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Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is a comprehensive overview ofthe processes that control when and how volcanoes erupt.Understanding these processes involves bringing together ideas froma number of disciplines, including branches of geology, such aspetrology and geochemistry; and aspects of physics, such as fluiddynamics and thermodynamics. This book explains in accessible terms how different areas ofscience have been combined to reach our current level of knowledgeof volcanic systems. It includes an introduction to eruption types,an outline of the development of physical volcanology, acomprehensive overview of subsurface processes, eruptionmechanisms, the nature of volcanic eruptions and their products,and a review of how volcanoes affect the environment. Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is essential reading forundergraduate students in earth science.
Volcanoes can explode with so much force that they emit small particles up into the stratosphere. Their vicious power can cause the area around the volcano to become tumbledown, and even generate ocean waves so large they can go across entire oceans and demolish coastal areas thousands of miles away. Eruption columns can grow rapidly and reach more than 12 miles above a volcano in less than 30 minutes, forming an eruption cloud. The volcanic ash in the cloud can pose a serious hazard to aviation. During the past 15 years, about 80 commercial jets have been damaged by inadvertently flying into ash clouds, and several have nearly crashed because of engine failure. Large eruption clouds can extend hundreds of miles downwind, resulting in ash fall over enormous areas; the wind carries the smallest ash particles the farthest. Especially important for risk reduction, data from volcano monitoring constitute the only scientific basis for short-term forecasts (years to days) of a future eruption or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Hazards assessments, volcano monitoring, and effective communications among scientists, civil authorities, and the general public comprise the core elements of any successful program to reduce risk from volcano hazards. Many volcano- logical, geophysical, geochemical, and petrological techniques require real-time data gathering or observation during an eruption that may not have direct applicability to the hazard at hand. Therefore, promoting scientific inquiry should be a major part of any strategic plan for managing volcanic eruptions.Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology present a wide-ranging overview of the volcanoes, their products, their eruptive behavior, and their hazards. It aims to understand the deeper structure of volcanoes, and the evolution of magmatic systems using geochemical, petrological, and geophysical techniques with a focus on applied research relating to volcanism and particularly its societal impacts. It is packed with the methods for risk analysis; humanizing risk management; underneath community mitigation, awareness, response to and revival from volcanic hazard events; health concerns related to volcanism; social adaptation to volcanic hazards; policy and institutional aspects of disaster risk management; applications of physical volcanology.
Updates in Volcanology - From Volcano Modeling to Volcano Geology is a new book that is based on book chapters offered by various authors to provide a snapshot of current trends in volcanological researches. Following a short Introduction, the book consists of three sections, namely, ''Understanding the Volcano System from Petrology, Geophysics to Large Scale Experiments,'' ''Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact to the Environment,' and ''Volcanism in the Geological Record.'' These sections collect a total of 13 book chapters demonstrating clearly the research activity in volcanology from geophysical aspects of volcanic systems to their geological framework. Each chapter provides a comprehensive summary of their subject's current research directions. This book hence can equally be useful for students and researchers.
Author : Michael P. Poland
ISBN : 1411338723
Genre : Nature
File Size : 78.99 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Characteristics of Hawaiian Volcanoes establishes a benchmark for the currrent understanding of volcanism in Hawaii, and the articles herein build upon the elegant and pioneering work of Dutton, Jagger, Steams, and many other USGS and academic scientists. Each chapter synthesizes the lessons learned about a specific aspect of volcanism in Hawaii, based largely o continuous observation of eruptive activity and on systematic research into volcanic and earthquake processes during HVO's first 100 years. NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNTS FOR ALREADY REDUCED SALE ITEMS.
The main approach to understanding and creating knowledge engineering concepts is static knowledge. Currently, there is a need to approach knowledge through a dynamic lens and address changing relations on an elaborated syntactic and semantic basis. Dynamic Knowledge Representation in Scientific Domains provides emerging research on the internal and external changes in knowledge within various subject areas and their visual representations. While highlighting topics such as behavior diagrams, distribution analysis, and qualitative modeling, this publication explores the structural development and assessment of knowledge models. This book is an important resource for academicians, researchers, students, and practitioners seeking current research on information visualization in order to foster research and collaboration.
Physical Geology is a vast subject and it is not possible to cover all aspects in one book. This book does not invent the wheel but merely put together sets of updated but concise material on Physical Geology with lots of illustrations. All illustrations are created by hand and give a real classroom feel to the book. Students or readers can easily reproduce them by hand. This is a book, where a diagram says it all. The book is divided into four parts. The first part “The Solar System and Cosmic Bodies” deals with elements of our Solar System and the cosmic bodies around it (like meteorites, asteroids, etc.). The second part “The Earth Materials” deals with Earth and its internal structure. The third part “The Hydrologic System” is more exhaustive and deals with the hydrological system of the Earth including Weathering and Mass Wasting, Streams, Groundwater, Karst, Glaciers, Oceans and Aeolian Processes and Landforms. The fourth and the final part “The Tectonic System” deals with different aspects of Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes.
Author : G. McCall
ISBN : 9789400903814
Genre : Science
File Size : 46.59 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
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Dorrik A. V. Stow Editor in Chief, Association of Geoscientists for International Development ( AGID) AGID is particularly pleased to see published this latest hurricanes, floods-that are wreaking havoc, destroying report in its Geosciences in International Development livelihood and lives in some corner of the globe. Series, as a significant contribution to the onset of the UN As geoscientists there are perhaps three concerns that Decade of National Disaster Reduction, and as a mark of should be uppermost in our minds as we join an inter AGID's growing concern over the potential and actual national effort to combat the adverse effects of natural effects of geohazards throughout the developing world. hazards. The first must be to improve our scientific The problem of geohazards is increasing, not because understanding of the nature and causes of such hazards and to work towards more reliable prediction of their the rate of earth processes is accelerating, nor because the occurrence and magnitude.