Javanese Gentry

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Javanese Gentry

Author : Umar Kayam
ISBN : 9798083954
Genre : Fiction
File Size : 71.5 MB
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"In my mind rose a misty picture of a little girl in a floral dress. As for her face: nothing. I could only hope that she had been pretty. I sat overcome. What a procession of developments in one day! Only that morning I had left Madiun; at midday I was wobbling on a buggy past an ocean of rice fields; tonight, suddenly, I had been renamed by my parents and handed a wife." Thus begins Sastrodarsono's life, returning to his village as a newly- appointed schoolteacher, and by virtue of that position, a member of the "priyayi" - functionary gentry awesomely elevated above the peasantry of his origins. From those most traditional of Javanese institutions - change of name and a virtually imposed marriage-he moves on with his bride to found a line of modernizing generations active across the whole span of recent Indonesian history: the 20th century late-colonial period, Japanese occupation, war of independence and two decades of social disorder ending in the mid-1960s with the rise of Suharto's authoritarian New Order government. The ideal of gentrification threads through this saga, both in the implicit concerns of a variety of characters and in the hopes of wretched villagers for whom the literacy necessary to approach that higher status is largely a forlorn dream.
Category: Fiction

Java In The 14th Century

Author : Theodore G.Th. Pigeaud
ISBN : 9789401771337
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.52 MB
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Essentially the following commentary on the contents of the Nägara-Kertägama has been made up from notes by former editors of the text together with remarks, criticisms and digressions by the present author. As Kern, Krom and their contemporaries were especially interested in dynastie history and archeology their notes on those subjects are legion, and as a result of their studies on many points a communis opinio has been reached. The argumentations which led up to this end are not reproduced in the present edition. The interested reader is referred to Krom's great books: Oud-Javaansche Kunst and Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis. It is to be expected that before long the results of Krom's life-work will be made accessible for English readers by De Casparis. On the other hand cultural history, religion, economics and sociology have been rather neglected by the first editors of the Nägara-Kertä gama. The present author has done his best to remedy that omission. The reader will find that the greater part of the following commen taries is concerned with those subjects. The contemporaneous minor texts and the charters that are published, translated and annotated in the present book in the same manner as the Nägara-Kertägama have been chosen almost exc1usively for the valuable information on social, economic and religious conditions in the 14th century Majapahit realm that is afforded by them.
Category: Social Science

Asian Visions Of Authority

Author : Charles F. Keyes
ISBN : 0824814711
Genre : Religion
File Size : 53.55 MB
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Since the Meiji Restoration in 1868 initiated a new era in Asian history, the rulers of various Asian states have sought to control, marginalize, or suppress religious communities within their territories to ensure that these communities do not promote visions in conflict with those of the state. It is now apparent that the modernization and nation-building projects of Asian states in that era have not only failed to subordinate religious authority to that of the state, but have created a crisis of authority that has led many people in these countries to turn to religious visions of authority other than those sanctioned by their states. The essays in this volume together make an important statement about the nature of Asian religions and societies in the late twentieth century, and demonstrate that, despite the modernization of East and Southeast Asia, religious activity has remained resilient and pervasive. As Jean Comaroff writes in her Epilogue to this work, "... the 'religions of Asia' were often invoked as evidence for a global evolutionary scheme in which Europe emerged as the birthplace of secular reason, itself the sine qua non of modern life. Yet the present essays draw on Asian history and ethnography to assert... that religion and ritual are crucial in the life of 'modern' nations and communities, in Asia as elsewhere. They urge us, in collective voice, to distrust disenchantment, to rethink the telos of development that still informs the models of much mainstream social science." The noted scholars contributing to this volume examine some of the tensions and conflicts between states and religious communities over the scope of religious views of the communities, the consequences of state-imposed definitions of religion, and the religious basis for resistance to state authority. These studies focus on Japan, Korea, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Cambodia. A work of substantial and well-grounded scholarship, Asian Visions of Authority will be of great interest to specialists in East and Southeast Asia, to students of religion and society, and to both sociologists of religion and religious studies specialists in Asian traditions.
Category: Religion

Social Theory As A Vocation

Author : Donald N. Levine
ISBN : 9781351489423
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 83.11 MB
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In this unprecedented collection, Donald N. Levine rejuvenates the field of social theory in the face of lagging institutional support. The work canvasses the universe of types of theory work in sociology and offers probing examples from his array of scholarly investigations.Social Theory as a Vocation throws fresh light on the texts of classic authors (Comte, Durkheim, Simmel, Weber, Park, Parsons, and Merton). Ranging widely, its substantive chapters deal with the sociology of strangers and the somatic dimensions of social conflict; the social functions of ambiguity and the use of metaphors in science; contemporary dilemmas of Ethiopian society; logical tensions in the ideas of freedom and reason; and the meaning of nationhood in our global era. The book includes Levine's transformative analysis of the field of Ethiopian studies, and his acclaimed interpretation of the discontents of modernity. It makes the bold move to merge philosophically informed analyses with empirical work.Finally, Levine focuses on what he views as the contemporary crisis of liberal education, and offers suggestions for ways to stimulate new efforts in teaching and learning to do social theory. This book is an integral contribution to social science collections and should be read by all interested in the future of the social sciences.
Category: Social Science


Author : Umar Kayam
ISBN : 0987463721
Genre : Indonesian fiction
File Size : 52.13 MB
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From their origin in paddy mud during the final decades of the Dutch East Indies, to unimagined roles within the new structures of a modernising Indonesia, 'Gentry' is the saga of an extended Javanese family heroically pursuing its dream of betterment through a social leap. There was in that era at the start of this story a unique route by which an exceptionally determined peasant might attain the status of a 'priyayi' functionary gentry with a government salary, bureaucratic aristocrats with duties divorced from manual labour, bearers of noble principles of responsibility, figures infinitely esteemed by the illiterate masses below them: that road was education. In 1920s Java, as little as five years of primary schooling--when obtainable--could make the difference. Sastrodarsono's epic begins in the dearth and misery fixed in the race-memory of his forebears, and in an awareness too of where history is tending. The good will of a local priyayi administrator gains for the young man sufficient schooling to qualify him for a position as a humble village-teacher. He has 'mastered the sciences', in the view of the astonished countryside from which he derives. Out of him will spring and extend a clan of such gentry; his children, who will now be born priyayi, shall go on to greater achievements, higher levels of education and prestige, to further consolidate their gentility. And as they do--and Umar Kayam movingly and with wry humour describes the parade of those generations progressing in joy and sorrow to further their founder's grand ideal--suddenly the immemorial stability of the Indies is riven by war, invasion, a liberation struggle, rebellion and coup, and by the stresses consequent on an awakening country confronting modernity. Ultimately, 'Darsono's striving addresses to the reader and to all social humanity an inevitable question: have we any choice as human beings but to evolve and endeavour? Kayam answers it as well as anyone can: one must go on, whatever the difficulties surrounding life; go on and take as many others as possible forward with oneself, in the spirit of duty to family, to nation, and to the human race. The simple ambitions of a Javanese peasant are in this book transformed into a philosophical quest with universal relevance.
Category: Indonesian fiction

Cross Cultural Pragmatics

Author : Anna Wierzbicka
ISBN : UOM:39015046381656
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 58.48 MB
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This book challenges the approaches to human interaction based on supposedly universal 'maxims of conversation' and 'principles of politeness,' which fly in the face of reality as experienced by millions of people crossing language boundaries (refugees, immigrants, etc.) and which cannot help in the practical tasks of cross-cultural communication and education. In contrast to such approaches, this book is both theoretical and practical: it shows that in different societies, norms of human interaction are different and reflect different cultural attitudes and values; and it offers a framework within which different cultural norms and different ways of speaking can be effectively explored, explained, and taught. The book discusses data from a wide range of languages and it shows that the meanings expressed in human interaction and the different 'cultural scripts' prevailing in different speech communities can be clearly and intelligibly described and compared by using a 'natural semantic metalanguage,' based on empirically established universal human concepts. As the book shows, this metalanguage can be used as a basis for teaching successful cross-cultural communication, including the teaching of languages in a cultural context.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Asia Case Studies In The Social Sciences

Author : Myron L. Cohen
ISBN : UOM:39015029238469
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 38.7 MB
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Includes information for teaching units on topics in the social sciences in various Asian cultures.
Category: Social Science