How Schools Work

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How Schools Work

Author : Arne Duncan
ISBN : 9781501173066
Genre : Education
File Size : 22.95 MB
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“This book merits every American’s serious consideration” (Vice President Joe Biden): from the Secretary of Education under President Obama, an exposé of the status quo that helps maintain a broken system at the expense of our kids’ education, and threatens our nation’s future. “Education runs on lies. That’s probably not what you’d expect from a former Secretary of Education, but it’s the truth.” So opens Arne Duncan’s How Schools Work, although the title could just as easily be How American Schools Work for Some, Not for Others, and Only Now and Then for Kids. Drawing on nearly three decades in education—from his mother’s after-school program on Chicago’s South Side to his tenure as Secretary of Education in Washington, DC—How Schools Work follows Arne (as he insists you call him) as he takes on challenges at every turn: gangbangers in Chicago housing projects, parents who call him racist, teachers who insist they can’t help poor kids, unions that refuse to modernize, Tea Partiers who call him an autocrat, affluent white progressive moms who hate yearly tests, and even the NRA, which once labeled Arne the “most extreme anti-gun member of President Obama’s Cabinet.” Going to a child’s funeral every couple of weeks, as he did when he worked in Chicago, will do that to a person. How Schools Work exposes the lies that have caused American kids to fall behind their international peers, from early childhood all the way to college graduation rates. But it also identifies what really does make a school work. “As insightful as it is inspiring” (Washington Book Review), How Schools Work will embolden parents, teachers, voters, and even students to demand more of our public schools. If America is going to be great, then we can accept nothing less.
Category: Education

How Schools Work

Author : Rebecca Barr
ISBN : 0226038122
Genre : Education
File Size : 40.16 MB
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As budgets tighten for school districts, a sound understanding of just how teaching and administration translate into student learning becomes increasingly important. Rebecca Barr, a researcher of classroom instruction and reading skill development, and Robert Dreeben, a sociologist of education who analyzes the structure of organizations, combine their expertise to explore the social organization of schools and classrooms, the division of labor, and the allocation of key resources. Viewing schools as part of a social organization with a hierarchy of levels—district, school, classroom, instructional group, and students—avoids the common pitfalls of lumping together any and all possible influences on student learning without regard to the actual processes of the classroom. Barr and Dreeben systematically explain how instructional groups originate, form, and change over time. Focusing on first grade reading instruction, their study shows that individual reading aptitude actually has little direct relation to group reading achievement and virtually none to the coverage of reading materials once the mean aptitude of groups is taken into consideration. Individual aptitude, they argue, is rather the basis on which teachers form reading groups that are given different instructional treatment. It is these differences in group treatment, they contend, that explain substantial differences in learning curricular material.
Category: Education

Making Schools Work

Author : William G. Ouchi
ISBN : 1439150451
Genre : Education
File Size : 71.56 MB
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Introducing a bold, persuasive new argument into the national debate over education, Dr. William Ouchi describes a revolutionary approach to creating successful public schools. This program has produced significant, lasting improvements in the school districts where it has already been implemented. Drawing on the results of a landmark study of 223 schools in six cities, a project that Ouchi supervised and that was funded in part by the National Science Foundation, Making Schools Work shows that a school's educational performance may be most directly affected by how the school is managed. Ouchi's 2001-2002 study examined innovative school systems in Edmonton (Canada), Seattle, and Houston, and compared them with the three largest traditional school systems: New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Researchers discovered that the schools that consistently performed best also had the most decentralized management systems, in which autonomous principals -- not administrators in a central office -- controlled school budgets and personnel hiring policies. They were fully responsible and fully accountable for the performance of their schools. With greater freedom and flexibility to shape their educational programs, hire specialists as needed, and generally determine the direction of their school, the best principals will act as entrepreneurs, says Ouchi. Those who do poorly are placed under the supervision of successful principals, who assume responsibility for the failing schools. An essential component of this management approach is the Weighted Student Formula, a budgetary tool whereby every student is evaluated and assessed a certain dollar value in educational services (a non-English-speaking or autistic student, or one from a low-income family, for example, would receive a higher dollar value than a middle-class student with no special needs). Families have the freedom to choose among public schools, and when schools must compete for students, good schools flourish while those that do poorly literally go out of business. Such accountability has long worked for religious and independent schools, where parents pay a premium for educational performance. Making Schools Work shows how the same approach can be adapted to public schools. The book also provides guidelines for parents on how to evaluate a school and make sure their child is getting the best education possible. Revolutionary yet practical, Making Schools Work shows that positive educational reform is within reach and, indeed, already happening in schools across the country.
Category: Education

How Schools Do Policy

Author : Stephen J. Ball
ISBN : 9780415676267
Genre : Education
File Size : 85.4 MB
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Over the last 20 years, international attempts to raise educational standards and improve opportunities for all children have accelerated and proliferated. This has generated a state of constant change and an unrelenting flood of initiatives, changes and reforms that need to be 'implemented' by schools. In response to this, a great deal of attention has been given to evaluating 'how well' policies are realised in practice – implemented! Less attention has been paid to understanding how schools actually deal with these multiple, and sometimes contradictory, policy demands; creatively working to interpret policy texts and translate these into practices, in real material conditions and varying resources – how they are enacted! Based on a long-term qualitative study of four 'ordinary' secondary schools, and working on the interface of theory with data, this book explores how schools enact, rather than implement, policy. It focuses on: contexts of 'policy work' in schools; teachers as policy subjects; teachers as policy actors; policy texts, artefacts and events; standards, behaviour and learning policies. This book offers an original and very grounded analysis of how schools and teachers do policy. It will be of interest to undergraduate and postgraduate students of education, education policy and social policy, as well as school leaders, in the UK and beyond.
Category: Education

Who Controls Teachers Work

Author : Richard M. Ingersoll
ISBN : 0674038959
Genre : Education
File Size : 50.31 MB
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Schools are places of learning but they are also workplaces, and teachers are employees. As such, are teachers more akin to professionals or to factory workers in the amount of control they have over their work? And what difference does it make? Drawing on large national surveys as well as wide-ranging interviews with high school teachers and administrators, Richard Ingersoll reveals the shortcomings in the two opposing viewpoints that dominate thought on this subject: that schools are too decentralized and lack adequate control and accountability; and that schools are too centralized, giving teachers too little autonomy. Both views, he shows, overlook one of the most important parts of teachers' work: schools are not simply organizations engineered to deliver academic instruction to students, as measured by test scores; schools and teachers also play a large part in the social and behavioral development of our children. As a result, both views overlook the power of implicit social controls in schools that are virtually invisible to outsiders but keenly felt by insiders. Given these blind spots, this book demonstrates that reforms from either camp begin with inaccurate premises about how schools work and so are bound not only to fail, but to exacerbate the problems they propose to solve.
Category: Education

Schools That Work

Author : Richard L. Allington
ISBN : UOM:39015063373214
Genre : Education
File Size : 22.19 MB
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At a time when so many pivotal education issues are closely tied to the performance of schools and NCLB policy, Schools That Work provides critical insight into how elementary schools must change to meet the increased demands of education for the 21st century. Praised as the most accessible, readable and practical book on the market, Schools That Work combines renowned authors Dick Allington and Pat Cunningham's expertise as educators with continuing commitment to foster expert teaching in the classroom. Their dynamic analysis of systematic school reform encompasses virtually all areas of elementary school organization. With the goal of turning readers into educated, informed decision-makers, Allington and Cunningham provide a clear and concise introduction to theories of school reform and include an organizational framework to accomplish this goal. This new edition offers: A view of how schools must change if they are to meet the increased demands of education for the 21st century. Updated, expanded coverage of recent federal and state initiatives to help teachers address the problems of struggling readers and writers. A variety of activities for taking stock of the educational effort in school. New coverage of reading coaches.
Category: Education

How Schools Really Work

Author : Saul Cooperman
ISBN : 0812693353
Genre : Education
File Size : 76.17 MB
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Is your child's school doing a good job or is it failing your child? How Schools Really Work gives you the answer. It explains what to look for and what questions to ask. Once you have read this book, you will quickly and easily be able to determine how well or badly your school is run. You will never again be baffled or sidetracked by the evasions of school administrators. And if you find that your school is 'broken', you will know how to overcome the opposition of the bureaucracy, and fix it.
Category: Education

Listening To Young People In School Youth Work And Counselling

Author : Nick Luxmoore
ISBN : 9781853029097
Genre : Education
File Size : 82.94 MB
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This accessible book captures the reality of young people's experiences, their relationships and the things that are important to them. Using in-depth examples from his many years' experience, Nick Luxmoore outlines a creative approach that will enable professionals to respond appropriately to the complex needs of young people.
Category: Education

The Way Schools Work

Author : Kathleen Bennett DeMarrais
ISBN : UOM:39015052560904
Genre : Education
File Size : 39.75 MB
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The Way Schools Work: A Sociological Analysis of Education, Second Edition, continues to offer cutting-edge analysis of contemporary schooling in America from a critical perspective.
Category: Education

How Schools And Districts Meet Rigorous Standards Through Authentic Intellectual Work

Author : M. Bruce King
ISBN : 9781506342306
Genre : Education
File Size : 49.73 MB
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Meet challenging standards by promoting students' authentic intellectual work There is no such thing as a simple formula for school improvement, but the Authentic Intellectual Work (AIW) framework presented in this book will help school- and district-based teams improve the quality of instruction, assessment, and curriculum for more rigorous and more equitable student learning. This book provides: Richly detailed case studies of successful AIW implementation at the statewide, districtwide, and individual school levels Illustrations of collaborative teaming to advance higher-order thinking, disciplined inquiry, and value beyond school Exemplars of how AIW transforms professional development and evaluations and increases coherence and alignment of initiatives
Category: Education

What Works In Schools

Author : Robert J. Marzano
ISBN : 9780871207173
Genre : Education
File Size : 46.77 MB
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Schools can and do affect student achievement, and this book recommends specific-and attainable-action steps to implement successful strategies culled from the wealth of research data.
Category: Education

How Successful Schools Work

Author : Rona Tutt
ISBN : 9781473903258
Genre : Education
File Size : 89.44 MB
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Inside this book are case studies of cutting edge best practice from inspirational heads and school leaders doing excellent work in schools. They all illustrate how the role, and style, of school leadership is changing. By looking at what attracts teachers to leadership roles, and how they use their power, this book examines innovative leadership in action. The authors look at the characteristics of innovative school leaders, and reflect on how these people work. An appetite for challenge, a desire for a sense of well-being for all those involved in the school and its development and an ability to flex their style of leadership all emerge as core factors in their success. Topics covered include: - the changing role of school leaders - leading inclusive environments - the power of innovative leadership - identifying the challenges ahead The perfect read for anyone wanting to make a difference to their school or setting, this book will show you how it is done. Rona Tutt is Past President of the National Association of Headteachers, now working as an Educational Consultant. Paul Williams is a very experienced Head Teacher, based in London, who has held a number of leadership roles.
Category: Education

Managing Challenging Behaviors In Schools

Author : Holly Mariah Menzies
ISBN : 9781606239513
Genre : Education
File Size : 85.6 MB
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"No one knows the literature on challenging behavior better than Lane and her colleagues. This book translates that knowledge into practice in a way that teachers will benefit from tremendously. With a focus on both instructional and management variables associated with preventing and dealing with difficult behavior, the book provides concise, easy-to-follow explantions of interventions. It is a unique resource that preservice and practicing teachers will refer to often."---Timothy J. Landrum, PhD, Department of Special Education, University of Louisville "I am extremely impressed with this book, including its content, organization, and the strong emphasis on workable, effective strategies for today's schools and classrooms. The strategies are presented in the context of a three-tiered model that allows teachers to specifically match student needs. I have not seen a resource of this type that is so well tailored to the needs of classroom teachers."---Hill M. Walker, PhD, Codirector, Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior, University of Oregon "Using the best evidence from research and practice, this comprehensive book presents a wealth of information for managing challenging behavioral difficulties in schools. Readers learn how to systematically plan and deliver approaches that increase in intensity of support. The strategies are described in a step-by-step format, with consideration for different age groups of learners, so that both new and experienced teachers can immediately apply them in their classrooms. As a text, this book would be an excellent addition to any teacher education, educational administration, or school psychology training program. It will also be an extremely useful professional development resource.---Melody Tankersley, PhD, Special Education Program, Kent State University This book provides tested, easy-to-implement strategies for preventing problem behavior in the classroom and responding effectively when it does occur. Chapters describe specific steps that K-12 teachers and other school-based professionals can take to develop effective classroom rules and routines, plan suitably challenging instruction, and promote student engagement and motivation. Presenting a continuum of strategies from prevention to more intensive behavior supports, the book offers clear-cut instructions for implementing behavioral contracts, self-monitoring, and functional assessment-based interventions. Special features include more than a dozen reproducible checklists, selfassessment tools, and planning forms; the large-size format facilitates photocopying.
Category: Education

How Very Effective Primary Schools Work

Author : Chris James
ISBN : 9781847878564
Genre : Education
File Size : 26.42 MB
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'Chris James, Michael Connolly, Gerald Dunning and Tony Elliott have produced a comprehensive analysis of the very effective primary school. Although the research for the book draws on the authors' experiences in Welsh Primary Schools, the range of literature cited and the analytical frameworks employed ensure that their findings have a much broader relevance. They define 'a very effective' school as one that provides high levels of attainment and rich educational experiences despite being located in extremely challenging circumstances. A key insight of the book is that although these schools are consequently 'extraordinary' their practice was in many ways quite 'ordinary'. This is because these schools worked in much the same way as the very best of schools have always done. In many ways, this as the authors note, is an optimistic message – that all children deserve to be educated in such very effective schools. The virtue of How Very Effective Primary Schools Work is that it makes clear those characteristics and strategies that can help every school to become great' - David Hopkins, HSBC iNet Chair of International Leadership, and formerly Chief Adviser on School Standards to the Secretary of State 2002-2005 'All children, especially the poorest, deserve capable, mature and well adjusted teachers and leaders who work together to lay firm foundations of learning and behaviour, then enrich and elevate everyone's learning far beyond that in optimistic cultures of security, persistence and hope. Based on solid research from 18 outstanding schools in challenging circumstances, this is the vital message of this important and unique book. Chris James and his colleagues show that highly effective schools need high functioning adults and communities who expect and get the best from everyone, dedicate themselves to others without burning themselves out, are not frightened of challenges and contradictions, stay around to fulfil their obligations to others and see their efforts bear fruit, and are emotionally comfortable in their own skin. If you want to become more effective as a school you will need to become more effective and adjusted as a teacher, a leader and an all-round human being. This inspiring and indispensable book, will stir and steer all who read it in that educationally essential quest' - Andy Hargreaves, Thomas More Brennan Chair in Education, Boston College All good teachers and headteachers are concerned with improving pupil attainment. In high attainment schools, they must recognize how to sustain success. In schools with low attainment levels, they must come to understand the challenges they face and find ways of overcoming the difficulties. This practical, research-based book describes the key approaches used by very effective schools. The authors explain how success can be achieved and maintained and describe ways of working that bring about high levels of pupil attainment. They also explain why these ways of working are successful. This book is essential reading for headteachers, teachers, students of educational leadership and management, school governors, and those who work in local authorities.
Category: Education

Innovation Up Close How School Improvement Works

Author : A. Michael Huberman
ISBN : 030641693X
Genre : Education
File Size : 57.5 MB
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School improvement, like motherhood, has many advocates. Everyone is for it, without having to campaign actively on its behalf. And just as the 100% of people who have had mothers think they know how mothering could be done better, so the (nearly) 100% of people who have been pupils in schools, or have even taught in or managed them, think they know how schools can be im proved. More precisely, they are sure that schools ought to be improved. The trouble is that they propose a staggering, conflicting range of methods of improving the schools, from ;'back to the woodshed" to teacher merit pay, a stiffer curriculum, a stronger tax base, reorganization, a more humane climate, "teacher-proof" innovations, community involvement-the list is nearly end less. Furthermore, the issues are not merely technical, but normative and po litical. The term improvement is itself problematic. One person's version of improvement is another's version of wastefulness or even of worsening the schools. Furthermore, the versions that win out in any particular school are not Improvement sometimes turns out to be merely a necessarily technically "best. " code word for the directives that administrators have successfully put into place, or for the agreements that teachers have lobbied into being. How much do we really know about school improvement? The available research literature is quite substantial, but not as helpful as it might be.
Category: Education

Making Large Schools Work

Author : Arthur Shapiro
ISBN : 9781607091172
Genre : Education
File Size : 50.79 MB
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This book lays out very practical approaches to making our ever-increasingly large schools work more effectively. By closely analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of large schools, the author can provide effective tools and strategies for dealing with them.
Category: Education

Restructuring High Schools For Equity And Excellence

Author : Valerie E. Lee
ISBN : 0807740543
Genre : Education
File Size : 52.60 MB
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This book demonstrates empirical links with achievement and investigates how restructuring relates to school size, teachers' attitudes toward students, and how teachers press their students to work hard and succeed.
Category: Education

Solution Focused Brief Therapy In Schools

Author : Michael S Kelly
ISBN : 0199710694
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28.59 MB
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Since its creation in the 1980s, solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) has gradually become a common and accepted treatment option for many mental health professionals. With its emphasis on client strengths and short-term treatment, SFBT is well suited to school contexts, given the wide array of problems and the large caseloads of most school-based practitioners. This book, as part of the Oxford Workshop Series, will give school social workers the tools they need to understand and use SFBT with students, families, teachers, and administrators. In clear language, the authors briefly cover the history of the development of SFBT, highlighting the pioneering work of Insoo Kim Berg and others that led to the development of the Working on What Works (WOWW) program for middle schools, as well as several treatment manuals produced in collaboration with the European Brief Therapy Association and North American Brief Therapy Association. Careful not to overstate results from a recent meta-analysis, the authors show where SFBT has been shown to be effective, especially with families and for classroom behavior problems, and how school professionals can incorporate its principles into their daily practice. Case examples describe in detail how school professionals have used SFBT with a group of students with text anxiety; to create a family health and employment fair in an under resourced school; with grandparents raising their grandchildren; and by coaching teachers to identify and solve classroom behavior issues with their students. An entire chapter tells the story of the Garza Independence High School in Austin, a solution-focused school designed to engage urban high school dropouts or students at risk of dropping out to help them finish high school. With 52% of Garza graduates enrolled in a post-secondary education program, outcomes are promising and similar schools are being developed around the country. Though the authors take care not to overstate the relevance and utility of SFFBT in all situations, they make the techniques involved comprehensive in a way that practitioners at every skill level will find valuable.
Category: Social Science

School Leadership That Works

Author : Robert J. Marzano
ISBN : 9781416612308
Genre : Education
File Size : 33.15 MB
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What does research tell us about the effects of school leadership on student achievement? What specific leadership practices make a real difference in school effectiveness? How should school leaders use these practices in their day-to-day management of schools and during the stressful times that accompany major change initiatives? Robert J. Marzano, Timothy Waters, and Brian A. McNulty provide answers to these and other questions in School Leadership That Works. Based on their analysis of 69 studies conducted since 1970 that met their selection criteria and a recent survey of more than 650 building principals, the authors have developed a list of 21 leadership responsibilities that have a significant effect on student achievement. Readers will learn• the specific behaviors associated with the 21 leadership responsibilities; • the difference between first-order change and second-order change and the leadership responsibilities that are most important for each; • how to work smart by choosing the right work to focus on to improve student achievement; • the advantages and disadvantages of comprehensive school reform models for improving student achievement; • how to develop a site-specific approach to improving student achievement, using a framework of 11 factors and 39 action steps; and• a five-step plan for effective school leadership. Combining rigorous research with practical advice, School Leadership That Works gives school administrators the guidance they need to provide strong leadership for better schools.
Category: Education

Culture Style And The Educative Process

Author : Barbara J. Shade
ISBN : UOM:39015041067391
Genre : Education
File Size : 56.87 MB
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There is growing concern that an increasing number of students of different ethnic backgrounds are not performing to their maximum potential within the current classroom setting. The societal and economic implications of such a situation are staggering. A country cannot survive if a large percentage of its citizens are uneducated, unproductive and noncontributing. This updated and revised Second Edition focuses primarily on African-American, Mexican-American, American Indians, and the Hmong from Southeast Asia as these populations seem to be experiencing the most difficulty, academically. It is hoped this timely book will help the reader better understand how culturally-induced styles ultimately influence academic performance and how the teaching-learning process can accommodate these styles.
Category: Education