lake Ontario. Lake Onego’s surface area is 9600 km2 and it has a volume of 292 km3. The watershed of Lake Ladoga (258000 km2) extends through Northwestern European Russia and the eastern part of Finland, including the large Lakes Ilmen and Saimaa, and together these Great European Lakes are an important link in the Caspian-Baltic-White Sea waterway system. Their ecological state affects the water quality of the Neva River, the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. Thus any changes affect the operational use, environmental protection and management of water resources of a wide area and concern such issues as drinking, recreation, transport and energy. The anthropogenic impact on the Lake Onego ecosystem is mostly determined by the sewage waters of the Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga industrial centres, while the river inflow makes the most impact on Lake Ladoga. Although the anthropogenic stress on the water ecosystems of the Great European Lakes has decreased over the last 15 years, there has been some simultaneous evidence of global warming. There is not enough current data to identify the climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems, but there is proof that the main cause of lacustrine ecosystem changes is determined by anthropogenic factors.
Category: Science

Ladoga And Onego Great European Lakes

Author : Leonid Rukhovets
ISBN : 3540681442
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.35 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 330
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Lakes Ladoga and Onego are the greatest lakes in Europe. With a surface area of 17891 km2 and a volume of 902 km3, the former is one of the top fifteen world’s freshwater lakes and is only slightly smaller than Lake Ontario. Lake Onego’s surface area is 9600 km2 and it has a volume of 292 km3. The watershed of Lake Ladoga (258000 km2) extends through Northwestern European Russia and the eastern part of Finland, including the large Lakes Ilmen and Saimaa, and together these Great European Lakes are an important link in the Caspian-Baltic-White Sea waterway system. Their ecological state affects the water quality of the Neva River, the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea. Thus any changes affect the operational use, environmental protection and management of water resources of a wide area and concern such issues as drinking, recreation, transport and energy. The anthropogenic impact on the Lake Onego ecosystem is mostly determined by the sewage waters of the Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga industrial centres, while the river inflow makes the most impact on Lake Ladoga. Although the anthropogenic stress on the water ecosystems of the Great European Lakes has decreased over the last 15 years, there has been some simultaneous evidence of global warming. There is not enough current data to identify the climate-induced changes in lake ecosystems, but there is proof that the main cause of lacustrine ecosystem changes is determined by anthropogenic factors.
Category: Science

Nonlinear Internal Waves In Lakes

Author : Kolumban Hutter
ISBN : 3642234380
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.94 MB
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Internal wave dynamics in lakes (and oceans) is an important physical component of geophysical fluid mechanics of ‘quiescent’ water bodies of the Globe. The formation of internal waves requires seasonal stratification of the water bodies and generation by (primarily) wind forces. Because they propagate in basins of variable depth, a generated wave field often experiences transformation from large basin-wide scales to smaller scales. As long as this fission is hydrodynamically stable, nothing dramatic will happen. However, if vertical density gradients and shearing of the horizontal currents in the metalimnion combine to a Richardson number sufficiently small (
Category: Science

Travaux

Author : International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology
ISBN : UCSD:31822009596917
Genre : Freshwater biology
File Size : 33.43 MB
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Category: Freshwater biology

Submarine Groundwater

Author : Igor S. Zektser
ISBN : 1420005251
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.65 MB
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Sustainable management of water resources is quickly increasing in importance on a global scale. An important piece of the puzzle is the characterization of marine water and determining its importance to geochemical budgets. To do this, submarine groundwater discharges must be carefully studied. Comprehensively exploring the subject, Submarine G
Category: Science

Wooden Church Architecture Of The Russian North

Author : Evgeny Khodakovsky
ISBN : 9781317527190
Genre : Architecture
File Size : 70.88 MB
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The book presents a broad panoramic overview of church architecture in the Russian North between the fourteenth and nineteenth centuries. While it is inevitably overshadowed by the imperial splendour of the country’s capital cities, this unique phenomenon is regarded as the most distinctive national expression of traditional Russian artistic culture and at the same time as a significant part of humanity’s worldwide architectural heritage. The chief intention of the book is to present the regionally specific features of the wooden churches of the Russian North, which vary from area to area for local natural or historical reasons. This approach touches upon the very important questions of the typology and classification of the multiplicity of architectural forms. The "regional view" entails giving clear definitions of the ambiguous terms "architectural school" and "tradition", explaining the origins and shaping impulses for the different regional clusters of objects. Structurally the book presents a history of the development of wooden church architecture in the Russian North and then follows the key points of the mediaeval Russian expansion along the waterways from Novgorod into the North – he Svir’ River, Lake Onego, the town of Kargopol’ and the River Onega, the White Sea, the Rivers Dvina, Pinega and Mezen’ – those areas that still retain the most splendid pieces of Russian regional wooden church architecture. The study is based on field research and provides an up-to-date, multi-faceted view of Russian wooden architecture.
Category: Architecture

Anatolia

Author :
ISBN : PSU:000059817376
Genre : Hospitality industry
File Size : 83.55 MB
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Category: Hospitality industry

Socializing In Russian

Author : Irena P. Ustinova
ISBN : UOM:39015035001158
Genre : English language
File Size : 30.85 MB
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Category: English language