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As a star in the universe, the Sun is constantly releas- cover a wide range of time and spatial scales, making ?? ing energy into space, as much as ?. ? ?? erg/s. Tis observations in the solar-terrestrial environment c- energy emission basically consists of three modes. Te plicated and the understanding of processes di?cult. ?rst mode of solar energy is the so-called blackbody ra- In the early days, the phenomena in each plasma diation, commonly known as sunlight, and the second region were studied separately, but with the progress mode of solar electromagnetic emission, such as X rays of research, we realized the importance of treating and UV radiation, is mostly absorbed above the Earth’s the whole chain of processes as an entity because of stratosphere. Te third mode of solar energy emission is strong interactions between various regions within in the form of particles having a wide range of energies the solar-terrestrial system. On the basis of extensive from less than ? keV to more than ? GeV. It is convenient satellite observations and computer simulations over to group these particles into lower-energy particles and thepasttwo decades, it hasbecomepossibleto analyze higher-energy particles, which are referred to as the so- speci?cally the close coupling of di?erent regions in the lar wind and solar cosmic rays, respectively. solar-terrestrial environment.
Author : International Association of Universities
ISBN : 1561591009
Genre : Universities and colleges
File Size : 48.73 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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The International Handbook of Universities is an indispensable and up-to-date guide to over 7,300 higher education institutions in 175 countries. Based on data collected by the International Association of Universities, the information is both accurate and current. This is more than just a dictionary of names and places--the International Handbook is a detailed and authoritative structure of higher education institutions across the globe. Listed details for each institution include: * Name (local and English) and full postal address * Telephone, fax, e-mail, telegraphic numbers and websites * All faculties, colleges, schools, institutes, and departments within the institutions with staff and student numbers and fields of study offered * Brief historical background * Information on academic year, admission requirements and tuition fees * Degrees and diplomas offered at each level of study * Student services, special facilities (e.g. museums), and publications * Size and breakdown of academic staff * Student enrollment figures including foreign students * Principal academic and administrative officers with their own contact details.
Author : Canada. Atmospheric Environment Service
ISBN : UOM:39015004531185
Genre : Canada
File Size : 75.46 MB
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Handbook designed to acquaint users of climate information with data sources available from Atmospheric Environment Service. Covers kinds of data and publications available, periods of record, extent of Canada covered, cost, and where and how to acquire publications.