Explaining Terrorism

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Explaining Terrorism

Author : Martha Crenshaw
ISBN : 0415780519
Genre : History
File Size : 88.70 MB
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The leading global thinker on the study of terrorism, Martha Crenshaw has for thirty years produced the most creative, rigorous and important contributions our field has known. And now these can all be found in one place. This book is simply the one indispensable text that every student, scholar and researcher of terrorism and political violence must have. Literally the best of the best.' John Horgan, International Center for the Study of Terrorism, Penn State University, USA `Explaining terrorism requires an interdisciplinary approach able to address contextual causes, organizational dynamics and individual motifs. This combination of different levels of the analysis has been at the core of Martha Crenshaw's influential contributions to the field of terrorism study, the best of which are now collected in this precious volume.' Donatella della Porta, European University Institute, Florence, Italy `When it comes to the study of terrorism from a genuine social science perspective, Professor Martha Crenshaw became the scholar of reference long before the field gained academic centrality worldwide after 9/11.'Fernando Reinares, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain This volume comprises some of the key essays by Professor Crenshaw, from 1972 to the present-day, on the causes, processes and consequences of terrorism. Since the early 1970s, scholars and practitioners have tried to explain terrorism and to assess the effectiveness of government responses to the threat. From its beginnings in a small handful of analytical studies, the research field has expanded to thousands of entries, with an enormous spike following the 9/11 attacks. The field of terrorism studies is now impressive in terms of quantity, scope, and variety. This collection of essays by one of the pioneering thinkers in the field of terrorism studies will be essential reading for all students of political violence and terrorism, security studies and IR/politics in general.
Category: History

Terrorism Studies

Author : John Horgan
ISBN : 9780415455046
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70.59 MB
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"In an age when there is more written about terrorism than anyone can possibly read in a lifetime, it has become increasingly difficult for students and scholars to navigate the literature. At the same time, courses and modules on terrorism studies are developing at a rapid rate. To meet this challenge, this comprehensive new Reader in Terrorism Studies seeks to equip the aspiring student, based anywhere in the world, with a comprehensive introduction to the study of terrorism. Containing many of the most influential and groundbreaking studies from the worlds leading authorities on terrorism, drawn from several disciplines, and edited by one of the worlds leading experts, John Horgan, this book is the essential companion for the student of terrorism and political violence.Terrorism Studies, which starts with a detailed Introduction on 'Studying Terrorism', is divided into nine sub-sections, each of which has an introduction and guide to further reading. It will be essential reading for undergraduate students of terrorism and political violence, and recommended reading for students of security studies, international relations and political science in general"--
Category: Political Science

National Counter Terrorism Strategies

Author : Robert W. Orttung
ISBN : 1586036955
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 41.39 MB
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" National Counter-Terrorism Strategies provides an in-depth analyses of terrorism trends and responses in the US, UK, France, Turkey and Russia. The contributors are scholars and operational people from each of the countries. They contribute to the existing literature on terrorism by analyzing their countries response to the terror-organized crime nexus, coordination of state agencies fighting terrorism, and ability to manage trade-offs between protecting civil liberties and ensuring security. The book makes an important contribution by providing a comparative analysis of the various national responses to terrorism, showing where individual countries excel and lag behind. These analyses seek to provide the basis for improving the counter-terrorism approaches for each of the countries. The introductory chapters provide an analysis of current trends in terrorism today from a variety of different national perspectives. The different approaches and points of view allow the reader to gain a more nuanced understanding of terrorism and the current efforts to combat it. "
Category: Political Science

Terrorism In Western Europe

Author : Jan Oskar Engene
ISBN : 1781008582
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 70.57 MB
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This important book examines why terrorism prevails in the otherwise stable and advanced democracies of Western Europe and why some countries have been more severely hit than others. The author maps the trends in internal terrorism in 18 Western European countries since 1950 and explains those trends, both from a theoretical and empirical perspective. He uses a unique data set called TWEED, which covers around 9000 terrorist attacks and records the activities of about 200 terrorist groups over the post-war period. Offering a historical and comparative approach to terrorism, unlike the more usual focus on contemporary threats and developments, this book will appeal to political and social scientists and students, especially those working in comparative politics or on the causes of conflict. Academics interested in European studies and more specifically the conditions and developments of European democracy, and policymakers concerned with the development of the terrorist threat in Europe will also find the book of great interest.
Category: Political Science

Origins Of Terrorism

Author : Walter Reich
ISBN : 0943875897
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 76.4 MB
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Offers a study of the beliefs, goals, and other factors that cause groups and individuals to resort to violence to gain their political objectives.
Category: Political Science

The Terrorist Identity

Author : Michael P. Arena
ISBN : 9780814707166
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 65.59 MB
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Who would strap a bomb to his chest, walk into a crowded subway station and blow himself up? Only by examining how a terrorist understands his own identity and actions can this question be answered. The authors of The Terrorist Identity explore how the notion of self-concept combined with membership in terrorist and extremist groups, can shape and sustain the identity of a terrorist as well as their subsequent justification for violence and the legitimacy of their actions. The book provides an understanding of identity that draws on concepts from psychology, criminology, and sociology. Notably, the book examines several case studies of various terrorist groups, including: the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Hamas, the Shining Path, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and racist Skinheads. By making the construct of identity central to this analysis The Terrorist Identity explains how violent and extremist collective behavior emerges culturally, how it informs the identity of group members socially, and how participants assume their place in these groups completely even at the expense of life-threatening harm to others or to themselves.
Category: Political Science

Jewish Terrorism In Israel

Author : Ami Pedahzur
ISBN : 9780231520751
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 46.65 MB
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Ami Pedahzur and Arie Perliger, world experts on the study of terror and security, propose a theory of violence that contextualizes not only recent acts of terror but also instances of terrorism that stretch back centuries. Beginning with ancient Palestine and its encounters with Jewish terrorism, the authors analyze the social, political, and cultural factors that sponsor extreme violence, proving religious terrorism is not the fault of one faith, but flourishes within any counterculture that adheres to a totalistic ideology. When a totalistic community perceives an external threat, the connectivity of the group and the rhetoric of its leaders bolster the collective mindset of members, who respond with violence. In ancient times, the Jewish sicarii of Judea carried out stealth assassinations against their Roman occupiers. In the mid-twentieth century, to facilitate their independence, Jewish groups committed acts of terror against British soldiers and the Arab population in Palestine. More recently, Yigal Amir, a member of a Jewish terrorist cell, assassinated Yitzhak Rabin to express his opposition to the Oslo Peace Accords. Conducting interviews with former Jewish terrorists, political and spiritual leaders, and law-enforcement officials, and culling information from rare documents and surveys of terrorist networks, Pedahzur and Perliger construct an extensive portrait of terrorist aggression, while also describing the conditions behind the modern rise of zealotry.
Category: Political Science

Understanding Terrorism In The Age Of Global Media

Author : C. Archetti
ISBN : 9781137291387
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54.64 MB
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We cannot truly understand - let alone counter - terrorism in the 21st century unless we also understand the processes of communication that underpin it. This book challenges what we know about terrorism, showing that current approaches are inadequate and outdated, and develops a new communication model to understand terrorism in the media age.
Category: Social Science

The First War On Terrorism

Author : David C. Wills
ISBN : 0742531295
Genre : History
File Size : 65.86 MB
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The First War on Terrorism examines the response of the Reagan Administration to the political violence it confronted during the 1980s. David C. Wills takes the reader inside the negotiations over how to respond to terrorist acts and shows how the Reagan Administration's decision making process was a crucial obstacle to formulating a consistent and effective terrorism policy.
Category: History

Terrorism Freedom And Security

Author : Philip B. Heymann
ISBN : 0262582554
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 43.28 MB
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A former Deputy Attorney General of the United States argues that we must preserve our civil liberties and democratic values while fighting terrorism. On September 11, 2001, the United States began to consider the terrorist threat in a new light. Terrorism was no longer something that happened in other countries on other continents but became a pressing domestic concern for the US government and American citizens. The nation suddenly faced a protracted struggle. In Terrorism, Freedom, and Security, Philip Heymann continues the discussion of responses to terrorism that he began in his widely read Terrorism and America. He argues that diplomacy, intelligence, and international law should play a larger role than military action in our counterterrorism policy; instead of waging "war" against terrorism, the United States needs a broader range of policies. Heymann believes that many of the policies adopted since September 11--including trials before military tribunals, secret detentions, and the subcontracting of interrogation to countries where torture is routine--are at odds with American political and legal traditions and create disturbing precedents. Americans should not be expected to accept apparently indefinite infringements on civil liberties and the abandonment of such constitutional principles as separation of powers and the rule of law. Heymann believes that the United States can guard against the continuing threat of terrorism while keeping its traditional democratic values in place.
Category: Political Science

Terrorist S Creed

Author : R. Griffin
ISBN : 9781137284723
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 73.89 MB
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Terrorist's Creed casts a penetrating beam of empathetic understanding into the disturbing and murky psychological world of fanatical violence, explaining how the fanaticism it demands stems from the profoundly human need to imbue existence with meaning and transcendence.
Category: Political Science

Jihad In The West

Author : Frazer Egerton
ISBN : 9781139501101
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 35.16 MB
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Militant Salafism is one of the most significant movements in politics today. Unfortunately its significance has not been matched by understanding. To begin to address this knowledge deficit this book argues that, rather than the largely unhelpful pursuit of individual 'root causes' offered in much of the literature, we would be better served by looking at the factors that have enabled and facilitated a particular political imaginary. That political imaginary is one that allows individuals to conceive of themselves as integral members of a global battle waged between the forces of Islam and the West, something that lies at the heart of militant Salafism. Frazer Egerton shows how the ubiquity of modern media and the prevalence of movement have allowed for a transformation of existing beliefs into an ideology supportive of militant Salafism against the West amongst Western Muslims.
Category: Social Science

Modernity And Terrorism

Author : Milan Zafirovski
ISBN : 9789004242883
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 88.8 MB
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In Modernity and Terrorism Zafirovski and Rodeheaver analyze the nature, types, and causes of terrorism. The book redefines terrorism in novel comprehensive way, considers counter-state and state terrorism, and identifies and predicts conservative anti-modernity as the main cause of terrorism.
Category: Social Science

Terrorism And Societies

Author : Dr Stephen Vertigans
ISBN : 9781409498599
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 45.68 MB
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Which socializing agents are influential in people joining terror groups? What ideologies do terror groups hold? Which aspects of societies and social contexts contribute towards groups forming and people joining them? This book considers a range of influential terror groups from the last 40 years, exploring relationships between people, local and global social processes, and activities that result in acts of terrorism. Examining Islamic groups alongside nationalist, 'red' and far right organizations, Stephen Vertigans identifies important similarities in the social contexts, experiences of members and some of their demands. Key questions are applied to a range of case studies of contemporary relevance. The groups studied originated from Europe, the United States, Asia and Africa and are associated with religion, nationalism, pro-state terrorism, militias and racism. Each chapter offers the reader a clear understanding about why particular terror groups form, while comparative analysis draws out commonalities and distinctions.
Category: Political Science

Terrorism Criminological And Psychological Theories

Author : Alexander Syder
ISBN : 9783668390683
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 55.10 MB
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Essay from the year 2017 in the subject Psychology - Forensic Psychology, Penal System, grade: Distinction, University of Lincoln (University of Lincoln), course: MSc Forensic Psychology, language: English, abstract: The present essay provides an overview over the current literature - from the viewpoint of both criminological and psychological theory - on the essence of, and motivation for, terrorism and terrorist acts. The field of terrorism has been explored widely across the social sciences, including by political and psychological theory, in regard to its varied nature, motivation and application. There are a large number of identified definitions of what would constitute ‘terrorism’ under national and international law. Currently, Dry Run terrorism; Cyber terrorism; Individual terrorism; Lone Wolf terrorism; Bioterrorism; Radicalised terrorism; and Eco-Home grown terrorism have been identified. Due to these various formats of what would constitute ‘terrorism’ and a ‘terrorist act’, over a hundred definitions of ‘terrorism’ have been identified in the existing academic literature. However, the international community has been unable to agree upon a universal definition. The term of ‘terrorism’, however, is rooted in the political discourse of the French, more specifically the French Revolution where the use of the term a ‘reign of terror’ came into being. The French word terrorisme derives from the Latin verb terreȯ meaning ‘I frighten’. The defeat of the Jacobins transformed the word into a powerful new governmental form of criminality. Despite its origins in governmental atrocities towards citizens, it now applies to individual citizen acts as well as organizations and national state governments.
Category: Psychology

How Can The Divergence Of Counter Terrorism Policy Of Usa And Spain Be Explained

Author : Christian Graf
ISBN : 9783656720218
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 48.10 MB
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Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: 1,7, University of Bamberg, language: English, abstract: To deal with terrorism, a state needs to arm and secure itself for its defense against it, because they are existing threats. Extraordinary measures, which are nothing else than counter-terrorism policies, are important and necessary for fighting against terrorism in order to be secure. The fact that terrorism occurs worldwide and is becoming more important for states it is necessary to have effective counter-terrorism policies. But states response differently towards threats and especially to terrorism acts. The interesting question that will be discussed is: how can the divergence of counter- terrorism policy be explained? Terrorism as a threat primarily to states can occur internationally or domestically, and by defining terrorism, a state can respond to and combat terrorism in its own way, and this can be a potential factor for explaining a divergence of counter.-terrorism policy, but this will be not the emphasis of this term paper. The theoretical framework for explaining a divergence of counter- terrorism policy is the theory of securitization by Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde, which contains assumptions of the theory of social constructivism. Inasmuch social constructivism by Alexander Wendt tells something about political culture. It neither tells much about security nor how to deal with threats especially to terrorism acts; that is why a widening analysis for the term security is needed in order to explain a divergence of counter-terrorism policy and the theory of securitization. Theory of securitization exactly explains everything about how a security term becomes a relevant issue. The frame for securitization, as written before, are core assumptions of social constructivism and those are necessary to discuss, in order to understand further explanations. This is why this term paper begins with the theoretical framework of constructivism. After the theoretical framework has been discussed, two states as empirical examples, which are the USA and Spain, shall give a better view of how states differs from their counter-terrorism policies, regarding to their different facing on terrorism acts, that are taken place. At the end, a conclusion shall repeat the core assumptions of the theoretical framework and explanations and in addition gives further impulses on other fields of analysis.
Category: Political Science

Handbook Of Social Work Practice With Vulnerable And Resilient Populations

Author : Alex Gitterman
ISBN : 9780231537018
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 84.78 MB
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When community and family support systems are weak or unavailable, and when internal resources fail, populations that struggle with chronic, persistent, acute, and/or unexpected problems become vulnerable to physical, cognitive, emotional, and social deterioration. Yet despite numerous risk factors, a large number of vulnerable people do live happy and productive lives. This best-selling handbook examines not only risk and vulnerability factors in disadvantaged populations but also resilience and protective strategies for managing and overcoming adversity. This third edition reflects new demographic data, research findings, and theoretical developments and accounts for changing economic and political realities, including immigration and health care policy reforms. Contributors have expanded their essays to include practice with individuals, families, and groups, and new chapters consider working with military members and their families, victims and survivors of terrorism and torture, bullied children, and young men of color.
Category: Social Science

Epz Terrorism

Author : Nicholas Fotion
ISBN : 9781441157577
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 40.76 MB
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Terrorism poses an undeniable threat to societies throughout the world today. Martyr terrorism, the fastest growing form of terrorist activity, and arguably the most effective, has become a regular occurrence. But how has terrorist activity evolved in the last 100 years, and what are the ethical costs of terrorism? In this informative book, three philosophers, all experts on the ethics of conflict, examine the various definitions of terrorism and the nature of martyr terrorism. Through accounts of terrorist campaigns, from 19th century Russian terrorism, to the 20th century campaigns in Ireland, Israel and Greece, and contemporary campaigns in Chechnya, Afghanistan and Iraq, this fascinating book explores the ethical implications of terrorism from a philosophical perspective. Setting out the social, psychological and political causes of terrorism, the book interrogates the cases for and against terrorist activity in terms of just war theory. Articulate, provocative and stimulating, this timely book is an ideal introduction to an important contemporary social issue.
Category: Philosophy

Exporting Global Jihad

Author : Tom Smith
ISBN : 9781838607562
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 81.27 MB
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This timely 2 volume edited collection looks at the extent and nature of global jihad, focusing on the often-exoticised hinterlands of jihad beyond the traditionally viewed Middle Eastern 'centre'. As ISIS loses its footing in Syria and Iraq and al-Qaeda regroups, this comprehensive account will be a key work in the on-going battle to better understand the dynamics of jihad's global reality. The two volumes critically examine the various claims of connections between jihadist terrorism in the 'periphery', remote Islamist insurgencies of the 'periphery' and the global jihad. Each volume draws on experts in each of the geographies in question.
Category: Political Science