Josephus And The Theologies Of Ancient Judaism

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Josephus And The Theologies Of Ancient Judaism

Author : Jonathan Klawans
ISBN : 9780199928620
Genre : Religion
File Size : 83.11 MB
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Though considered one of the most important informants about Judaism in the first century CE, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus's testimony is often overlooked or downplayed. Jonathan Klawans's Josephus and the Theologies of Ancient Judaism reexamines Josephus's descriptions of sectarian disagreements concerning determinism and free will, the afterlife, and scriptural authority. In each case, Josephus's testimony is analyzed in light of his works' general concerns as well as relevant biblical, rabbinic, and Dead Sea texts. Many scholars today argue that ancient Jewish sectarian disputes revolved primarily or even exclusively around matters of ritual law, such as calendar, cultic practices, or priestly succession. Josephus, however, indicates that the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes disagreed about matters of theology, such as afterlife and determinism. Similarly, many scholars today argue that ancient Judaism was thrust into a theological crisis in the wake of the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE, yet Josephus's works indicate that Jews were readily able to make sense of the catastrophe in light of biblical precedents and contemporary beliefs. Without denying the importance of Jewish law-and recognizing Josephus's embellishments and exaggerations-Josephus and the Theologies of Ancient Judaism calls for a renewed focus on Josephus's testimony, and models an approach to ancient Judaism that gives theological questions a deserved place alongside matters of legal concern. Ancient Jewish theology was indeed significant, diverse, and sufficiently robust to respond to the crisis of its day.
Category: Religion

Theologies Of Creation In Early Judaism And Ancient Christianity

Author : Tobias Nicklas
ISBN : 9783110246308
Genre : Religion
File Size : 79.17 MB
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As environmental destruction begins to seriously affect humans, it has become increasingly relevant to reflect on the essential elements of the Jewish and Christian theologies of creation. The essays in this volume explore key aspects of creation theology, which poses the question of the origin of the world and of man. Creation theology is rooted in the concept of man who owes his existence to God and who is placed in a cosmos which God created as good . At the same time, the essays show that even back in antiquity, the creation discussion held high potential for ideological criticism."
Category: Religion

Heresy Forgery Novelty

Author : Jonathan Klawans
ISBN : 9780190062507
Genre : Religion
File Size : 51.56 MB
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It is commonly asserted that heresy is a Christian invention that emerged in late antiquity as Christianity distinguished itself from Judaism. Heresy, Forgery, Novelty probes ancient Jewish disputes regarding religious innovation and argues that Christianity's heresiological impulse is in fact indebted to Jewish precedents. In this book, Jonathan Klawans demonstrates that ancient Jewish literature displays a profound unease regarding religious innovation. The historian Josephus condemned religious innovation outright, and later rabbis valorize the antiquity of their traditions. The Dead Sea sectarians spoke occasionally-and perhaps secretly-of a "new covenant," but more frequently masked newer ideas in rhetorics of renewal or recovery. Other ancient Jews engaged in pseudepigraphy-the false attribution of recent works to prophets of old. The flourishing of such religious forgeries further underscores the dangers associated with religious innovation. As Christianity emerged, the discourse surrounding religious novelty shifted dramatically. On the one hand, Christians came to believe that Jesus had inaugurated a "new covenant," replacing what came prior. On the other hand, Christian writers followed their Jewish predecessors in condemning heretics as dangerous innovators, and concealing new works in pseudepigraphic garb. In its open, unabashed embrace of new things, Christianity parts from Judaism. Christianity's heresiological condemnation of novelty, however, displays continuity with prior Jewish traditions. Heresy, Forgery, Novelty reconsiders and offers a new interpretation of the dynamics of the split between Judaism and Christianity.
Category: Religion

Persuasion And Dissuasion In Early Christianity Ancient Judaism And Hellenism

Author : Mjj Menken
ISBN : 9042912804
Genre : Religion
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For those of you who like jargon, this book is about propaganda, protreptics, apologetics and polemics. For those of you who don't, this is a study of ancient religious discourse and the interaction between different religious groups.
Category: Religion

Attitudes To Gentiles In Ancient Judaism And Early Christianity

Author : David C. Sim
ISBN : 9780567035783
Genre : Religion
File Size : 58.49 MB
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This volume describes the attitudes towards Gentiles in both ancient Judaism and the early Christian tradition. The Jewish relationship with and views about the Gentiles played an important part in Jewish self-definition, especially in the Diaspora where Jews formed the minority among larger Gentile populations. Jewish attitudes towards the Gentiles can be found in the writings of prominent Jewish authors (Josephus and Philo), sectarian movements and texts (the Qumran community, apocalyptic literature, Jesus) and in Jewish institutions such as the Jerusalem Temple and the synagogue. In the Christian tradition, which began as a Jewish movement but developed quickly into a predominantly Gentile tradition, the role and status of Gentile believers in Jesus was always of crucial significance. Did Gentile believers need to convert to Judaism as an essential component of their affiliation with Jesus, or had the appearance of the messiah rendered such distinctions invalid? This volume assesses the wide variety of viewpoints in terms of attitudes towards Gentiles and the status and expectations of Gentiles in the Christian church.
Category: Religion

Studies In Josephus Rewritten Bible

Author : Louis H. Feldman
ISBN : 9004108394
Genre : Religion
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The present volume, consisting of 35 studies of various portions of Josephus' "Jewish Antiquities," is an attempt to examine the oldest systematic commentary on the historical books of the Bible that has come down to us. It considers how Josephus resolves apparent contradictions, obscurities, and theological and other questions, as well as the historicity of biblical events, which have puzzled classical commentators on the Bible. It attempts to explain cases, notably Ahab, Hezekiah, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, where Josephus seems to change the biblical text radically. Included are Josephus' interpretations of several phrophets, women and non-Jewish leaders. All of these studies have previously appeared in print over a period of almost three decades in 34 different publications. However, they have been edited, corrected, and updated in many ways.
Category: Religion

Power Ethics And Ecology In Jewish Late Antiquity

Author : Julia Watts Belser
ISBN : 9781107113350
Genre : Nature
File Size : 56.87 MB
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This book analyzes rabbinic responses to drought and disaster, revealing how talmudic tales of charismatic holy men grapple with problems of power, ethics, and ecology in Jewish late antiquity. Aimed at scholars and students of rabbinic literature, it will also appeal to scholars of early Christianity and religion and the environment.
Category: Nature

Josephus And Jewish History In Flavian Rome And Beyond

Author : Joseph Sievers
ISBN : 9789004141797
Genre : History
File Size : 83.65 MB
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This volume focuses on the interplay between Josephus' Judean identity and his Roman context. After treating historiographical and literary issues, it addresses Josephus' presentation of Judaism and of historical "facts." A final section deals with the transmission of his works.
Category: History

The Jewish Annotated Apocrypha

Author : Jonathan Klawans
ISBN : 0190262486
Genre : Bibles
File Size : 23.67 MB
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Building on the success of the Jewish Annotated New Testament (JANT) and the Jewish Study Bible (JSB), Oxford University Press now proceeds to complete the trilogy with the Jewish Annotated Apocrypha (JAA). The books of the Apocrypha were virtually all composed by Jewish writers in the Second Temple period. Excluded from the Hebrew Bible, these works were preserved by Christians. Yet no complete, standalone edition of these works has been produced in English with an emphasis on Jewish tradition or with an educated Jewish audience in mind. The JAA meets this need. The JAA differs from prior editions of the Apocrypha in a number of ways. First, as befits a Jewish Annotated Apocrypha, the volume excludes certain texts that are widely agreed to be of Christian origin. Second, it expands the scope of the volume to include Jubilees, an essential text for understanding ancient Judaism, and a book that merits inclusion in the volume by virtue of the fact that it was long considered part of the canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (the text is also revered by Ethiopian Jews). Third, it has restructured the order of the books so that the sequencing follows the logic that governs the order of the books in the Jewish canon (Law, History, Prophecy, Wisdom and Poetry). Each book of the Apocrypha is annotated by a recognized expert in the study of ancient Judaism. An Introduction by the editors guides readers though the making of the volume and its contents. Thematic essays by an impressive array of scholars provide helpful contexts, backgrounds and elaborations on key themes.
Category: Bibles

Studies In Josephus And The Varieties Of Ancient Judaism

Author : Joshua J. Schwartz
ISBN : 9789047410973
Genre : Religion
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This collection of articles honoring eminent classicist and historian Louis H. Feldman brings together a host of prominent scholars from all over the world writing on such fields as biblical interpretation, Judaism and Hellenism, Jews and Gentiles, Josephus, Jewish Literatures of the Second Temple, Mishnah and Talmud periods, History of the Mishnah and Talmud periods, Jerusalem and much more.
Category: Religion

Josephus Und Das Neue Testament

Author : Christfried Böttrich
ISBN : 3161493680
Genre : Religion
File Size : 75.4 MB
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English summary: Flavius Josephus' works are an invaluable source of material for the history of Judaism in the 1st century AD. The articles in this conference volume deal mainly with the 'mutual perceptions between Josephus' works and New Testament writings. In a discussion between theologians, experts in Jewish studies, ancient historians, philologists and art historians, the authors focus on a wide range of subjects. Leaving the previous selective use of Josephus behind, they engage a productive interdisciplinary discussion. German description: Die Werke des judischen Historikers Flavius Josephus gehoren zu den wichtigsten Quellen fur die Kenntnis des Judentums im 1. Jh. n. Chr. Sie beschreiben jene Welt, in der auch die Jesusbewegung beginnt und in der sich die christlichen Gemeinden der Fruhzeit entwickeln. Im Rahmen eines Projektes zum Corpus Judaeo-Hellenisticum Novi Testamenti (CJHNT), das eine Aufarbeitung der judischen Literatur aus hellenistisch-romischer Zeit fur die Interpretation der neutestamentlichen Schriften zum Inhalt hat, spielt Josephus deshalb eine herausragende Rolle. Die Beitrage des vorliegenden Tagungsbandes, die auf das Greifswalder Symposium im Mai 2006 zuruckgehen, thematisieren vor allem die 'wechselseitigen Wahrnehmungen' zwischen den Werken des Josephus und den Schriften des Neuen Testamentes. Theologen, Judaisten, Althistoriker, Philologen und Kunstgeschichtler treten hier in ein fruchtbares interdisziplinares Gesprach, in dem sie die fruhere selektive 'Benutzung' des Josephus hinter sich lassen. Was die Josephusforschung in den letzten Jahrzehnten an intensiver Arbeit geleistet hat, stellt ein Potential dar, das mit diesem Gesprachsforum fur die Arbeit des CJHNT auf neue Weise nutzbar wird.
Category: Religion

The Spirit In First Century Judaism

Author : John R. Levison
ISBN : 0391041312
Genre : Religion
File Size : 42.58 MB
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The Spirit in First Century Judaism lays a cornerstone in the foundation of pneumatological studies by scouring ancient writings like Plato and Plutarch, Daniel and the Dead Sea Scrolls, as well as those of Philo of Alexandria and Flavius Josephus. This publication has also been published in hardback, please click here for details.
Category: Religion

Philo S Portrayal Of Moses In The Context Of Ancient Judaism

Author : Louis H. Feldman
ISBN : STANFORD:36105131709623
Genre : History
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Philo's Portrayal of Moses in the Context of Ancient Judaism presents the most comprehensive study of Philo's De Vita Mosis that exists in any language. Feldman, well known for his work on Josephus and ancient Judaism, here paves new ground using rabbinic material with philological precision to illuminate important parallels and differences between Philo's writing on Moses and rabbinic literature. One way in which Hellenistic culture marginalized Judaism was by exposing the apparent defects in Moses' life and character. Philo's De vita Mosis is a counterattack to these charges and is a vital piece of his attempt to reconcile Judaism and Hellenism. Feldman rigorously examines the text and shows how Philo presents an aretalogy similar to that of a mythical divine and heroic figure, by glorifying the birth, education, and virtues of Moses. Feldman demonstrates that Philo is careful to explain in a scientific way those portions of the Bible, particularly miracles, that appear incredible to his skeptical Hellenistic readers. Through Feldman's careful analysis, Moses emerges as unique among ancient lawgivers. Philo's Portrayal of Moses in the Context of Ancient Judaism mirrors the organization of Philo's biography of Moses, which is in two books, the first, in the style of Plutarch, proceeding chronologically, and the second, in the style of Suetonius, arranged topically. Feldman's book discusses the life of Moses chronologically and in the third chapter examines his virtues topically. Feldman compares the particular features of Philo's portrait of Moses with the way in which Moses is viewed both by Jewish sources in antiquity (including Pseudo-Philo; Josephus; Graeco-Jewish historians, poets, and philosophers; and in the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Samaritan tradition, Dead Sea Scrolls, and rabbinic tradition) and by non-Jewish sources, notably the Greek and Roman writers who mention him. "This book is a gold mine of information. In two sections that follow the arrangement of Philo's two treatises on the life of Moses, Feldman expertly sets forth an impressive array of material from Philo, other Jewish sources, and non-Jewish sources. Each section on the life of Moses and on his virtues is clearly and helpfully organized into many subsections, and Feldman discusses each topic with characteristic erudition. This is the first book-length study to focus on these Philonic and other traditions about Moses, and readers from a variety of disciplines will find much here to appreciate." --Ellen Birnbaum, author of The Place of Judaism in Philo's Thought: Israel, Jews, and Proselytes "Feldman provides a characteristically thorough, even exhaustive, discussion of Philo's Life of Moses, informed by his unsurpassed knowledge of both Jewish and classical literature. This is a very substantial and welcome contribution to the detailed analysis of the major Jewish philosopher of antiquity." --John J. Collins, Yale Divinity School "This book represents the first full-length treatment of Philo's portrait of Moses in the De vita Moysis. The work is erudite and careful. As is characteristic of Professor Feldman's work as a whole, the strongest quality of this book is it comprehensive nature and encyclopedic learning. It will appeal to a significant number of scholars and students from a wide range of disciplines, including Second Temple Judaism, Rabbinic Judaism, New Testament, and the Early Church." --Gregory E. Sterling, associate professor of theology, University of Notre Dame
Category: History

Jewish Identity In The Greco Roman World

Author : Jörg Frey
ISBN : 9789004158382
Genre : Religion
File Size : 48.87 MB
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The book addresses critical issues of the formation and development of Jewish identity in the late Second Temple period. How could Jewish identity be defined? What about the status of women and the image of 'others'? And what about its ongoing influence in early Christianity?
Category: Religion

Resurrection Of The Dead In Early Judaism 200 Bce Ce 200

Author : C. D. Elledge
ISBN : 9780199640416
Genre : Religion
File Size : 54.38 MB
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Resurrection of the dead represents one of the more enigmatic beliefs of Western religions to many modern readers. In this volume, C. D. Elledge offers an interpretation of some of the earliest literature within Judaism that exhibits a confident hope in resurrection. He not only aids the study of early Jewish literature itself, but expands contemporary knowledge of some of the earliest expressions of a hope that would become increasingly meaningful in later Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Elledge focuses on resurrection in the latest writings of the Hebrew Bible, the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Dead Sea Scrolls, as well as the writings of other Hellenistic Jewish authors. He also incorporates later rabbinic writings, early Christian sources, and inscriptions, as they shed additional light upon select features of the evidence in question. This allows for a deeper look into how particular literary works utilized the discourse of resurrection, while also retaining larger comparative insights into what these materials may teach us about the gradual flourishing of resurrection within its early Jewish environment. Individual chapters balance a more categorical/comparative approach to the problems raised by resurrection (definitions, diverse conceptions, historical origins, strategies of legitimation) with a more specific focus on particular pieces of the early Jewish evidence (1 Enoch, Dead Sea Scrolls, Josephus). Resurrection of the Dead in Early Judaism, 200 BCE-CE 200 provides a treatment of resurrection that informs the study of early Jewish theologies, as well as their later reinterpretations within Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity.
Category: Religion

Blasphemy And Exaltation In Judaism And The Final Examination Of Jesus

Author : Darrell L. Bock
ISBN : 3161470524
Genre : Religion
File Size : 35.42 MB
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Darrell L. Bock examines the historical-cultural background to one of the most significant moments in religious history, the final Jewish examination of Jesus as presented in Mark 14:61-64. He traces the history of interpretive debate surrounding this controversial text and notes that a consensus is emerging that the key statement is the discussion of exaltation using Ps. 110:1 and Dan 7:13. So the author engages in two detailed treatments of the themes of blasphemy and exaltation within Judaism. He works from the Hebrew Scriptures all the way through the rabbinic materials, including both Talmuds and the Midrashim. The study represents the first thorough treatment of blasphemy from this material and examines over 150 texts on this theme. Particular attention is given to whether blasphemy is merely verbal misuse of the divine name or can include the presence of certain statements or acts that are deemed offensive to God's honor. It is noted that these additional categories exist in the culture and are present in a variety of texts that are contemporaneous to the period with examples from Josephus and Philo being predominant. Then the attention turns to the theme of exaltation. A specific concern here is who gets to go directly into God's presence. What do they do? How long are they there? Are there obstacles to their presence? Is there opposition to these kinds of portrayals? Here the key texts include the Exagoge of Moses, the Enoch-Son of Man portrait of 1 Enoch and the Metatron portrait of 3 Enoch. This background is then applied to the study of Mark 14, first as an expression of Mark's message and then to the historical portrait of the scene.
Category: Religion

Passover In The Works Of Josephus

Author : Federico M. Colautti
ISBN : 9004123725
Genre : Religion
File Size : 68.71 MB
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The analysis of the references of Passover in the works of Flavius Josephus, paying special attention to the fact that sometimes he adds or hides the mentioning of this feast, reveals the importance of this celebration for first century Judaism.
Category: Religion

From Jerusalem Priest To Roman Jew

Author : Michael Tuval
ISBN : 3161523865
Genre : History
File Size : 69.89 MB
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In this study, Michael Tuval examines the religion of Flavius Josephus diachronically. The author suggests that because Diaspora Jews could not participate regularly in the cultic life of the Jerusalem Temple, they developed other paradigms of Judaic religiosity. He interprets Josephus as a Jew who began his career as a Judean priest but moved to Rome and gradually became a Diaspora intellectual. Josephus' first work, Judean War, reflects a Judean priestly view of Judaism, with the Temple and cult at the center. After these disappeared, there was not much hope left in the religious realm. Tuval also analyzes Antiquities of the Jews, which was written fifteen years later. Here the religious picture has been transformed drastically. The Temple has been marginalized or replaced by the law which is universal and perfect for all humanity.
Category: History

Approaches To Ancient Judaism

Author : Jacob Neusner
ISBN : UVA:X004326961
Genre : Jewish learning and scholarship
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Category: Jewish learning and scholarship

Memory And Identity In Ancient Judaism And Early Christianity

Author : Tom Thatcher
ISBN : 9781589839540
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42.53 MB
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Essential reading for scholars and students interested in sociology and biblical studies In this collection scholars of biblical texts and rabbinics engage the work of Barry Schwartz, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Sociology at the University of Georgia. Schwartz provides an introductory essay on the study of collective memory. Articles that follow integrate his work into the study of early Jewish and Christian texts. The volume concludes with a response from Schwartz that continues this warm and fruitful dialogue between fields. Features: Articles that integrate the study of collective memory and social psychology into religious studies Essays from Barry Schwartz Theories applied rather than left as abstract principles
Category: Social Science