Foreign Fighters

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Returning Islamist Foreign Fighters

Author : Elena Pokalova
ISBN : 9783030314781
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 46.87 MB
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This book examines the challenges foreign fighter returnees from Syria and Iraq pose to Western countries. A number of returnees have demonstrated that they are willing to use violence against their home countries, and some have already staged terrorist attacks on Western soil on apparent orders from ISIS. Through the historical context of previous waves of mobilizations of Islamist foreign fighters, the author tracks the experiences of returnees from previous conflicts and discusses the major security challenges associated with them. The book analyzes the major approaches implemented by Western countries in response to foreign fighter returnees, discusses the prosecution of returnees, and evaluates the corresponding challenges of prison radicalization.
Category: Political Science

Road Warriors

Author : Daniel Byman
ISBN : 9780190646516
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 73.49 MB
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In Road Warriors, terrorism expert Daniel Byman traces the history of the jihadist foreign fighter movement. Through the biographies of key figures and histories of the groups, Byman chronicles the movement's birth in Afghanistan, growing pains in Bosnia and Chechnya, and emergence as a majorterrorism scourge behind not only 9/11, but also attacks in Paris, Madrid, and beyond.He details the foreign fighters' role in Iraq after the 2003 U.S. overthrow of Saddam's regime and the impact of their mistakes. Foreign fighters reached their apogee in Syria during the nation's civil war, effectively combatting the Assad regime, the United States, and other foes on behalf of theIslamic State, one of the deadliest terrorist groups the world has known. Some fighters died in the first conflict zone they entered, while others became professional fighters, going from one war to the next. Still others sought to return home, some to peaceful retirement but a deadly few to conductterrorist attacks.Both the United States and Europe have suffered and adapted as foreign fighter movements have evolved. Before 9/11, volunteers were able to go to and fro to Afghanistan and other hotspots with little interference. Today, the United States and its allies have developed a global program to identify,arrest, and kill foreign fighters. Much remains to be done, however - jihadist ideas and networks are by now deeply embedded, even as groups such as Al Qaeda and the Islamic State rise and fall.
Category: Political Science

Terrorist Movements And The Recruitment Of Arab Foreign Fighters

Author : Roger Warren
ISBN : 9781786726155
Genre : History
File Size : 68.56 MB
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This book offers the first detailed, in-depth account of how and why some Arab foreign fighters subsequently became involved in Islamist terrorism. Drawing on a personal dataset of 3,010 Arab foreign fighters compiled using biographies, martyrdom eulogies, and postings on 'jihadi' websites, Terrorist Movements and the Recruitment of Arab Foreign Fighters suggests that the subsequent involvement in Islamist terrorism by some Arab foreign fighters is primarily forged in the crucible of defensive jihad.
Category: History

Foreign Fighters

Author : Frank J. Cilluffo
ISBN : OCLC:694185761
Genre : Jihad
File Size : 61.71 MB
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This paper is an outgrowth of a report by the Swedish National Defence College's Center for Asymmetric Threat Studies (SNDC-CATS) based on a June 2010 conference, "The Trajectories of Western Foreign Fighters : Shifts and Implications." This report is a timely primer on an emerging threat to Western states, dramatically evidenced in the recent news of an alleged plot by foreign fighters to stage a number of coordinated "Mumbai-style" attacks in Europe and possibly the United States. The joint report of HSPI and SNDC surveys the sources, destinations and impact of Western jihadi foreign fighters. It also highlights key bridge figures who act as catalysts for radicalization and recruitment. The authors identify key vulnerabilities in the foreign fighter network, arguing that more must be done to exploit the security challenges faced by global jihadists.
Category: Jihad

Western Foreign Fighters In Syria

Author : U. S. Military
ISBN : 154978093X
Genre :
File Size : 31.85 MB
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This unique study examines Western foreign fighters in Syria during the Civil War through 2015. Syria has become a beacon for foreign fighters. Estimates in 2015 indicate that over 20,000 men and women have gone there to fight for various insurgent groups. This conflict is unique due to the unprecedented number of Westerners fighting. The central purpose of this study is to better understand recruitment and mobilization mechanisms as they pertain to fighters from Western nations. Why are these men and women leaving the relative safety of the West to enter a violent internecine conflict? What will happen if they decide to return home? To answer these questions, this thesis constructs 20 Western foreign fighter profiles from open source demographic, biographical, and motivational information, and then presents the findings. In particular, three variables--networks, anchoring, and group dynamics--are evaluated as critical drivers of recruitment and mobilization. The findings of this research show that traditional social networks, such as kinship, occupational, and religious groups, are most effective at recruiting and mobilizing prospective foreign fighters. Also, the data shows anchored individuals rarely mobilize. Furthermore, group dynamics appear critical to the mobilization of foreign fighters into Syria. Finally, the findings do not support social media efficacy in recruitment or mobilization.CHAPTER I * INTRODUCTION * A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION * B. SIGNIFICANCE * C. LITERATURE REVIEW * D. POTENTIAL EXPLANATIONS AND HYPOTHESES * E. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY * F. THESIS OVERVIEW * CHAPTER II * THE SYRIAN CIVIL WAR AND THE RISE OF FOREIGN FIGHTERS * A. THE SYRIAN CONFLICT (2011-2015) * B. FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN SYRIA AND IRAQ * 1. EMERGENCE * 2. GROWTH * 3. FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN 2015 * C. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER III * WESTERN FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN SYRIA * A. INTRODUCTION * B. WESTERN FOREIGN FIGHTER DATA * 1. METHODOLOGY * 2. ASSESSED VARIABLES * a. Networks * b. Anchoring * c. Group Dynamics * 3. DATA RESULTS AND ANALYSIS * a. Demographics and Biographical Data * b. Networks, Anchoring, and Group Dynamics * C. WESTERN FOREIGN FIGHTERS: EXISTING STUDIES * D. CONCLUSION * CHAPTER IV * CONCLUSION * A. INTRODUCTION * B. HYPOTHESIS EVALUATION * 1. H1: IDEOLOGY * 2. H2: TRADITIONAL SOCIAL NETWORKS (TSN) * 3. H3: ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKS (OSN) * 4. H4: GROUP DYNAMICS * C. IMPLICATIONS * D. FOLLOW-ON RESEARCH * LIST OF REFERENCES

Foreign Fighters

Author : David Malet
ISBN : 9780199939459
Genre : History
File Size : 40.30 MB
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Foreign Fighters is the comprehensive study of foreign fighters examines patterns of recruitment using original data sets and detailed diverse case studies, and how recruiters use frames of existential threat to strengthen rebel groups.
Category: History

Foreign Fighters Under International Law And Beyond

Author : Andrea De Guttry
ISBN : 9789462650992
Genre : Law
File Size : 69.63 MB
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This book offers various perspectives, with an international legal focus, on an important and underexplored topic, which has recently gained momentum: the issue of foreign fighters. It provides an overview of challenges, pays considerable attention to the status of foreign fighters, and addresses numerous approaches, both at the supranational and national level, on how to tackle this problem. Outstanding experts in the field – lawyers, historians and political scientists – contributed to the present volume, providing the reader with a multitude of views concerning this multifaceted phenomenon. Particular attention is paid to its implications in light of the armed conflicts currently taking place in Syria and Iraq. Andrea de Guttry is a Full Professor of International Law at the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. Francesca Capone is a Research Fellow in Public International Law at the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna. Christophe Paulussen is a Senior Researcher at the T.M.C. Asser Instituut in The Hague, the Netherlands, and a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague.
Category: Law

Networked Insurgencies And Foreign Fighters In Eurasia

Author : Jean-Francois Ratelle
ISBN : 9781351583534
Genre : History
File Size : 31.86 MB
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Recent wars in Eurasia have foregrounded the flows of foreign fighters between distinct insurgent battlefronts. Since 2011 thousands of individuals have travelled from the Caucasus and Central Asia to fight in Syria and Iraq. Caucasians have also appeared in the fighting that followed Ukraine’s Euromaidan Revolution in 2014. Resolutions of these conflicts promise further movements as foreign fighters return home. This collection of articles presents for the first time in one volume a cross-regional comparative perspective on the trajectories of foreign fighters between the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Middle East and Ukraine. Drawing on extensive primary sources, contributors theorize the life cycles of foreign fighter waves and the respective roles played by pre-existing insurgent networks, transnational ideologies such as "global jihad" and "Eurasianism", and propaganda framing by insurgent groups such as the Islamic State. They examine regional state responses to the security threat posed by foreign fighters, showing how current security governance regimes can reinforce insurgent ideologies attracting violent militants. Finally they investigate the motivations for foreign fighters to return to their home states in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Arguing for the networked character of insurgencies in Eurasia, this book offers a unique overview of the foreign fighter phenomenon across the continent. It was originally published as various special issues of Caucasus Survey, Terrorism and Political Violence and Studies in Conflict & Terrorism.
Category: History

Classifying Foreign Fighters The Case Of Ypg

Author : Mehmet Furkan ERGÜL
ISBN : 9786257802123
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 25.89 MB
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Foreign fighters and returning foreign fighters are among the most important security issues that the Middle East and Europe is facing today. Although this topic has gained more attention in recent years, most of the academic studies on foreign fighters do not focus on the issue of classification. This book is based on a master's thesis and focuses on this somewhat neglected area of research by analyzing the discourse of foreign YPG fighters and finally proposing a classification for foreign YPG fighters based on their narratives. David Malet's PhD dissertation, which categorizes foreign fighters into four different types is particularly important and this study is based on Malet's classification. However, unlike Malet's thesis, this study focuses on one armed organization, the YPG, instead of a general categorization.
Category: Political Science

Returning Foreign Fighters And The Reintegration Imperative

Author : Georgia Holmer
ISBN : OCLC:978350577
Genre : Foreign enlistment
File Size : 89.84 MB
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"This report aims to help policymakers and practitioners navigate the challenges of developing effective programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate foreign fighters returning from Syria and Iraq into their societies. Ultimately, holistic and comprehensive reintegration efforts designed to transition returnees address not only their needs, but also those of the entire society, and are critical in building more resilient and safer communities"--Publisher's web site.
Category: Foreign enlistment

Western Foreign Fighters

Author : Phil Gurski
ISBN : 9781442273818
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 53.59 MB
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In this text, Phil Gurski examines why some people decide to abandon their homeland to join terrorist groups, and whether they pose a significant threat to their societies if they survive and return.
Category: Political Science

Countering Violent Islamist Extremism

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Homeland Security
ISBN : STANFORD:36105050686927
Genre : Domestic terrorism
File Size : 55.80 MB
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Category: Domestic terrorism

Not Only Syria The Phenomenon Of Foreign Fighters In A Comparative Perspective

Author : K. Rekawek
ISBN : 9781614997573
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 27.72 MB
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The term 'foreign fighters' describes nationals of one state who - for whatever variety of reasons and motives - travel abroad to take part in a conflict in another state without the promise of financial reward. The majority of attention has so far been focused on the nationals of Western European states who have gone to fight for the so-called Islamic State in Syria. There exist, however, other examples of contemporary European foreign fighters whose travails, motivations and returns have been largely unnoticed and underappreciated. This books attempts to balance this state of affairs by bringing to the fore some lesser known cases of non-terrorist but foreign fighters related to the conflict in Ukraine, and situating them against the backdrop of the larger mobilization for the war in Syria. This book presents edited versions of the 12 papers presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) 'Not Only Syria? Foreign Fighters: A Threat to NATO Allies and Their Neighbours'. The workshop was held in Chisinau, Moldova, in May 2016, and brought together researchers and experts in the field to discuss the differences, similarities and parallels between different groups of foreign fighters engaged in the conflicts in Syria and the Ukraine. The papers include contributions from the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark and Poland among others, and examine cases of foreign fighters from these and other countries.The book will provide an interesting context to researchers who have, up to now, looked only at a single set of such fighters, and will lead to tangible recommendations on how to develop policies to address the threat posed by returnees from any conflict.
Category: Political Science

Foreign Fighters

Author : Lorenzo Vidino
ISBN : OCLC:891509347
Genre :
File Size : 86.53 MB
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Foreign Fighters

Author : Bernd Horn
ISBN : 1100252649
Genre : Counterinsurgency
File Size : 42.34 MB
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Category: Counterinsurgency

Career Foreign Fighters

Author : Chelsea Daymon
ISBN : OCLC:1155359992
Genre : Insurgency
File Size : 51.3 MB
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This paper examines career foreign fighters who have traversed from one insurgency to another. We present an original dataset of over 50 individuals who served as foreign fighters in multiple insurgencies. More than half of those who could be identified as having served with more than one armed group achieved leadership positions, which is historically atypical for foreign fighters. Some become top leadership while a significant percentage also facilitate terror attacks. The Syrian conflict has produced a policy debate about whether it is more dangerous to allow foreign fighters to return or to leave them unaccounted. This study provides the first evidence that foreign fighters who survive their first tours accumulate resources, develop skills, and transfer their abilities to new violent actors. Our findings indicate that career foreign fighters pose a greater and broader security threat than returning, one-off foreign fighters.
Category: Insurgency

Essays On Islamic State Foreign Fighters

Author : Andrea Michelle Morris
ISBN : OCLC:1135786773
Genre : Income distribution
File Size : 70.11 MB
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"The dissertation consists of three essays on the foreign militants who joined the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The first essay examines the within-group role preference of ISIS soldiers. I look at the characteristics of the Islamic's States members who volunteer to be a suicide attacker instead of a fighter. I find that men who are less educated and have a basic knowledge of Islam are more likely to prefer to serve as a suicide attacker than a fighter. The results also show that men with previous combat experience and those are give large donations to ISIS are less likely to want to be a suicide attacker. The second essay takes a more typical approach to the study of terrorist participants and compares the demographic information of the ISIS foreign fighters to non-combatants from the same country in the Middle East. Consistent with past work on terrorist operatives, a university education is the strongest correlate of joining the Islamic State. In addition, an individual that holds an unskilled job but has a college education has a positive association with joining ISIS. This provides support in favor of the relationship between relative deprivation and extremism. Finally, this essay replicates well-known empirical findings on terrorist participants, such as age and marital status, using a new dataset and application. The third essay aggregates the individual ISIS foreign fighter observations up to the ethnic group level. I consider conventional explanations of ethnic conflict and determine whether they can extend to participation in ethno-transnational conflict. I find that income inequality is the strongest predictor of participation in foreign fighting. By contrast, political grievances have no association with transnational ethnic conflict. Overall, the results show that socio-economic grievances motivate foreign fighting"--Pages x-xi.
Category: Income distribution

Beyond The Caliphate

Author : Richard Martin Donne Barrett
ISBN : OCLC:1014017325
Genre : Civil war
File Size : 89.75 MB
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Key Findings. As the so-called Islamic State (IS) loses territorial control of its caliphate, there is little doubt that the group or something similar will survive the worldwide campaign against it so long as the conditions that promoted its growth remain. Its appeal will outlast its demise, and while it will be hard to assess the specific threat posed by foreign fighters and returnees, they will present a challenge to many countries for years to come.Despite the overall increase in Foreign Fighters since The Soufan Group’s last report in December 2015, the flow of fighters came to a virtual standstill as the Islamic State began to lose its territory in both Syria and Iraq and states implemented better measures to prevent travel. However, from 2015, there was a marked rise in the number of foreign women and children traveling to or, in the case of children, being born in the Islamic State.While returning Foreign Fighters have not as yet added significantly to the threat of terrorism around the world, the number of attacks inspired or directed by the Islamic State continues to rise. All returnees, whatever their reason for going home, will continue to pose some degree of risk.There are now at least 5,600 citizens or residents from 33 countries who have returned home. Added to the unknown numbers from other countries, this represents a huge challenge for security and law enforcement entities.States have not found a way to address the problem of returnees. Most are imprisoned, or disappear from view. There will be a need for more research and information sharing to develop effective strategies to assess and address the threat.Returnee women and children represent a particular problem for States, as they struggle to understand how best to reintegrate these populations. Proper mental health and social support mechanisms will be especially relevant in the case of children.
Category: Civil war