Insect Conservation And Islands

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Insect Conservation And Islands

Author : Tim R. New
ISBN : 9781402087820
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.15 MB
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A series of original papers and reviews dealing with the peculiarities of island insects and their conservation in many parts of the world. Contributions to this special issue of Journal of Insect Conservation range from biogeographical analyses and ecological features of island insects and their evolution to the variety of concerns for their wellbeing, and practical conservation through a variety of, sometimes novel, approaches. They provide a valuable and up-to-date resource for entomologists and conservation practitioners.
Category: Science

Insect Conservation

Author : Michael J Samways
ISBN : 9781789241686
Genre : Nature
File Size : 51.46 MB
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Insects do not live in isolation. They interact with the abiotic environment and are major components of the terrestrial and freshwater biotic milieus. They are crucial to so many ecosystem processes and are the warp and weft of all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems that are not permanently frozen. This means that insect conservation is a two-way process: insects as the subjects of conservation, while also they are useful tools for conserving the environment. This book overviews strategic ways forward for insect conservation. It is a general view of what has worked and what has not for the maintenance of insect diversity across the world, as well as what might be the right approaches for the future.
Category: Nature

The Conservation Of Insects And Their Habitats

Author : N.M. Collins
ISBN : 9780323149303
Genre : Science
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The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats is a compilation of papers presented in the 15th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London held at the Department of Physics Lecture Theatre Imperial College, London, on September 14-15, 1989. The papers cover topics on the diversity of entomological habitats and ecologicalroles around the world, and highlight the value of insects to humanity. Some practical proposals for conservation, especially in tropical forests and on islands, where their diversity is greatest, are also given. This book will add to the continuing force for the conservation and protection of biological diversity of the Earth.
Category: Science

Insect Conservation Past Present And Prospects

Author : Tim R. New
ISBN : 9789400729629
Genre : Nature
File Size : 50.77 MB
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The history of interest and practice in insect conservation is summarised and traced through contributions from many of the leaders in the discipline, to provide the first broad global account of how insects have become incorporated into considerations of conservation. The essays collectively cover the genesis and development of insect conservation, emphasising its strong foundation within the northern temperate regions and the contrasts with much of the rest of the world. Major present-day scenarios are discussed, together with possible developments and priorities in insect conservation for the future.
Category: Nature

Island Biogeography Of Insect Conservation In Urban Green Spaces

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ISBN : OCLC:1051407324
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Because of their isolation, biotic communities of urban green spaces are expected to be similar to those of oceanic islands. This should be particularly true for insects, which represent an important component of urban faunas. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) allows for the formulation of some hypotheses regarding the influence of the geographical characteristics of green spaces on insect species richness and extinction risk. Based on island biogeography principles, we present eight predictions on how green space characteristics should influence insect species richness and loss. We analysed the current literature in order to determine which predictions were supported and which were not. We found that many studies gave outcomes that support ETIB predictions about the effects of area and isolation of green spaces; we found no strong support for predictions about shape and extent of native habitat in the literature that we reviewed. Most of the available studies dealt with patterns in species richness, whereas insect species loss has been rarely investigated. Future developments in the application of island biogeography principles to urban insect conservation should address temporal trends in species persistence and the analysis of species co-occurrence and nestedness.
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Forests And Insect Conservation In Australia

Author : Tim R. New
ISBN : 9783319922225
Genre : Science
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Losses of forests and their insect inhabitants are a major global conservation concern, spanning tropical and temperate forest regions throughout the world. This broad overview of Australian forest insect conservation draws on studies from many places to demonstrate the diversity and vulnerability of forest insects and how their conservation may be pursued through combinations of increased understanding, forest protection and silvicultural management in both natural and plantation forests. The relatively recent history of severe human disturbance to Australian forests ensures that reasonably natural forest patches remain and serve as ‘models’ for many forest categories. They are also refuges for many forest biota extirpated from the wider landscapes as forests are lost, and merit strenuous protection from further changes, and wider efforts to promote connectivity between otherwise isolated remnant patches. In parallel, the recent attention to improving forest insect conservation in harmony with insect pest management continues to benefit from perspectives generated from better-documented faunas elsewhere. Lessons from the northern hemisphere, in particular, have led to revelations of the ecological importance and vulnerability of many insect taxa in forests, together with clear evidence that ‘conservation can work’ in concert with wider forest uses. A brief outline of the variety of Australian tropical and temperate forests and woodlands, and of the multitude of endemic and, often, highly localised insects that depend on them highlights needs for conservation (both of single focal species and wider forest-dependent radiations and assemblages). The ways in which insects contribute to sustained ecological integrity of these complex ecosystems provide numerous opportunities for practical conservation.
Category: Science

Insect Diversity Conservation

Author : Michael J. Samways
ISBN : 0521789478
Genre : Nature
File Size : 39.96 MB
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This groundbreaking book is a contemporary global synthesis of the rapidly developing and important field of insect conservation biology. Insects play important roles in terrestrial ecological processes and in maintaining the world as we know it. They present particular conservation challenges, especially as a quarter face extinction within the next few decades. This textbook addresses the ethical foundation of insect conservation, and asks why should we concern ourselves with conservation of a butterfly, beetle or bug? The success of insects and their diversity, which have survived glaciers, is now facing a more formidable obstacle: the meteoric impact of humans. After addressing threats, from invasive alien plants to climate change, the book explores ways insects and their habitats are prioritised, mapped, monitored and conserved. Landscape and species approaches are considered. This book is for undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers and managers in conservation biology or entomology, and the wider biological and environmental sciences.
Category: Nature

Insect Ecology And Conservation

Author : Simone Fattorini
ISBN : 813080297X
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Foreword - In the last twenty years, insect conservation has attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers, as testified by the publication of textbooks [e.g. 1, 2], monographs [e.g. 3, 4], proceedings of symposia, workshops and congresses [e.g. 5-9] and two dedicated journals (Journal of Insect Conservation, started 1997 and Insect Conservation and Diversity, a recently started journal). This book is not intended to be a balanced, comprehensive, and up-to-date review of the latest developments in the fields of insect ecology and conservation. Rather, it is a selection of papers representing different perspectives in insect conservation. The conceptual understanding needed to guide our actions in response to practical conservation problems obviously builds on basic researches in the fields of evolutionary biology, genetics, systematics, ethology, biogeography and ecology [e.g. 10]. The papers presented here offer a range of relevant and emerging themes that form the ecological basis of modern insect conservation. Insects are frequently used as model systems in conservation biology. However, in contrast with the veritable mountain of papers devoted to the conservation of single vertebrate species, most of the research on insect conservation is multi-species oriented, being more focused on the preservation of species assemblages than single species (see, for examples, papers published in the Journal of Insect Conservation). The paper by Eva Maria Griebeler, Henning Maas and Michael Veith presented here exemplifies current topics in landscape ecology and metapopulation biology from an entomological perspective. This paper, focused on the viability of the red-winged grasshopper Oedipoda germanica in a dynamic mosaic of vineyards and abandoned lots in Germany, is an example of a species-oriented approach showing the importance of collecting accurate field data and using appropriate simulation models to draw valid conclusions about the future of a population. Because basic knowledge, money and time are limited, one of the most debated problems in conservation biology is the use of indicator taxa as surrogates of the biodiversity of other taxa [11-15]. This is particularly compelling for highly diverse areas, ecosystems, or animal groups (like insects) where it is difficult, or even impossible, to obtain complete inventories. Although aquatic insects have long played an important role in conservation biology (e.g. as bioindicators of water quality), few studies have examined whether species richness community structure in different groups of stream insects shows similar patterns, whether these patterns are governed by similar responses to the environment, and whether there is temporal variability. In their paper on the among-taxon congruence in four major stream insects groups in Finland, Jani Heino and Heikki Mykrä found that predictions of species richness from environmental and spatial variables may be limited, and should be used with caution in conservation planning. They also found that no single stream insect group can be used as a surrogate of species richness and assemblage dissimilarity in other taxonomic groups and that the relationships between species richness and ecological gradients are variable and usually weak. These findings underline the need to also consider taxonomically difficult groups and to promote taxonomic studies and skills as essential prerequisites for effective conservation actions. Simon Grove, Dick Bashford and Marie Yee present here a long-term study with an extraordinary taxonomic effort to identify all saproxylic (dead wood-dependent) beetles associated with large logs in Tasmania's wet eucalypt production forests. They demonstrate the enormous richness of the saproxylic beetle fauna able to occupy Eucalyptus obliqua logs in their early stages of decomposition. This paper offers an example of an experimental approach to the conservation implications of declining availability of large logs, and shows that obligately saproxylic species were more numerous than facultative species. Because of temporal and financial limitations, most conservation studies resort to a 'snapshot' approach, which documents the fauna at a particular 'point' in time (which may span a year or more) and may or may not also attempt to document temporal changes. The study presented here underlines the importance of long-term analyses. This is especially compelling for saproxylic beetles, as there is a succession of species according to the age of decaying logs. Thanks to the long-term approach, these authors were able to show that very few species were common, and most were rare. In this paper rare species are considered those with few individuals sampled. In addition to local population density, other important dimensions of rarity of a species may be its geographical range and degree of ecological specialization, and these forms of rarity are discussed in other chapters. Species rarity assessment is one of the most important targets in conservation biology. The strong link between conservation and rarity lies in the idea that rare species have a greater threat of extinction than common species do [16-18]. Thus, conservation of rare species is driven by the view that the central goal of conservation is to prevent or limit the extinction of species. But, how well can the distribution (and hence the concentration) of geographically rare species be predicted by environmental characteristics? Jorge Miguel Lobo, Pierre Jay-Robert and Jean-Pierre Lumaret present an analysis of the spatial distribution of dung beetle rarity in France. In the paper published here, they considered three measures of geographical rarity (number of rare species, sum of rarity scores, and mean of rarity scores) to derive a synthetic rarity value. Based on this index, they found that for Scarabaeidae, rarity hotspots corresponded to diversity (species richness) hotspots. In this scenario, the species of Scarabaeidae with comparatively larger distributions and wider environmental adaptations should be more likely to persist. In contrast, rarity and species richness were uncorrelated for Aphodiinae. They argued that the distribution of warm-adapted, rare species of Scarabaeidae and Aphodiinae that have recently expanded range from southern refuges since the last glacial period would be explained by current climatic factors, while the cold-adapted Aphodiinae rare species that recently suffered a range contraction would be less predictable by contemporary environmental variables. Thus, this study underlines that rarity hotspots cannot be predicted only by current ecological factors, but historical factors have to also be taken into account to explain some patterns. The importance of historical biogeography in explaining current distribution patterns and in predicting future population dynamics is stressed in a paper on the conservation biogeography of Anatolian orthopterans by Battal Çiplak. In this paper, Çiplak uses an analogy between interglacial cycles and global warming to predict the future of glacial relicts (taxa confined to high altitude since the last Ice Age). Global warming is considered the main evolutionary force acting on global biodiversity and this action is similar to the effects of past interglacial warming periods. The Anatolian peninsula was an important refugial area during Pleistocene glaciations, but, during each warming cycle, some cold-preferring species remained isolated on the summits of mountain ranges. The consequences of global warming for these relict forms may involve niche changes, range changes and population/species extinction, depending on species ecological tolerances, evolutionary potential and dispersal abilities. Some species could change easily their range, by shifting their distribution latitudinally (northwards) or altitudinally (upwards) in response to increasing temperature, but other species will be reduced to fragmented populations and may become extinct in the absence of suitable habitats outside their present distribution range. This is especially true for rare species, endemic to individual mountains, that cannot colonize other areas. Thus, this paper not only shows how the study of past events can be used to predict the future of species dynamics, but also underlines the importance of macro- and microgeographic constraints in determining range changes. Although the size of the geographical range of a species is an obvious measure of rarity, other forms of rarity should be considered, especially at smaller scales. In their paper on true rare and pseudo-rare species, Paulo A. V. Borges, Karl I. Ugland, Francisco O. Dinis and Clara S. Gaspar used the insect and spider guilds on the island of Terceira (Azores) to shed light upon how recent historical land-use changes may shape the distribution of individual arthropod species. Island biogeography provided most of the conceptual foundations of conservation biology and for a long time the theory of island biogeography dominated much of conservation biology [19]. Although this prominent role is now reduced by the increasing role of other disciplines (like metapopulation biology and landscape ecology) [cf. 19, 20], island biogeography still provides an important theoretical and empirical framework for conservationists [e.g. 21-23]. Islands are natural laboratories and island populations will continue to represent a privileged target for conservationists. Results obtained by Borges and coworkers indicate that numerous species may appear unduly rare because they are sampled in marginal sites or at the edge of their distribution. The high dispersal abilities and wide ecological preferences of many insect and spider species imply that many species tend to be vagrants in several habitats and consequently are locally habitat pseudo-rare species. By contrast, truly regionally rare species are those that are habitat specialists and many of them are threatened endemic species or recently introduced exotic species. These findings provide clear evidence that adequate spatial data on abundance and habitat requirements of single species are needed to properly assess their rarity status at a regional scale. Basic ecological information is an essential starting point for any conservation study and subsequent action. However, in most cases, there is a serious lack of basic knowledge about biological processes for taxa which are of conservation concern. In their paper on thermoregulation in dung beetles José R. Verdú and Jorge M. Lobo explore the relevance of heat production and dissipation temperature control mechanisms on the ecology and biogeography of these insects. Dung beetles include some of the most investigated species from the point of view of thermoregulation process. Verdú and Lobo offer a review of the relationships between flight and thermoregulation, also providing new data on the variation in thermoregulation among species, populations and individuals. They show that both heat production and heat dissipation could be the consequence of evolutionarily contingent adaptations related to the environmental conditions of the regions where the different lineages evolved. Thermal preferences are a neglected species trait in bioconservation. Since preliminary evidence suggests that populations and individuals have a wide physiological plasticity, it will be interesting to assess whether those species with a higher range of endothermic responses are also able to inhabit a higher variety of climatic conditions. An interesting future line of research could be the comparison of the thermal niches between invaders and non-invader dung beetles, as well as between those species that seem to respond quickly or slowly to climatic changes. Conservation research has been mostly focused on some well known insect groups, like butterflies and some beetle families, but the majority of insect taxa are ignored. This is an obvious consequence of the extraordinary variety of insects, and the impracticality of all groups being equally investigated. Tenebrionid beetles are a large family of beetles for which ecological knowledge is still relatively limited, especially in coastal sandy areas, where they represent one of the most important invertebrate groups by both biomass and diversity. Thus, they are an important, but usually neglected taxon, in these highly threatened environments. I present here an extensive review of the ecology of tenebrionid beetles in Mediterranean coastal areas, providing some clues about their conservation and their use as bioindicators in environmental assessment studies. In collecting papers for this book, I made an effort to cover as many major insect taxa as possible. However, the taxonomic coverage is obviously unbalanced and the lack of papers specifically dealing with the conservation of some taxa, like butterflies or ground beetles, which are among the most studied from a conservation perspective [24-26], may be surprising. However, I believe that this is not a serious shortcoming, because these groups are extensively referred to in other books devoted to insect conservation [e.g. 1, 2, 5-7, 9]. What we have come up with finally, I think, is not a thorough survey of the field of insect ecology and conservation, but rather an invitation to the field issued by some of its worldwide practitioners. Not all readers will be equally interested in every chapter, but I feel that most readers will find something interesting and will be stimulated especially by chapters dealing with subjects outside their own fields of study. This volume begun as a response to an invitation by the Research Signpost. I thank Shankar G. Pandalai, Managing Editor of Research Signpost for encouraging me to edit this volume and for all his assistance during the process. I welcome this opportunity to express publicly my obligation to all the contributors for responding so rapidly to my bullying and for sending their manuscripts so rapidly. References 1. Samways, M. J. 1994, Insect Conservation Biology, Chapman and Hall, London. 2. Samways, M. J. 2005, Insect Diversity Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 3. van Swaay, C. A. M., and Warren, M. S. 1999, Red data book of European butterflies (Rhopalocera), Nature and environment, No. 99, Council of European Publishing, Strasbourg. 4. van Swaay, C. A. M., and Warren, M. S. 2003, Prime butterfly areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. National Reference Centre for Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries, The Netherlands. 5. Gaston, K. J., New, T. R., and Samways, M.J. (Eds) 1993, Perspectives on Insect Conservation [mainly from presentations given on the theme of insect conservation at the International Congress of Entomology in Beijing], Intercept Press, London. 6. Collins, N. M., and Thomas, J. A. 1991 (Eds), The conservation of insects and their habitats, 15th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Academic Press, San Diego. 7. Harrington, R., and Stork, N. E. (Eds) 1995, Insects in a changing environment, 17th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London, Academic Press, San Diego. 8. Procter, D., and Harding, P. T. (Eds). 2005, JNCC Report No. 367. Proceedings of INCardiff 2003. Red Lists for invertebrates: their application at different spatial scales practical issues, pragmatic approaches. 14th European Invertebrate Survey Colloquium and meeting, 7th meeting of the Bern Group of Invertebrate Experts, 1st meeting of the IUCN European Invertebrates Specialist Group. JNCC Peterborough, Peterborough. 9. Stewart, A. A., New, T. R., and Lewis, O. T. (Eds). 2007, Insect Conservation Biology, 23rd Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 10. Primak, R.B. 1998, Essentials of Conservation Biology, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. 11. Vessby, K., Sodersrom, B., Glimskar, A., and Svensson, B. 2002, Conserv. Biol., 16, 430. 12. Moore, J.L., Balmford, A., Brooks, T., Burgess, N.D., Hansen, L.A., Rahbek, C., and Williams, P.H. 2003, Conserv. Biol., 17, 207. 13. Anand, M., Laurence, S., and Rayfield, B. 2005, Conserv. Biol., 19, 955. 14. Maes, D., Bauwens, D., De Bruyn, L., Anselin, A., Vermeersch, G., Van Landuyt, W., De Knijf, G., and Gilbert, M. 2005, Biodiv. Conserv., 14, 1345. 15. Fleishman, E., Thomson, J. R., Mac Nally, R., Murphy, D. D., and Fay, J.P. 2005, Conserv. Biol., 19, 1125. 16. Gaston, K.J. 1994, Rarity. Chapman and Hall, London. 17. Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., Erasmus, B.F.N., Ferreira de Siqueira, M., Grainger, A., Hannah, L., Hughes, L., Huntley, B., van Jaarsveld, A.S., Midgley, G.F., Miles, L., Ortega-Huerta, M.A., Peterson, A.T., Phillips, O.L., and Williams, S.E. 2004, Nature, 427, 145. 18. Gaston, K.J., and Spicer, J.I. 2001, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 10, 179. 19. Hanski, I., and Gilpin, M.E. (Eds) 1997, Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution, Academic Press, San Diego. 20. Walter, H. 2004. J. Biogeogr., 31, 177. 21. Whittaker, R.J., Araújo, M. B., Jepson, P., Ladle, R. J., Watson, J. E. M., and Willis, K. J. 2005, Diversity Distrib., 11, 3. 22. Fattorini, S. 2006a, Anim. Conserv., 9, 75. 23. Fattorini, S. 2006, Conserv. Biol., 20, 1169. 24. Pullin, A. (Ed.) 1995, Ecology and Conservation of Butterflies, Chapman & Hall, London. 25. Boggs, C.L., Watt, W.B., and Ehrlich, P.R. (Eds) 2003, Butterflies: Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 26. Stork, N.E. (Ed.) 1990, The Role of Ground Beetles in Ecological and Environmental Studies, Intercept, Andover.
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Insect Conservation

Author : T. R. New
ISBN : MINN:31951000108632T
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.82 MB
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Category: Science

Smaller Orders Of Insects Of The Galapagos Islands Ecuador

Author : Stewart B. Peck
ISBN : 066018284X
Genre : Insects
File Size : 75.38 MB
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This is a synthesis of both previously published information and abundant new data derived from field studies on Galagos insects. The dynamics and patterns of the evolution, ecology and distribution of the entire insect fauna are presented in general. The core of the book is an account of the 495 species of insects in the smaller orders with detailed information on their distribution and bionomics.
Category: Insects

Trade Offs In Conservation

Author : Nigel Leader-Williams
ISBN : 9781444348101
Genre : Science
File Size : 55.5 MB
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This book demonstrates that trade-offs can be very important for conservationists. Its various chapters show how and why trade-offs are made, and why conservationists need to think very hard about what, if anything, to do about them. The book argues that conservationists must carefully weigh up, and be explicit about, the trade-offs that they make every day in deciding what to save. Key Features: Discusses the wider non-biological issues that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation Focuses on questions such as: What are these wider issues that are influencing the decisions we make? What factors need to be included in our assessment of trade-offs? What package of information and issues do managers need to consider in making a rational decision? Who should make such decisions? Part of the Conservation Science and Practice book series This volume is of interest to policy-makers, researchers, practitioners and postgraduate students who are concerned about making decisions that include recognition of trade-offs in conservation planning.
Category: Science

Conservation Of The Richmond Birdwing Butterfly In Australia

Author : Donald P.A. Sands
ISBN : 9789400771703
Genre : Nature
File Size : 20.3 MB
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This survey of one the longest insect conservation campaigns in Australia deals with recovery of one of the most iconic endemic butterflies, the Richmond birdwing, threatened by clearance and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest in eastern Australia and the spread of an alien larval food-plant. Its conservation has involved many aspects of community involvement, developed over more than 20 years, and focused on habitat restoration and weed eradication, in conjunction with conservation of remaining forest fragments. The work has involved the entire historical range of the butterfly, addressed threats and emphasised landscape connectivity, and has enhanced recovery through extensive plantings of native food plants. Interest has been maintained through extensive publicity, community education and media activity, and the programme has provided many lessons for advancing insect conservation practice in the region.
Category: Nature

The Science Of Entomology

Author : William S. Romoser
ISBN : MINN:31951D01456950G
Genre : Science
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This text covers the structure, function and ecology of insects. It is a comprehensive introduction to the field, and has been updated to include recent findings and research in responce to the study of biology being increasingly focused on the cellular level. There is an appendix, which can be used to classify the insect families, and new chapters on conserving insect biodiversity and molecular entomology.
Category: Science

Hawaiian Insects And Their Kin

Author : Frank Howarth
ISBN : 082481469X
Genre : Nature
File Size : 48.75 MB
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A remarkable book, making known to a general audience as well as to entomologists some of the dominant groups comprising one of the most unusual insect faunas on earth. The 200 superb color photographs, which include such as carnivorous moth caterpillars, predatory happyface spiders, and singing t
Category: Nature

Conservation Biology Of Hawaiian Forest Birds

Author : Thane K. Pratt
ISBN : 9780300141085
Genre : Nature
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Hawaii’s forest bird community is the most insular and most endangered in the world and serves as a case study for threatened species globally. Ten have disappeared in the past thirty years, nine are critically endangered, and even common species are currently in decline. Thane K. Pratt, his coeditors, and collaborators, all leaders in their field, describe the research and conservation efforts over the past thirty years to save Hawaii’s forest birds. They also offer the most comprehensive look at the reasons for these extinctions and attempts to overcome them in the future. Among the topics covered in this book are trends in bird populations, environmental and genetic factors limiting population size, avian diseases, predators, and competing alien bird species. Color plates by award-winning local photographer Jack Jeffrey illustrate all living species discussed or described.
Category: Nature