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Author : Bruce Bassett
ISBN : 9781848317703
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.77 MB
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It is now more than a century since Einstein's theories of Special and General Relativity began to revolutionise our view of the universe. Beginning near the speed of light and proceeding to explorations of space-time and curved spaces, "Introducing Relativity" plots a visually accessible course through the thought experiments that have given shape to contemporary physics. Scientists from Newton to Hawking add their unique contributions to this story, as we encounter Einstein's astounding vision of gravity as the curvature of space-time and arrive at the breathtakingly beautiful field equations. Einstein's legacy is reviewed in the most advanced frontiers of physics today - black holes, gravitational waves, the accelerating universe and string theory. This is a superlative, fascinating graphic account of Einstein's strange world and how his legacy has been built upon since.

Author : W.S.C. Williams
ISBN : 0415277620
Genre : Science
File Size : 22.7 MB
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Introducing Special Relativity provides an easy and rewarding way into special relativity for first and second year university students studying physics. The author establishes the fundamentals of relativity at the outset of this book so readers fully understand the principles and know how to them before moving on to subjects, like time dilation, that often are a source of difficulty for students. The primary topics addressed include conserved relativistic energy and momentum, applications of the Lorentz transformation, and developments in 20th-century physics. This volume also reviews some of the early experiments in the development of special relativity.

Author : Kenneth G. Dyall
ISBN : 0198032307
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.9 MB
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This book provides an introduction to the essentials of relativistic effects in quantum chemistry, and a reference work that collects all the major developments in this field. It is designed for the graduate student and the computational chemist with a good background in nonrelativistic theory. In addition to explaining the necessary theory in detail, at a level that the non-expert and the student should readily be able to follow, the book discusses the implementation of the theory and practicalities of its use in calculations. After a brief introduction to classical relativity and electromagnetism, the Dirac equation is presented, and its symmetry, atomic solutions, and interpretation are explored. Four-component molecular methods are then developed: self-consistent field theory and the use of basis sets, double-group and time-reversal symmetry, correlation methods, molecular properties, and an overview of relativistic density functional theory. The emphases in this section are on the basics of relativistic theory and how relativistic theory differs from nonrelativistic theory. Approximate methods are treated next, starting with spin separation in the Dirac equation, and proceeding to the Foldy-Wouthuysen, Douglas-Kroll, and related transformations, Breit-Pauli and direct perturbation theory, regular approximations, matrix approximations, and pseudopotential and model potential methods. For each of these approximations, one-electron operators and many-electron methods are developed, spin-free and spin-orbit operators are presented, and the calculation of electric and magnetic properties is discussed. The treatment of spin-orbit effects with correlation rounds off the presentation of approximate methods. The book concludes with a discussion of the qualitative changes in the picture of structure and bonding that arise from the inclusion of relativity.

Author : Ray D'Inverno
ISBN : 0198596863
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.20 MB
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There is little doubt that Einstein's theory of relativity captures the imagination. Not only has it radically altered the way we view the universe, but the theory also has a considerable number of surprises in store. This is especially so in the three main topics of current interest thatthis book reaches, namely: black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmology. The main aim of this textbook is to provide students with a sound mathematical introduction coupled to an understanding of the physical insights needed to explore the subject. Indeed, the book follows Einstein in that it introduces the theory very much from a physical point of view. Afterintroducing the special theory of relativity, the basic field equations of gravitation are derived and discussed carefully as a prelude to first solving them in simple cases and then exploring the three main areas of application. Einstein's theory of relativity is undoubtedly one of the greatest achievements of the human mind. Yet, in this book, the author makes it possible for students with a wide range of abilities to deal confidently with the subject. Based on the author's fifteen years experience of teaching thissubject, this is achieved by breaking down the main arguments into simple logical steps. The book includes numerous illustrative diagrams and exercises (of varying degrees of difficulty), and as a result this book makes an excellent course for any student coming to the subject for the firsttime.

Author : Jayant V. Narlikar
ISBN : 9781139484688
Genre : Science
File Size : 29.21 MB
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General relativity is now an essential part of undergraduate and graduate courses in physics, astrophysics and applied mathematics. This simple, user-friendly introduction to relativity is ideal for a first course in the subject. Beginning with a comprehensive but simple review of special relativity, the book creates a framework from which to launch the ideas of general relativity. After describing the basic theory, it moves on to describe important applications to astrophysics, black hole physics, and cosmology. Several worked examples, and numerous figures and images, help students appreciate the underlying concepts. There are also 180 exercises which test and develop students' understanding of the subject. The textbook presents all the necessary information and discussion for an elementary approach to relativity. Password-protected solutions to the exercises are available to instructors at www.cambridge.org/9780521735612.

Author : Andrew Steane
ISBN : 9780199694617
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 38.63 MB
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This book provides a lively and visual introduction to Einstein's theory of relativity. It brings to life the excitement of this fascinating subject, for an audience including young people at school (post-16) and the general public with an interest in modern physics. It is different from existing books in that is uses many diagrams and simple equations (the reader is carefully guided through them), and richly rewards the reader with beautiful mathematical and physical insights. It begins by introducing spacetime, in the familiar context of low velocities. It then shows how Einstein's theory forces us to understand time in a new way. Paradoxes and puzzles are introduced and resolved, and the book culminates in a thorough unfolding of the relation between mass and energy. The book draws on the author's many years of experience in writing articles and reviews for a non-expert readership, and presenting physics to school pupils.

Author : Marcelo Samuel Berman
ISBN : 1594547173
Genre : Science
File Size : 64.61 MB
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This book is an introductory text in General Relativity, while also focusing some solutions to the cosmological constant problem, which consists in an amazing 100 orders of magnitude discrepancy between the value of this constant in the present Universe, and its estimated value in the very early epoch. The author suggests that the constant is in fact, a time-varying function of the age of the Universe. The book offers a wealth of cosmological models, treats up to date findings, like the verification of the Lense-Thirring effect in the year 2004, and the recently published research by Cooperstock and Tieu (2005) suggesting that "dark" matter is not a necessary concept in order to explain the rotational velocities of stars around galaxies' nuclei. This is a mathematical cosmology textbook that may lead undergraduates, and graduate students to one of the frontiers of research, while keeping the prerequisites to a minimum, because most of the theory in the book requires only prior knowledge of Calculus and a University Physics course.

Author : Peter J. O'Donnell
ISBN : 9812795316
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.72 MB
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This book deals with 2-spinors in general relativity, beginning by developing spinors in a geometrical way rather than using representation theory, which can be a little abstract. This gives the reader greater physical intuition into the way in which spinors behave. The book concentrates on the algebra and calculus of spinors connected with curved space-time. Many of the well-known tensor fields in general relativity are shown to have spinor counterparts. An analysis of the Lanczos spinor concludes the book, and some of the techniques so far encountered are applied to this. Exercises play an important role throughout and are given at the end of each chapter. Sample Chapter(s). Spinor Geometry (238 KB). Contents: Spinor Geometry; Spinor Algebra; Spinor Analysis; Lanczos Spinor. Readership: Postgraduate level students and researchers.

This book provides an introduction to the theory of relativity and the mathematics used in its processes. Three elements of the book make it stand apart from previously published books on the theory of relativity. First, the book starts at a lower mathematical level than standard books with tensor calculus of sufficient maturity to make it possible to give detailed calculations of relativistic predictions of practical experiments. Self-contained introductions are given, for example vector calculus, differential calculus and integrations. Second, in-between calculations have been included, making it possible for the non-technical reader to follow step-by-step calculations. Thirdly, the conceptual development is gradual and rigorous in order to provide the inexperienced reader with a philosophically satisfying understanding of the theory. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with a sound conceptual understanding of both the special and general theories of relativity, and gain an insight into how the mathematics of the theory can be utilized to calculate relativistic effects.