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Author : David Griffiths
ISBN : 9783527618477
Genre : Science
File Size : 24.92 MB
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This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complications of spin. And an accessible treatment of QED shows how to evaluate tree-level diagrams. Contains an abundance of worked examples and many end-of-chapter problems.

Author : W.S.C. Williams
ISBN : 9780323161596
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.37 MB
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An Introduction to Elementary Particles, Second Edition aims to give an introduction to the theoretical methods and ideas used to describe how elementary particles behave, as well as interpret some of the phenomena associated with it. The book covers topics such as quantum mechanics; brats, kets, vectors, and linear operations; angular momentum; scattering and reaction theory; the polarization and angularization of spin-0-spin-1/2 scattering; and symettery, isotopic spin, and hypercharge. The book also discusses particles such as bosons, baryons, mesons, kaons, and hadrons, as well as the interactions between them. The text is recommended for physicists, especially those who are practitioners and researchers in the fields of quantum physics and elementary-particle physics.

Author : Yu. V. Novozhilov
ISBN : 9781483187310
Genre : Science
File Size : 53.36 MB
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Introduction to Elementary Particle Theory details the fundamental concepts and basic principles of the theory of elementary particles. The title emphasizes on the phenomenological foundations of relativistic theory and to the strong interactions from the S-matrix standpoint. The text first covers the basic description of elementary particles, and then proceeds to tackling relativistic quantum mechanics and kinematics. Next the selection deals with the problem of internal symmetry. In the last part, the title details the elements of dynamical theory. The book will be of great use to students and researchers in the field of particle physics.

In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

Author : O. M. Boyarkin
ISBN : 160021200X
Genre : Science
File Size : 27.5 MB
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In this textbook, all known fundamental interactions are considered and the main directions of their unification are reviewed. The basic theoretical ideas and experiments, which permit establishing a quark-lepton level of matter structure are discussed. A general scheme for the theory of interacting fields with the help of the local gauge invariance principle is given. This scheme is used for presentation of the basic aspects of the quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory of Weinberg-Salam-Glashow. Principles of operation and designs of accelerators, neutrino telescopes, and elementary particle detectors are considered. The modern theory of the Universe evolution is described.

Enrico Fermi, winner of the Nobel Prize for research in neutron physics, makes accessible to the general student of physics the most significant results of the field theories of elementary particles, emphasizing simple, semi-quantitative procedures requiring a minimum of mathematical apparatus.

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309060370
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.3 MB
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Part of the Physics in a New Era series of assessments of the various branches of the field, Elementary-Particle Physics reviews progress in the field over the past 10 years and recommends actions needed to address the key questions that remain unanswered. It explains in simple terms the present picture of how matter is constructed. As physicists have probed ever deeper into the structure of matter, they have begun to explore one of the most fundamental questions that one can ask about the universe: What gives matter its mass? A new international accelerator to be built at the European laboratory CERN will begin to explore some of the mechanisms proposed to give matter its heft. The committee recommends full U.S. participation in this project as well as various other experiments and studies to be carried out now and in the longer term.

The last few years have seen particular excitement in particle physics, culminating in the experimental confirmation of the W and Z particles. Ian Kenyon, who was involved in the UA1 experiment at CERN that searched for the particles, provides an introduction to particle physics and takes a refreshingly non-historical approach. The aim of the book has been to concentrate on the 'standard model' and the gauge symmetries because these form the core of the subject. Leptons, quarks and forces are introduced at the beginning. After this introduction the gauge theories are dealt with in order of increasing complexity. Attention is then focussed on the hadrons - deep inelastic scattering of hadrons, then hadron spectroscopy and finally hadron interactions. Current developments beyond the standard model appear in the last chapter.

Author : A. A. Sokolov
ISBN : 9781483185286
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.7 MB
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Elementary Particles details the fundamental concepts that are essential in understanding elementary particles. The book first discusses the concept of elementary particles, and then proceeds to covering the prediction of the positron by Dirac and its experimental discovery. Next, the selection talks about nucleons and pions, along with beta-disintegration and the discovery of the neutrino. The next chapter deals with the problem of non-conservation of parity. The last chapter covers resonons. The book will be of great interest to physicists, particularly those who specialize in quantum mechanics.

Author : Richard Lighthouse
ISBN : 9781310993619
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.7 MB
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This is a significant breakthrough in elementary particle physics. This paper presents the complete table of 1024 elementary particles based on the QAM model as the first Periodic Table for Elementary Particles. A 1024-QAM table is presented that graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. Interestingly, the math that describes QAM is simple and elegant. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the mass gaps, and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM. QAM is very simple – it is the math used for wifi signals, and it perfectly fits the sequence of elementary particle masses. Numerous other particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. This paper provides compelling evidence that our universe is blinking at a high frequency.

Author : Piotr Żenczykowski
ISBN : 9789814525701
Genre : Science
File Size : 37.81 MB
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The Standard Model of elementary particles, although very successful, contains various elements that are put in by hand. Understanding their origin requires going beyond the model and searching for “new physics”. The present book elaborates on one particular proposal concerning such physics. While the original conception is 50 years old, it has not lost its appeal over time. Its basic idea is that space — an arena of events treated in the Standard Model as a classical background — is a concept which emerges from a strictly discrete quantum layer in the limit of large quantum numbers. This book discusses an extension of this view by replacing space with phase space. It combines the results of the author's research papers and places them in much broader philosophical and phenomenological contexts, thus providing further arguments in favor of the proposed alternative. The book should be of interest to the philosophically-minded readers who are willing to contemplate unorthodox ideas on the very nature of the world. Contents:IntroductionPhilosophy and Physics:Reality and Its DescriptionClassical and Quantum Aspects of RealityTime for a ChangeElementary Particles:The Standard Model and the Subparticle ParadigmThe Problem of MassConstituent Quarks and Spacetime PointsElementary Particles and Macroscopic SpacePhase Space and Quantum:Phase Space and Its SymmetriesQuantizing Phase SpaceElementary Particles from a Phase-Space PerspectiveGeneralizing the Concept of MassOverview Readership: Professionals and researchers in theoretical physics, philosophy of science, particle physics and quantum physics. Keywords:Elementary Particles;Classical-Quantum Tension;Emergent Spacetime;Process Philosophy;Being and Becoming;Time and Change;Standard Model;Problem of Mass;Current and Constituent Quarks;Low-Energy Hadron Phenomenology;Space Quantization;Born's Reciprocity;Phase-Space Symmetries;Dirac Linearization;Clifford Algebra;Internal Quantum Numbers;Hariri-Shupe Preon Model;Hadron and Quark CompositenessKey Features:The main idea is supported by a rare, coherent combination of philosophical, theoretical and phenomenological argumentsThe book uniquely links the structure of a single Standard Model generation of elementary particles to the symmetries of nonrelativistic phase spaceThe book suggests a novel way of looking at the concept of quark mass, as well as that of mass in general

The book provides theoretical and phenomenological insights on the structure of matter, presenting concepts and features of elementary particle physics and fundamental aspects of nuclear physics. Starting with the basics (nomenclature, classification, acceleration techniques, detection of elementary particles), the properties of fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are introduced with a mathematical formalism suited to undergraduate students. Some experimental results (the discovery of neutral currents and of the W± and Z0 bosons; the quark structure observed using deep inelastic scattering experiments) show the necessity of an evolution of the formalism. This motivates a more detailed description of the weak and strong interactions, of the Standard Model of the microcosm with its experimental tests, and of the Higgs mechanism. The open problems in the Standard Model of the microcosm and macrocosm are presented at the end of the book.

Author : Dag Gillberg
ISBN : 1441977996
Genre : Science
File Size : 60.15 MB
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The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking—the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. It documents one of the flagship measurements of the D0 experiment, a collaboration of more than 600 physicists from around the world. It describes first observation of a physical process known as “single top quark production”, which had been sought for more than 10 years before its eventual discovery in 2009. Further, his thesis describes, in detail, the innovative approach Dr. Gillberg took to this analysis. Through the use of Boosted Decision Trees, a machine-learning technique, he observed the tiny single top signal within an otherwise overwhelming background. This Doctoral Thesis has been accepted by Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

A sequel to the well received book, Quantum Mechanics by T Y Wu, this book carries on where the earlier volume ends. This present volume follows the generally pedagogic style of Quantum Mechanics. The scope ranges from relativistic quantum mechanics to an introduction to quantum field theory with quantum electrodynamics as the basic example and ends with an exposition of important issues related to the standard model. The book presents the subject in basic and easy-to-grasp notions which will enhance the purpose of this book as a useful textbook in the area of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.