Grammatical Relations

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Grammatical Relations

Author : T. Givón
ISBN : 9789027275783
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 52.3 MB
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This volume presents a functional perspective on grammatical relations (GRs) without neglecting their structural correlates. Ever since the 1970s, the discussion of RGs by functionally-oriented linguists has focused primarily on their functional aspects, such as reference, cognitive accessibility and discourse topicality. With some exceptions, functionalists have thus ceded the discussion of the structural correlates of GRs to various formal schools. Ever since Edward Keenan’s pioneering work on subject properties (1975, 1976), it has been apparent that subjecthood and objecthood can only be described properly by a basket of neither necessary nor sufficient properties — thus within a framework akin to Rosch’s theory of Prototype. Some GR properties are functional (reference, topicality, accessibility); others involve overt coding (word-order, case marking, verb agreement). Others yet are more abstract, involving control of grammatical processes (rule-governed behavior). Building on Keenan’s pioneering work, this volume concentrates on the structural aspects of GRs within a functionalist framework. Following a theoretical introduction, the papers in the volume deal primarily with recalcitrant typological issues: The dissociation between overt coding properties of GRs and their behavior-and-control properties; GRs in serial verb constructions; GRs in ergative languages; The impact of clause union and grammaticalization on GRs.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Argument Structure And Grammatical Relations

Author : Pirkko Suihkonen
ISBN : 9789027205933
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of 'give' (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

On The Nature Of Grammatical Relations

Author : Alec Marantz
ISBN : 0262630907
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 80.53 MB
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This book presents a theory of grammatical relations among sentential constituents which is a development of Chomsky's Government-Binding Theory. The cross-linguistic predictive power of the theory is unusually strong and it is supported in the examination of a wide range of languages.Within the syntax of a language, grammatical relations determine such things as word order, case marking, verb agreement, and the possibilities of anaphora (co- and disjoint reference) among nominals. Other approaches to grammatical relations have considered them to name classes of constituents that share clusters of properties, including most prominently structural positions or case marking, Still others have claimed that grammatical relations are primitives in syntactic theory, but are related essentially to semantic roles. Rejecting these approaches, this monograph develops a theory which includes at its core a "projection principle": The syntax of a language is assumed to be a (direct) "Projection" of the compositional sematics, and the mechanisms of projection are explicitly spelled out.Chapters cover the two asymmetries and two lexical features on which the theory is built; semantic and syntactic data from a wide variety of languages that support the universal applicability and explanatory power of these asymmetries and features; features of passive, antipassive, dative-shift, anticausative, causative, and applied verb constructions in the worlds' languages explained by the theory; confirmations of the theory's predictions in languages for which alternative approaches to grammatical relations fail to provide successful analyses; and, comparison of the book's conception of grammatical relations to those in the GB framework, Montague Grammar, Relational Grammar, and Lexical-Functional Grammar.Alec Marantz is affiliated with the Society of Fellows, Harvard University. On The Nature of Grammatical Relations is a Linguistic Inquiry Monograph.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Mental Representation Of Grammatical Relations

Author : Joan Bresnan
ISBN : STANFORD:36105003273120
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The editor of this volume, who is also author or coauthor of five of the contributions, has provided an introduction that not only affords an overview of the separate articles but also interrelates the basic issues in linguistics, psycholinguistics and cognitive studies that are addressed in this volume. The twelve articles are grouped into three sections, as follows: "I. Lexical Representation: " The Passive in Lexical Theory (J. Bresnan); On the Lexical Representation of Romance Reflexive Clitics (J. Grimshaw); and Polyadicity (J. Bresnan)."II. Syntactic Representation: " Lexical-Functional Grammar: A Formal Theory for Grammatical Representation (R. Kaplan and J. Bresnan); Control and Complementation (J. Bresnan); Case Agreement in Russian (C. Neidle); The Representation of Case in Icelandic (A. Andrews); Grammatical Relations and Clause Structure in Malayalam (K. P. Monahan); and Sluicing: A Lexical Interpretation Procedure (L. Levin)."III. Cognitive Processing of Grammatical Representations: " A Theory of the Acquisition of Lexical Interpretive Grammars (S. Pinker); Toward a Theory of Lexico-Syntactic Interactions in Sentence Perception (M. Ford, J. Bresnan, and R. Kaplan); and Sentence Planning Units: Implications for the Speaker's Representation of Meaningful Relations Underlying Sentences (M. Ford).
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Case And Grammatical Relations

Author : Greville G. Corbett
ISBN : 9789027229946
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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The papers in this volume can be grouped into two broad, overlapping classes: those dealing primarily with case and those dealing primarily with grammatical relations. With regard to case, topics include descriptions of the case systems of two Caucasian languages, the problems of determining how many cases Russian has and whether Hungarian has a case system at all, the issue of case-combining, the retention of the dative in Swedish dialects, and genitive objects in the languages of Europe. With regard to grammatical relations, topics include the order of obliques in OV and VO languages, the effects of the referential hierarchy on the distribution of grammatical relations, the problem of whether the passive requires a subject category, the relation between subjecthood and definiteness, and the issue of how the loss of case and aspectual systems triggers the use of compensatory mechanisms in heritage Russian.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Phrase Structure And Grammatical Relations In Tagalog

Author : Paul Kroeger
ISBN : 0937073865
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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Over the last twenty years or so, most of the work on the syntax of Philippine languages has been focused on the question of whether or not these languages can be said to have grammatical subjects, and if so which argument of a basic transitive clause should be analysed as being the subject. Paul Kroeger's contribution to this debate asserts that grammatical relations such as subject and object are syntactic notions, and must be identified on the basis of syntactic properties, rather than by semantic roles or discourse functions. A large number of syntactic processes in Tagalog uniquely select the argument which bears the nominative case. On the other hand, the data which have been used in the debate to assert the ambiguity of subjecthood are best analysed in terms of semantic rather than syntactic constraints. Together these facts support an analysis that takes the nominative argument as the subject. Kroeger examines the history of the subjecthood debate and uses data from Tagalog to test the theories that have been put forth. His conclusions entail consequences for certain linguistic concepts and theories, and lead Kroeger to assert that grammatical relations are not defined in terms of surface phrase structure configurations, contrary to the assumptions of many approaches to syntax including the Government-Binding theory. Paul Kroeger is presently doing fieldwork in Austronesian languages and teaching linguistics to fieldworkers from around the world.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations

Author : Franz Müller-Gotama
ISBN : 9783110887334
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 87.15 MB
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The series is a platform for contributions of all kinds to this rapidly developing field. General problems are studied from the perspective of individual languages, language families, language groups, or language samples. Conclusions are the result of a deepened study of empirical data. Special emphasis is given to little-known languages, whose analysis may shed new light on long-standing problems in general linguistics.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations

Author : Simon Fraser University (Burnaby). Biennial Conference on Grammatical Relations
ISBN : 1575860031
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 57.14 MB
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This is a collection of discussions of grammatical relations and related concepts using current syntactic theory.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations

Author : John S. Bowers
ISBN : UOM:39015012062918
Genre : Generative grammar
File Size : 76.25 MB
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Category: Generative grammar

Structures Of Focus And Grammatical Relations

Author : Jorunn Hetland
ISBN : 9783110949483
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 74.61 MB
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The seven articles of this volume take up crucial aspects of information structure and grammatical form. Special attention is paid to the definition of topic, focus and contrast, to the language specific devices for expressing different types of these information structural notions, and to the typological characterisation of languages as to discourse configurationality. The investigation of grammatical relations includes the interplay between syntactic functions, morphological case and thematic structure, and the study of the functional and formal complexity of passive in Germanic languages.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Syntactic Categories And Grammatical Relations

Author : William Croft
ISBN : 0226120902
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 81.87 MB
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Analiza: Metodología sintáctica y gramática universal; Bases de las "marcas" lingúísticas para las categorías sintácticas; Hacia una definición externa de las categorias sintácticas; Roles temáticos, semántica verbal y estructura causal; Marcas de casos y orden causal de participantes; Formas verbales y conceptualización de los sucesos.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Voice And Grammatical Relations

Author : Masayoshi Shibatani
ISBN : 9789027229762
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 20.86 MB
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This volume presents thirteen original papers dealing with various aspects of two related areas of research of major concern to linguists of all theoretical persuasions: voice and grammatical relations. The papers are written from typological, functional, and cognitive perspectives, and contain of a number of general studies as well as studies focusing on specific issues, and offer a wealth of data from a broad range of languages. The volume provides up-to-date discussions of an array of issues of theoretical concern, including the nature of grammatical relations, voice in agent/patient systems, the expression vs non-expression of participant roles, and personal vs impersonal passives. The papers in the volume demonstrate that investigations into the nature of voice and grammatical relations can still yield fresh theoretical and typological insights.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations

Author : D. N. S. Bhat
ISBN : 9781134923762
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This book argues that the assumption that grammatical relations are both necessary and universal is an unwarranted generalization. The grammatical relations of subject and object are required in the case of the Indian language of Kannada. Furthermore, the notion of transitivity or transference which forms the basis for postulating grammatical relations does not play the expected central role in all languages: in the case of another Indian language, Manipuri, it is volitionality and transitivity which plays the central role in clause structure. Dr. Bhat argues against the universality and necessity of grammatical relations; his provocative hypothesis will be a challenge to all those concerned with the nature of language.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations In Change

Author : Jan Terje Faarlund
ISBN : 9027230587
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 61.43 MB
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The eleven selected contributions making up this volume deal with grammatical relations, their coding and behavioral properties, and the change that these properties have undergone in different languages. The focus of this collection is on the changing properties of subjects and objects, although the scope of the volume goes beyond the central problems pertaining to case marking and word order. The diachrony of syntactic and morphosyntactic phenomena are approached from different theoretical perspectives, generative grammar, valency grammar, and functionalism. The languages dealt with include Old English, Mainland Scandinavian, Icelandic, German and other Germanic languages, Latin, French and other Romance languages, Northeast Caucasian, Eskimo, and Popolocan. This book provides an opportunity to compare different theoretical approaches to similar phenomena in different languages and language families.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations And Their Non Canonical Encoding In Baltic

Author : Axel Holvoet
ISBN : 9789027270399
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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This is the first of three volumes dealing with clausal architecture, grammatical relations, case-marking and the syntax–semantics interface in Baltic. It focuses on the grammatical relations of subject and object and the viability of these notions in languages like Lithuanian and Latvian, which have a rich case morphology and show many deviations from the canonical nominative-accusative pattern of case-marking. The issues examined include differential object marking, subjecthood in specificational copular constructions, ‘swarm’-type alternations and what they tell us about grammatical relations, special types of subject and object marking in non-finite clauses, and non-canonical grammatical relations induced by modal predicates. One study provides a comparative outlook towards Icelandic, another language noted for its complex marking of grammatical relations. The articles in the volume represent various theoretical frameworks.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations In Romani

Author : Viktor Elšík
ISBN : 9789027284433
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60.54 MB
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This is the first typologically-oriented collection on Romani that is devoted to a particular thematic domain — that of noun phrase grammar. The approach taken is unique in that it places this typologically hybrid language in the centre of a general linguistic, universal discussion of the relevant noun phrase phenomena. The book is also the first assembly of articles to deal with Romani as a whole on the basis of cross-dialectal samples, offering areal-typological, dialectological, and historicalinterpretations. The individual contributions discuss morphological and syntactic aspects of nominal and pronominal inflection, definite articles, demonstratives, genitive compounding, external possession, pronominal object doubling and morphosyntactic alignment. Contributors include leading experts in the fields of noun phrase grammar, Romani dialectologists, typologists and historical linguists.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

On Case Grammar

Author : John Mathieson Anderson
ISBN : 0391007580
Genre : Case grammar
File Size : 33.67 MB
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Category: Case grammar

Case Semantic Roles And Grammatical Relations

Author : Petra Campe
ISBN : 9789027228116
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 53.20 MB
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This is the first of a series of 6 books dealing with case phenomena in different languages, both Indo- and non-Indo-European, resulting from work by a team of 20 specialists at the University of Leuven. It is the first time such a large-scale investigation into case has been undertaken, and a remarkable feature of the project is the use of computer corpora of authentic material. This bibliography presents the many dimensions involved in research into case and case-related phenomena. This includes not only morphological case markers, but also the crossconstituent (semantic and grammatical) relations expressed by morphological case or by its various counterparts; morpho-syntactic processes such as transitivity and passivization; and pragmatic and textual considerations. In addition, the bibliography reflects the implications of case research for other disciplines, such as foreign language teaching and artificial intelligence. More than 6000 publications are listed. An extensive Subject Index provides easy access to all the topics and major concepts covered. A Language Index and a Guide to Languages/Language Families conclude the book. The other volumes in the series include The Dative (2 vols), The Genitive, The Nominative and Accusative, and Non-nuclear Cases.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Focus And Grammatical Relations In Creole Languages

Author : Francis Byrne
ISBN : 9789027276940
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 72.1 MB
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The volume has as its topic, not only the types of formal constructions and devices which creole languages syntactically utilize to achieve constituent focus, but also, in a much broader sense, the many other phenomena and processes found in these languages which serve to highlight sentence-level elements. The book is organized into five sections: 1. verb focus, predicate clefting and predicate doubling; 2. focus and anti-focus; 3. focus and pronominals; 4. discourse patterning; 5. grammatical relations.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Relations In A Radical Creole

Author : Francis Byrne
ISBN : 9789027279019
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
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With English and Portuguese as parent languages; the significant lexical retention of African languages; and the relative isolation of its speakers, Saramaccan has always stood out among Creole languages. Yet despite its obvious interest Saramaccan received little in the way of scholarly study. This groundbraking monograph dispels the mystery surrounding Saramaccan and provides strong evidence for a new approach to Creole origins. The study is carried out within the government-binding framework. The author shows how Saramaccan comes close to demonstrating what constitues the irreducible minimum of building blocks with which a language can be constructed, and the types of structure which must develop under such conditions. In this work Frank Byrne combines the outcome of patient and persevering fieldwork with a firm grasp of current theoretical issues and provides us with the insights into the nature of universal grammar of which a Creole like Saramaccan is potentially capable.
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines