From Complexity To Life

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From Complexity To Life

Author : Niels Henrik Gregersen
ISBN : 9780195150704
Genre : Science
File Size : 77.9 MB
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Annotation. Contributors1. Introduction: Towards an Emergentist Worldview, Paul DaviesPART I. DEFINING COMPLEXITY2. Randomness and Mathematical Proof, Gregory J. Chaitin3. How to Define Complexity in Physics, and Why, Charles H. BennettPART II. THE CONCEPT OF INFORMATION IN PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY4. The Emergence of Autonomous Agents, Stuart Kauffman5. Complexity and the Arrow of Time, Paul Davies6. Can Evolutionary Algorithms Generate Specified Complexity?, William A. Dembski7. The Second Law of Gravutucs and the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics, Ian Stewart8. Two Arros from a Mighty Bow, Werner R. LoewensteinPART III. PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES9. Emergence of Transcendence, Harold J. Morowitz10. Complexity, Emergence, and Divine Creativity, Arthur Peacocke11. From Anthropic Design to Self-Organized Complexity, Niels Henrik GregersenIndex.
Category: Science


Author : Roger Lewin
ISBN : 0226476553
Genre : Science
File Size : 73.97 MB
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Examines the field of complexity science, with sections focusing on how the discipline works within computer simulations, natural ecosystems, and various social systems.
Category: Science

Deep Simplicity

Author : John Gribbin
ISBN : 9780141042213
Genre : Science
File Size : 25.59 MB
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'Gribbin takes us through the basics with his customary talent for accessibility and clarity' Sunday Times The world around us can be a complex, confusing place. Earthquakes happen without warning, stock markets fluctuate, weather forecasters seldom seem to get it right - even other people continue to baffle us. How do we make sense of it all? In fact, John Gribbin reveals, our seemingly random universe is actually built on simple laws of cause and effect that can explain why, for example, just one vehicle braking can cause a traffic jam; why wild storms result from a slight atmospheric change; even how we evolved from the most basic materials. Like a zen painting, a fractal image or the pattern on a butterfly's wings, simple elements form the bedrock of a sophisticated whole. Synthesizing chaos and complexity theory for the perplexed, Deep Simplicity brilliantly illuminates the harmony underlying our existence.
Category: Science

Complex Adaptive Systems

Author : John H. Miller
ISBN : 1400835526
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 36.20 MB
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This book provides the first clear, comprehensive, and accessible account of complex adaptive social systems, by two of the field's leading authorities. Such systems--whether political parties, stock markets, or ant colonies--present some of the most intriguing theoretical and practical challenges confronting the social sciences. Engagingly written, and balancing technical detail with intuitive explanations, Complex Adaptive Systems focuses on the key tools and ideas that have emerged in the field since the mid-1990s, as well as the techniques needed to investigate such systems. It provides a detailed introduction to concepts such as emergence, self-organized criticality, automata, networks, diversity, adaptation, and feedback. It also demonstrates how complex adaptive systems can be explored using methods ranging from mathematics to computational models of adaptive agents. John Miller and Scott Page show how to combine ideas from economics, political science, biology, physics, and computer science to illuminate topics in organization, adaptation, decentralization, and robustness. They also demonstrate how the usual extremes used in modeling can be fruitfully transcended.
Category: Social Science

Unravelling Complexity The Life And Work Of Gregory Chaitin

Author : Francisco Antonio Doria
ISBN : 9789811200083
Genre : Computers
File Size : 30.86 MB
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The revolutions that Gregory Chaitin brought within the fields of science are well known. From his discovery of algorithmic information complexity to his work on Gödel's theorem, he has contributed deeply and expansively to such diverse fields.This book attempts to bring together a collection of articles written by his colleagues, collaborators and friends to celebrate his work in a festschrift. It encompasses various aspects of the scientific work that Chaitin has accomplished over the years. Topics range from philosophy to biology, from foundations of mathematics to physics, from logic to computer science, and all other areas Chaitin has worked on.It also includes sketches of his personality with the help of biographical accounts in some unconventional articles that will provide a rare glimpse into the personal life and nature of Chaitin.Compared to the other books that exist along a similar vein, this book stands out primarily due to its highly interdisciplinary nature and its scope that will attract readers into Chaitin's world.
Category: Computers

Simple Thinking

Author : Richard Gerver
ISBN : 9780857086853
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 48.91 MB
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Simple behaviours that unclutter your mind and help you realise your true potential Awaken your passion and tap into your inner greatness as you remove the metaphorical clutter from your life with Simple Thinking. You'll learn how to expand your mind and understand your true potential through the power of thinking simply, while stripping back the jargon and digging to the core of any obstacle in your way. Let's be honest, life is full of unnecessary complexity and it's left most of us confused, angry and disenfranchised. This book will help you to remove the baggage, cut through the clutter and begin your smooth path to success. Learn how to: Live and act with resiliency, authenticity and passion Learn to trust your instincts again and see the world through new eyes Recalibrate your thoughts, behaviours and actions Declutter your mind, streamline your day and be successful at life Simple wisdom, simply shared, is personal development unplugged – and when you begin peeling back the layers to expose the heart of the problem, you become well-equipped to devise a simpler, yet more effective solution. Simple Thinking will help you in achieving this state of clarity and confidence.
Category: Business & Economics

Chaos And Life

Author : Richard J. Bird
ISBN : 9780231501552
Genre : Science
File Size : 54.42 MB
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Why, in a scientific age, do people routinely turn to astrologers, mediums, cultists, and every kind of irrational practitioner rather than to science to meet their spiritual needs? The answer, according to Richard J. Bird, is that science, especially biology, has embraced a view of life that renders meaningless the coincidences, serendipities, and other seemingly significant occurrences that fill people's everyday existence. Evolutionary biology rests on the assumption that although events are fundamentally random, some are selected because they are better adapted than others to the surrounding world. This book proposes an alternative view of evolving complexity. Bird argues that randomness means not disorder but infinite order. Complexity arises not from many random events of natural selection (although these are not unimportant) but from the "playing out" of chaotic systems—which are best described mathematically. When we properly understand the complex interplay of chaos and life, Bird contends, we will see that many events that appear random are actually the outcome of order.
Category: Science

System Effects

Author : Robert Jervis
ISBN : 1400822408
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 47.14 MB
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Based on more than three decades of observation, Robert Jervis concludes in this provocative book that the very foundations of many social science theories--especially those in political science--are faulty. Taking insights from complexity theory as his point of departure, the author observes that we live in a world where things are interconnected, where unintended consequences of our actions are unavoidable and unpredictable, and where the total effect of behavior is not equal to the sum of individual actions. Jervis draws on a wide range of human endeavors to illustrate the nature of these system effects. He shows how increasing airport security might actually cost lives, not save them, and how removing dead trees (ostensibly to give living trees more room) may damage the health of an entire forest. Similarly, he highlights the interconnectedness of the political world as he describes how the Cold War played out and as he narrates the series of events--with their unintended consequences--that escalated into World War I. The ramifications of developing a rigorous understanding of politics are immense, as Jervis demonstrates in his critique of current systemic theories of international politics--especially the influential work done by Kenneth Waltz. Jervis goes on to examine various types of negative and positive feedback, bargaining in different types of relationships, and the polarizing effects of alignments to begin building a foundation for a more realistic, more nuanced, theory of international politics. System Effects concludes by examining what it means to act in a system. It shows how political actors might modify their behavior in anticipation of system effects, and it explores how systemic theories of political behavior might account for the role of anticipation and strategy in political action. This work introduces powerful new concepts that will reward not only international relations theorists, but also all social scientists with interests in comparative politics and political theory.
Category: Political Science

Organizational Ethnography

Author : Sierk Ybema
ISBN : 9781446248188
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 42.38 MB
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Electronic Inspection Copy available for instructors here Just as newspapers do not, typically, engage with the ordinary experiences of people's daily lives, so organizational studies has also tended largely to ignore the humdrum, everyday experiences of people working in organizations. However, ethnographic approaches provide in-depth and up-close understandings of how the 'everyday-ness' of work is organized and how, in turn, work itself organizes people and the societies they inhabit. Organizational Ethnography brings contributions from leading scholars in organizational studies that serve to unpack an ethnographic perspective on organizations and organizational research. The authors explore the particular problems faced by organizational ethnographers, including: - questions of gaining access to research sites within organizations; - the many styles of writing organizational ethnography; - the role of friendship relations in the field; - problems of distance and closeness; - the doing of at-home ethnography; - ethical issues; - standards for evaluating ethnographic work. This book is a vital resource for organizational scholars and students doing or writing ethnography in the fields of business and management, public administration, education, health care, social work, or any related field in which organizations play a role.
Category: Social Science

Nonlinear Dynamics In Complex Systems

Author : Armin Fuchs
ISBN : 9783642335525
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 39.97 MB
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With many areas of science reaching across their boundaries and becoming more and more interdisciplinary, students and researchers in these fields are confronted with techniques and tools not covered by their particular education. Especially in the life- and neurosciences quantitative models based on nonlinear dynamics and complex systems are becoming as frequently implemented as traditional statistical analysis. Unfamiliarity with the terminology and rigorous mathematics may discourage many scientists to adopt these methods for their own work, even though such reluctance in most cases is not justified. This book bridges this gap by introducing the procedures and methods used for analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems. In Part I, the concepts of fixed points, phase space, stability and transitions, among others, are discussed in great detail and implemented on the basis of example elementary systems. Part II is devoted to specific, non-trivial applications: coordination of human limb movement (Haken-Kelso-Bunz model), self-organization and pattern formation in complex systems (Synergetics), and models of dynamical properties of neurons (Hodgkin-Huxley, Fitzhugh-Nagumo and Hindmarsh-Rose). Part III may serve as a refresher and companion of some mathematical basics that have been forgotten or were not covered in basic math courses. Finally, the appendix contains an explicit derivation and basic numerical methods together with some programming examples as well as solutions to the exercises provided at the end of certain chapters. Throughout this book all derivations are as detailed and explicit as possible, and everybody with some knowledge of calculus should be able to extract meaningful guidance follow and apply the methods of nonlinear dynamics to their own work. “This book is a masterful treatment, one might even say a gift, to the interdisciplinary scientist of the future.” “With the authoritative voice of a genuine practitioner, Fuchs is a master teacher of how to handle complex dynamical systems.” “What I find beautiful in this book is its clarity, the clear definition of terms, every step explained simply and systematically.” (J.A.Scott Kelso, excerpts from the foreword)
Category: Mathematics

The Perfect Swarm

Author : Len Fisher
ISBN : 9781458756671
Genre :
File Size : 56.13 MB
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One of the greatest discoveries of recent times is that the complex patterns we find in life are often produced when all of the individuals in a group follow the same simple rule. This process of ''self-organization'' reveals itself in the inanimate worlds of crystals and seashells, but as Len Fisher shows, it is also evident in living organisms, from fish to ants to human beings. The coordinated movements of fish in shoals, for example, arise from the simple rule: ''Follow the fish in front.'' Traffic flow arises from simple rules: ''Keep your distance'' and ''Keep to the right.'' Now, in his new book, Fisher shows how we can manage our complex social lives in an ever more chaotic world. His investigation encompasses topics ranging from ''swarm intelligence'' to the science of parties and the best ways to start a fad. Finally, Fisher sheds light on the beauty and utility of complexity theory. An entertaining journey into the science of everyday life, The Perfect Swarm will delight anyone who wants to understand the complex situations in which we so often find ourselves.

Signs Of Life

Author : Ricard Sole
ISBN : 0465019285
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.58 MB
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Signs of Life applies the mathematics of order and disorder, of entropy, chance, and randomness, of chaos and nonlinear dynamics to the various mysteries of the living world at all levels. This book is an entirely new approach to understanding living systems and will help set the agenda for biology in the coming century.
Category: Science


Author : Nicholas Rescher
ISBN : 9781000659474
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 79.69 MB
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Our world is enormously sophisticated and nature's complexity is literally inexhaustible. As a result, projects to describe and explain natural science can never be completed. This volume explores the nature of complexity and considers its bearing on our world and how we manage our affairs within it. Rescher's overall lesson is that the management of our affairs within a socially, technologically, and cognitively complex environment is plagued with vast management problems and risks of mishap. In primitive societies, failure to understand how things work can endanger a family or, at worst, a clan or tribe. In the modern world, man-made catastrophes on the model of Chernobyl can endanger millions, possibly even risking the totality of human life on our planet. Rescher explains "technological escalation" as a sort of arms race against nature in which scientific progress requires more powerful technology for observation and experimentation, and, conversely, scientific progress requires the continual enhancement of technology. The increasing complexity of science and technology (and, in consequence, of social systems) along with problems growing faster than solutions confront us with major management and decision problems. This study is the first of its kind. There have been many specialized studies of complexity in physics and computation theory, but no overall analysis of the phenomenon. Although Rescher offers a sobering outlook, he also believes that complexity entails mixed blessings: our imperfect knowledge provides a rationale for putting forth our best efforts. Rescher urges us to gear the conduct of life's practical affairs to the demands of a complex world. This highly readable and accessible volume will be of interest to those interested in philosophy, the philosophy of science, science policy studies, and future studies.
Category: Philosophy

Thinking In Complexity

Author : Klaus Mainzer
ISBN : 3540002391
Genre : Science
File Size : 78.80 MB
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This new edition also treats smart materials and artificial life. A new chapter on information and computational dynamics takes up many recent discussions in the community.
Category: Science

Biological Complexity And The Dynamics Of Life Processes

Author : J. Ricard
ISBN : 0080860958
Genre : Science
File Size : 90.90 MB
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The aim of this book is to show how supramolecular complexity of cell organization can dramatically alter the functions of individual macromolecules within a cell. The emergence of new functions which appear as a consequence of supramolecular complexity, is explained in terms of physical chemistry. The book is interdisciplinary, at the border between cell biochemistry, physics and physical chemistry. This interdisciplinarity does not result in the use of physical techniques but from the use of physical concepts to study biological problems. In the domain of complexity studies, most works are purely theoretical or based on computer simulation. The present book is partly theoretical, partly experimental and theory is always based on experimental results. Moreover, the book encompasses in a unified manner the dynamic aspects of many different biological fields ranging from dynamics to pattern emergence in a young embryo. The volume puts emphasis on dynamic physical studies of biological events. It also develops, in a unified perspective, this new interdisciplinary approach of various important problems of cell biology and chemistry, ranging from enzyme dynamics to pattern formation during embryo development, thus paving the way to what may become a central issue of future biology.
Category: Science

From System Complexity To Emergent Properties

Author : Moulay Aziz-Alaoui
ISBN : 9783642021992
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 74.10 MB
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Emergence and complexity refer to the appearance of higher-level properties and behaviours of a system that obviously comes from the collective dynamics of that system's components. These properties are not directly deducible from the lower-level motion of that system. Emergent properties are properties of the "whole'' that are not possessed by any of the individual parts making up that whole. Such phenomena exist in various domains and can be described, using complexity concepts and thematic knowledges. This book highlights complexity modelling through dynamical or behavioral systems. The pluridisciplinary purposes, developed along the chapters, are able to design links between a wide-range of fundamental and applicative Sciences. Developing such links - instead of focusing on specific and narrow researches - is characteristic of the Science of Complexity that we try to promote by this contribution.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Simplifying Complexity Life Is Uncertain Unfair And Unequal

Author : Bruce J. West
ISBN : 9781681082172
Genre : Science
File Size : 62.64 MB
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In life, we often face unavoidable complexities in terms of our ability to understand or influence outcomes. Some questions which arise due to these complexities are: Why can’t the future be made certain? Why do the some people or events always end up at the center of controversy? Why do only a select few get ahead of their peers? Each question pertains to three central elements of complexities and these elements are: uncertainty, inequality and unfairness. Simplifying Complexity explains the scientific study of complex cognitive networks, as well as the methods scientists use to parse difficult problems into manageable pieces. Readers are introduced to scientific methodology and thought processes, followed by a discourse on perspectives on the three elements of complexity through concepts such as normal and non-normal statistics, scaling and complexity management. Simplifying Complexity combines basic cognitive science and scientific philosophy for both advanced students (in the fields of sociology, cognitive science, complex networks and change management) and for general readers looking for a more scientific guide to understanding and managing the nature of change in a complex world.
Category: Science

From Complexity To Simplicity

Author : S. Collinson
ISBN : 9781137006226
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 41.31 MB
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Complexity is slowing companies down, costing them on average 10% of their profits. Based on cutting-edge research, this practical 'how to' guide will show businesses how to remove complexity to boost profits and morale.
Category: Business & Economics

The Vital Question

Author : Nick Lane
ISBN : 0393352978
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.4 MB
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One of the deepest, most illuminating books about the history of life to have been published in recent years. The Economist"
Category: Science


Author : Mitchell M. Waldrop
ISBN : 9780671872342
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 75.26 MB
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A look at the rebellious thinkers who are challenging old ideas with their insights into the ways countless elements of complex systems interact to produce spontaneous order out of confusion
Category: Mathematics