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Geometric models similar to those of Pythagoras and Einstein are now being applied to the conceptual space of information and meaning, for example in the arrangement of Internet documents. This text explores the computational techniques necessary to represent meaning and their basis in conceptual space.

Author : Chris Miller
ISBN : 9781461440413
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 43.56 MB
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This volume was produced in conjunction with the Thematic Program in o-Minimal Structures and Real Analytic Geometry, held from January to June of 2009 at the Fields Institute. Five of the six contributions consist of notes from graduate courses associated with the program: Felipe Cano on a new proof of resolution of singularities for planar analytic vector fields; Chris Miller on o-minimality and Hardy fields; Jean-Philippe Rolin on the construction of o-minimal structures from quasianalytic classes; Fernando Sanz on non-oscillatory trajectories of vector fields; and Patrick Speissegger on pfaffian sets. The sixth contribution, by Antongiulio Fornasiero and Tamara Servi, is an adaptation to the nonstandard setting of A.J. Wilkie's construction of o-minimal structures from infinitely differentiable functions. Most of this material is either unavailable elsewhere or spread across many different sources such as research papers, conference proceedings and PhD theses. This book will be a useful tool for graduate students or researchers from related fields who want to learn about expansions of o-minimal structures by solutions, or images thereof, of definable systems of differential equations.

At the present time, the average undergraduate mathematics major finds mathematics heavily compartmentalized. After the calculus, he takes a course in analysis and a course in algebra. Depending upon his interests (or those of his department), he takes courses in special topics. Ifhe is exposed to topology, it is usually straightforward point set topology; if he is exposed to geom etry, it is usually classical differential geometry. The exciting revelations that there is some unity in mathematics, that fields overlap, that techniques of one field have applications in another, are denied the undergraduate. He must wait until he is well into graduate work to see interconnections, presumably because earlier he doesn't know enough. These notes are an attempt to break up this compartmentalization, at least in topology-geometry. What the student has learned in algebra and advanced calculus are used to prove some fairly deep results relating geometry, topol ogy, and group theory. (De Rham's theorem, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for surfaces, the functorial relation of fundamental group to covering space, and surfaces of constant curvature as homogeneous spaces are the most note worthy examples.) In the first two chapters the bare essentials of elementary point set topology are set forth with some hint ofthe subject's application to functional analysis.

Author : Pierre de la Harpe
ISBN : 0226317218
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 75.93 MB
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In this book, Pierre de la Harpe provides a concise and engaging introduction to geometric group theory, a new method for studying infinite groups via their intrinsic geometry that has played a major role in mathematics over the past two decades. A recognized expert in the field, de la Harpe adopts a hands-on approach, illustrating key concepts with numerous concrete examples. The first five chapters present basic combinatorial and geometric group theory in a unique and refreshing way, with an emphasis on finitely generated versus finitely presented groups. In the final three chapters, de la Harpe discusses new material on the growth of groups, including a detailed treatment of the "Grigorchuk group." Most sections are followed by exercises and a list of problems and complements, enhancing the book's value for students; problems range from slightly more difficult exercises to open research problems in the field. An extensive list of references directs readers to more advanced results as well as connections with other fields.

Author : Giovanni Bellettini
ISBN : 9788876424298
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 45.76 MB
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The aim of the book is to study some aspects of geometric evolutions, such as mean curvature flow and anisotropic mean curvature flow of hypersurfaces. We analyze the origin of such flows and their geometric and variational nature. Some of the most important aspects of mean curvature flow are described, such as the comparison principle and its use in the definition of suitable weak solutions. The anisotropic evolutions, which can be considered as a generalization of mean curvature flow, are studied from the view point of Finsler geometry. Concerning singular perturbations, we discuss the convergence of the Allen–Cahn (or Ginsburg–Landau) type equations to (possibly anisotropic) mean curvature flow before the onset of singularities in the limit problem. We study such kinds of asymptotic problems also in the static case, showing convergence to prescribed curvature-type problems.

Author : E. Bombieri
ISBN : 3642109705
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 39.39 MB
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W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi’s measure and thin obstacles.

The main topics in this introductory text to discrete geometry include basics on convex sets, convex polytopes and hyperplane arrangements, combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations, intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets, geometric Ramsey-type results, and embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. In each area, the text explains several key results and methods.

Author : Rudolf Steiner
ISBN : 9780880109499
Genre : Education
File Size : 39.76 MB
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The point, line, plane and solid objects represent the first three dimensions, but a kind of reversal of space is involved in the ascent to a fourth dimension. Steiner leads us to the brink of this new perspective-as nearly as it can be done with words, diagrams, analogies, and examples of many kinds. In doing so, he continues his lifelong project of demonstrating that our objective, everyday thinking is the lowest rung of a ladder that reaches up to literally infinite heights. The talks in this series and the selections from the question-and-answer sessions on many mathematical topics over the years are translated into English for the first time in THE FOURTH DIMENSION. They bring us to tantalizing new horizons of awareness where Steiner hoped to lead his listeners: Topics include: * The relationship between geometric studies and developing direct perception of spiritual realities * How to construct a fourth-dimensional hypercube * The six dimensions of the self-aware human being * Problems with the theory of relativity * The Trinity and angelic hierarchies and their relationship to physical space * The dimensional aspect of the spiritual being encountered by Moses on Mt. Sinai

This volume will be useful to practising scientists and students working in the application of statistical models to real materials or to processes with perturbations of a Poisson process, a uniform process, or a state of independence for a bivariate process. We use information geometry to provide a common differential geometric framework for a wide range of illustrative applications including amino acid sequence spacings in protein chains, cryptology studies, clustering of communications and galaxies, cosmological voids, coupled spatial statistics in stochastic fibre networks and stochastic porous media, quantum chaology. Introduction sections are provided to mathematical statistics, differential geometry and the information geometry of spaces of probability density functions.