Historical Disasters In Context

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Historical Disaster Experiences

Author : Gerrit Jasper Schenk
ISBN : 9783319491639
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 28.69 MB
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Historical disaster research is still a young field. This book discusses the experiences of natural disasters in different cultures, from Europe across the Near East to Asia. It focuses on the pre-industrial era and on the question of similarities, differences and transcultural dynamics in the cultural handling of natural disasters. Which long-lasting cultural patterns of perception, interpretation and handling of disasters can be determined? Have specific types of disasters changed the affected societies? What have people learned from disasters and what not? What adaptation and coping strategies existed? Which natural, societal and economic parameters play a part? The book not only reveals the historical depth of present practices, but also reveals possible comparisons that show globalization processes, entanglements and exchanges of ideas and practices in pre-modern times.
Category: Social Science

Historical Disasters In Context

Author : Andrea JANKU
ISBN : 9781136476259
Genre : History
File Size : 23.7 MB
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Growing concerns about climate change and the increasing occurrence of ever more devastating natural disasters in some parts of the world and their consequences for human life, not only in the immediately affected regions, but for all of us, have increased our desire to learn more about disaster experiences in the past. How did disaster experiences impact on the development of modern sciences in the early modern era? Why did religion continue to play such an important role in the encounter with disasters, despite the strong trend towards secularization in the modern world? What was the political role of disasters? Historical Disasters in Context illustrates how past societies coped with a threatening environment, how societies changed in response to disaster experiences, and how disaster experiences were processed and communicated, both locally and globally. Particular emphasis is put on the realms of science, religion, and politics. International case studies demonstrate that while there are huge differences across cultures in the way people and societies responded to disasters, there are also many commonalities and interactions between different cultures that have the potential to alter the ways people prepare for and react to disasters in future. To explain these relationships and highlight their significance is the purpose of this volume.
Category: History

Historical Disasters In Context

Author : Andrea Janku
ISBN : 0203131622
Genre : History
File Size : 70.40 MB
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Growing concerns about climate change and the increasing occurrence of ever more devastating natural disasters in some parts of the world and their consequences for human life, not only in the immediately affected regions, but for all of us, have increased our desire to learn more about disaster experiences in the past. How did disaster experiences impact on the development of modern sciences in the early modern era? Why did religion continue to play such an important role in the encounter with disasters, despite the strong trend towards secularization in the modern world? What was the political role of disasters? Historical Disasters in Context illustrates how past societies coped with a threatening environment, how societies changed in response to disaster experiences, and how disaster experiences were processed and communicated, both locally and globally. Particular emphasis is put on the realms of science, religion, and politics. International case studies demonstrate that while there are huge differences across cultures in the way people and societies responded to disasters, there are also many commonalities and interactions between different cultures that have the potential to alter the ways people prepare for and react to disasters in future. To explain these relationships and highlight their significance is the purpose of this volume.
Category: History

Man Made Catastrophes And Risk Information Concealment

Author : Dmitry Chernov
ISBN : 9783319243016
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 73.63 MB
Format : PDF
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This book discusses the risks of information concealment in the context of major natural or industrial disasters – offering detailed descriptions and analyses of some 25 historical cases (Three Mile Island nuclear accident, Bhopal disaster, Challenger Space Shuttle explosion, Chernobyl nuclear disaster, Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear disaster, Enron’s bankruptcy, Subprime mortgage crisis, Worldwide Spanish flu and SARS outbreaks, etc.) and applying these insights to selected on-going cases where such information concealment is suspected. Some successful examples of preventive anti-concealment practice are also presented. In the book, the term ‘concealment’ is used to represent the two distinct behaviors uncovered in the investigations: (i) facts and information about an organization and its functioning being hidden from those that need them – here the concealment can be due to various factors, such as complexity and miscommunication, to name but two – and (ii) the conscious and deliberate action of keeping important information secret or misrepresenting it. This second meaning makes up a surprisingly important part of the evidence presented. Accordingly, emphasis has been put on this second aspect and the approach is more pragmatic than academic, remaining focused on evidence-based practical and useful factors. It raises awareness and provides valuable lessons for decision- makers, risk specialists and responsible citizens alike. This work is also intended as a fact-based reference work for future academic and scholarly investigations on the roots of the problem, in particular regarding any psychological or sociological modeling of human fallibility.
Category: Business & Economics

Urban Disasters And The Roman Imagination

Author : Virginia M. Closs
ISBN : 9783110674736
Genre : Literary Criticism
File Size : 24.85 MB
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This book affords new perspectives on urban disasters in the ancient Roman context, attending not just to the material and historical realities of such events, but also to the imaginary and literary possibilities offered by urban disaster as a figure of thought. Existential threats to the ancient city took many forms, including military invasions, natural disasters, public health crises, and gradual systemic collapses brought on by political or economic factors. In Roman cities, the memory of such events left lasting imprints on the city in psychological as well as in material terms. Individual chapters explore historical disasters and their commemoration, but others also consider of the effect of anticipated and imagined catastrophes. They analyze the destruction of cities both as a threat to be forestalled, and as a potentially regenerative agent of change, and the ways in which destroyed cities are revisited — and in a sense, rebuilt— in literary and social memory. The contributors to this volume seek to explore the Roman conception of disaster in terms that are not exclusively literary or historical. Instead, they explore the connections between and among various elements in the assemblage of experiences, texts, and traditions touching upon the theme of urban disasters in the Roman world.
Category: Literary Criticism

Hazards Risks And Disasters In Society

Author : Andrew E. Collins
ISBN : 9780123964748
Genre : Nature
File Size : 35.36 MB
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Hazards, Risks, and Disasters in Society provides analyses of environmentally related catastrophes within society in historical, political and economic contexts. Personal and corporate culture mediates how people may become more vulnerable or resilient to hazard exposure. Societies that strengthen themselves, or are strengthened, mitigate decline and resultant further exposure to what are largely human induced risks of environmental, social and economic degradation. This book outlines why it is important to explore in more depth the relationships between environmental hazards, risk and disasters in society. It presents challenges presented by mainstream and non-mainstream approaches to the human side of disaster studies. By hazard categories this book includes critical processes and outcomes that significantly disrupt human wellbeing over brief or long time-frames. Whilst hazards, risks and disasters impact society, individuals, groups, institutions and organisations offset the effects by becoming strong, healthy, resilient, caring and creative. Innovations can arise from social organisation in times of crisis. This volume includes much of use to practitioners and policy makers needing to address both prevention and response activities. Notably, as people better engage prevalent hazards and risks they exercise a process that has become known as disaster risk reduction (DRR). In a context of climatic risks this is also indicative of climate change adaptation (CCA). Ultimately it represents the quest for development of sustainable environmental and societal futures. Throughout the book cases studies are derived from the world of hazards risks and disasters in society. Includes sections on prevention of and response to hazards, risks and disasters Provides case studies of prominent societal challenges of hazards, risks and disasters Innovative approaches to dealing with disaster drawing from multiple disciplines and sectors
Category: Nature

Gender And Natural Disasters

Author : Elaine Pitt Enarson
ISBN : CORNELL:31924092407414
Genre : Crisis management
File Size : 72.57 MB
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Category: Crisis management

Development In Disaster Prone Places

Author : James Lewis
ISBN : STANFORD:36105028785991
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 27.92 MB
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This book addresses the long-overdue imbalance in disaster management: an over-emphasis on post-disaster assistance and a lack of attention to vulnerability reduction. It answers the fundamental question in this debate: how can we mould pre-disaster development initiatives to become the most appropriate means for vulnerability reduction The book reasserts and reapplies some of the basic concepts and issues which emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, with the message that development is a prime medium both of vulnerability and its reduction. The author examines requirements for long-term change so that conditions which have become the context for catastrophe can be modified. By focusing on longer-term policies and activities now, emergency relief efforts have a positive context within which to contribute to development and the likelihood of recurrence will be reduced. The book contains case-studies from Sri Lanka, the Caribbean and the South Pacific and focuses on hazards of all kinds, setting out to redress the balance between large-scale disasters of global significance and small-scale disasters that are a matter of everyday existence.
Category: Political Science

The Presidency In Times Of Crisis And Disaster Primary Documents In Context

Author : Brian M. Harward
ISBN : 9781440870897
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.52 MB
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This resource uses primary documents and contextualizing essays to illuminate how America's presidents have responded to major tests of their leadership and approached their role and responsibilities in times of national crisis. • Provides readers with an understanding of the dynamics that shaped presidential responses to crises and disasters in American history • Allows readers to hear directly from presidents during times of national crisis, uncertainty, and mourning through primary documents • Provides important information about the circumstances and settings in which the presidents made their statements to the American people (and the wider world) in contextual headnotes for each primary source • Contextualizes the extent and limits of presidential authority and influence in times of national crisis, scandal, disaster, or tragedy in introductory essays from the author
Category: Political Science

Great Historic Disasters Set

Author : Various
ISBN : 0791098915
Genre :
File Size : 66.16 MB
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History has been plagued by a number of monumental disasters that forever changed societies, industries, and the environment. ""Great Historic Disasters"" tells the compelling stories of important historical disasters and explains their impact and the reforms they spurred. From the sinking of the Titanic to the devastating influenza outbreaks in 1918-1919 to the more recent calamities of Hurricane Katrina and the Indian Ocean tsunami, these events in history left a legacy in their widespread devastation and in the reform they sparked in their wake. These lively narratives are highly illustrated with full-color and black-and-white photographs, drawing readers into the accounts of these historical events. Beginning with the historical context of the event to depict life in that time and place, each book's story builds to a vivid description of the disaster, discusses the aftermath, and then analyzes the way the disaster changed history and impacted the future.
Category:

The Cultural Context

Author : Lars Lindström
ISBN : PSU:000057933856
Genre : Art
File Size : 28.71 MB
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Category: Art

Bulletin

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105121674159
Genre : Germany
File Size : 40.26 MB
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Category: Germany

Seismic Japan

Author : Gregory Smits
ISBN : 9780824839109
Genre : History
File Size : 22.81 MB
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What are we to make of contemporary newspapers in Japan speculating about the possible connection between aquatic creatures and earthquakes? Of a city council deciding to issue evacuation advice based on observed animal behavior? Why, between 1977 and 1993, did Japan’s government spend taxpayer money to observe catfish in aquariums as part of its mandate to fund earthquake prediction research? All of these actions are direct legacies of the 1855 Ansei Edo earthquake, one of the major natural disasters of the period. In his investigation of the science, politics, and lore of seismic events in Japan, Gregory Smits examines this earthquake in a broad historical context. The Ansei Edo earthquake shook the shogun’s capital during a year of special religious significance and at a time of particularly vigorous seismic activity. It was also a turning point because, according to the prevailing understanding of earthquakes at the time, it should never have happened. Many Japanese, therefore, became receptive to new ideas about the causes of earthquakes as well as to the notion that by observing some phenomena—for example, the behavior of catfish—one might determine when an earthquake would strike. All subsequent major earthquakes in Japan resulted in claims, always made after the fact, that certain phenomena had been signs of the impending catastrophe. Indeed, earthquake prediction in Japan from 1855 to the present has largely consisted of amassing collections of alleged or possible precursor phenomena. In addition, the Ansei Edo earthquake served as a catalyst accelerating socio-political trends already underway. It revealed bakufu military weaknesses and enhanced the prestige of the imperial deity Amaterasu at the expense of the bakufu deity Kashima. Anyone interested in Japan, earthquakes, and natural disasters will benefit from Seismic Japan. The work also serves as essential background for understanding the peculiar history of earthquake prediction in modern and contemporary Japan.
Category: History

Disasters And History

Author : Bas van Bavel
ISBN : 9781108752381
Genre : History
File Size : 29.34 MB
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Disasters and History offers the first comprehensive historical overview of hazards and disasters. Drawing on a range of case studies, including the Black Death, the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and the Fukushima disaster, the authors examine how societies dealt with shocks and hazards and their potentially disastrous outcomes. They reveal the ways in which the consequences and outcomes of these disasters varied widely not only between societies but also within the same societies according to social groups, ethnicity and gender. They also demonstrate how studying past disasters, including earthquakes, droughts, floods and epidemics, can provide a lens through which to understand the social, economic and political functioning of past societies and reveal features of a society which may otherwise remain hidden from view. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Category: History

Natural Disasters Faminies Hurricanes Typhoons And Cyclones

Author : Marlene Bradford
ISBN : 0893560731
Genre : Nature
File Size : 68.69 MB
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Looks at the science behind such natural disasters as avalanches, hail, typhoons, mud and rock slides, floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, and discusses prevention and preparations, and rescue and relief efforts.
Category: Nature

Evacuation Behavior And Problems

Author : Enrico Louis Quarantelli
ISBN : STANFORD:36105081861705
Genre : Collective behavior
File Size : 40.49 MB
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Annotated bibliography: p. 187-214.
Category: Collective behavior