Evolution And The Common Law

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Evolution And The Common Law

Author : Allan C. Hutchinson
ISBN : 113944493X
Genre : Law
File Size : 31.34 MB
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This book offers a radical challenge to accounts of the common law's development. Contrary to received jurisprudential wisdom, it maintains there is no grand theory which will explain satisfactorily the dynamic interactions of change and stability in the common law's history. Offering original readings of Charles Darwin's and Hans-Georg Gadamer's works, the book shows that law is a rhetorical activity that can only be properly appreciated in its historical and political context; tradition and transformation are locked in a mutually reinforcing but thoroughly contingent embrace. In contrast to the dewy-eyed offerings of much contemporary work, it demonstrates that, like life, law is an organic process (i.e., events are the products of functional and localized causes) rather than a miraculous one (i.e., events are the result of some grand plan or intervention). In short, common law is a perpetual work-in-progress - evanescent, dynamic, messy, productive, tantalising, and bottom-up.
Category: Law

The Evolution Of Efficient Common Law

Author : Paul H. Rubin
ISBN : 1845424425
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 48.56 MB
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Rubin (economics and law, Emory U.) presents a selection of 22 of the most important articles on the evolution of efficient common law, published in a variety of legal journals between 1977 and 2006, and reproduced here in their original format. The text includes both articles that support the hypothesis of efficient evolution, and articles that argue the evolutionary process is not efficient. Prefaced by Rubin's introductory overview of the topic, the articles are organized into seven sections covering the originations of common law efficiency, the first critics, critical examinations looking explicitly at evolutionary processes, biased evolution, specific applications of the law, Hayekian (macro) efficiency, and a summary of the law. No subject index.
Category: Business & Economics

Revolution And Evolution In Private Law

Author : Sarah Worthington
ISBN : 9781509913251
Genre : Law
File Size : 29.88 MB
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The development of private law across the common law world is typically portrayed as a series of incremental steps, each one delivered as a result of judges dealing with marginally different factual circumstances presented to them for determination. This is said to be the common law method. According to this process, change might be assumed to be gradual, almost imperceptible. If this were true, however, then even Darwinian-style evolution – which is subject to major change-inducing pressures, such as the death of the dinosaurs – would seem unlikely in the law, and radical and revolutionary paradigms shifts perhaps impossible. And yet the history of the common law is to the contrary. The legal landscape is littered with quite remarkable revolutionary and evolutionary changes in the shape of the common law. The essays in this volume explore some of the highlights in this fascinating revolutionary and evolutionary development of private law. The contributors expose the nature of the changes undergone and their significance for the future direction of travel. They identify the circumstances and the contexts which might have provided an impetus for these significant changes. The essays range across all areas of private law, including contract, tort, unjust enrichment and property. No area has been immune from development. That fact itself is unsurprising, but an extended examination of the particular circumstances and contexts which delivered some of private law's most important developments has its own special significance for what it might indicate about the shape, and the shaping, of private law regimes in the future.
Category: Law

The Evolution Of A Nation

Author : Daniel Berkowitz
ISBN : 9780691136042
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 47.48 MB
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Although political and legal institutions are essential to any nation's economic development, the forces that have shaped these institutions are poorly understood. Drawing on rich evidence about the development of the American states from the mid-nineteenth to the late twentieth century, this book documents the mechanisms through which geographical and historical conditions--such as climate, access to water transportation, and early legal systems--impacted political and judicial institutions and economic growth. The book shows how a state's geography and climate influenced whether elites based their wealth in agriculture or trade. States with more occupationally diverse elites in 1860 had greater levels of political competition in their legislature from 1866 to 2000. The book also examines the effects of early legal systems. Because of their colonial history, thirteen states had an operational civil-law legal system prior to statehood. All of these states except Louisiana would later adopt common law. By the late eighteenth century, the two legal systems differed in their balances of power. In civil-law systems, judiciaries were subordinate to legislatures, whereas in common-law systems, the two were more equal. Former civil-law states and common-law states exhibit persistent differences in the structure of their courts, the retention of judges, and judicial budgets. Moreover, changes in court structures, retention procedures, and budgets occur under very different conditions in civil-law and common-law states. The Evolution of a Nation illustrates how initial geographical and historical conditions can determine the evolution of political and legal institutions and long-run growth.
Category: Business & Economics

The Evolution Of Western Private Law

Author : Alan Watson
ISBN : 0801864844
Genre : History
File Size : 45.73 MB
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In The Evolution of Western Private Law, renowned legal scholar Alan Watson presents a comprehensive overview of legal change in the Western world. Watson explains why and how such change occurs in mature systems, in underdeveloped systems, and when legal systems of different levels of sophistication and from different societal roots -- such as those of the Romans and of Germanic tribes -- come into contact. Originally intended as a second edition of the author's widely acclaimed The Evolution of Law (1985), this expanded edition has been completely restructured with more than double the number of examples. The result is a work that incorporates all the ideas that Watson has put forward during his twenty-five years studying comparative law and the development of legal systems, combining a remarkable range of sources with superb insight. -- Gerald J. Russello
Category: History

A History Of Water Rights At Common Law

Author : Joshua Getzler
ISBN : 0198265816
Genre : Law
File Size : 64.92 MB
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Water resources were central to England's precocious economic development in the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, and then again in the industrial, transport, and urban revolutions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Each of these periods saw a great deal of legal conflict over water rights, often between domestic, agricultural, and manufacturing interests competing for access to flowing water. From 1750 the common-law courts developed a large but unstable body of legal doctrine, specifying strong property rights in flowing water attached to riparian possession, and also limited rights to surface and underground waters. The new water doctrines were built from older concepts of common goods and the natural rights of ownership, deriving from Roman and Civilian law, together with the English sources of Bracton and Blackstone. Water law is one of the most Romanesque parts of English law, demonstrating the extent to which Common and Civilian law have commingled. Water law stands as a refutation of the still-common belief that English and European law parted ways irreversibly in the twelfth century. Getzler also describes the economic as well as the legal history of water use from early times, and examines the classical problem of the relationship between law and economic development. He suggests that water law was shaped both by the impact of technological innovations and by economic ideology, but above all by legalism.
Category: Law

A Concise History Of The Common Law

Author : Theodore Frank Thomas Plucknett
ISBN : 9781584771371
Genre : History
File Size : 44.21 MB
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Plucknett, Theodore F.T. A Concise History of the Common Law. Fifth Edition. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1956. Reprinted 2001 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. LCCN 00-067821. ISBN 1-58477-137-2. Cloth. $125. * "Professor Plucknett has such a solid reputation on both sides of the Atlantic that one expects from his pen only what is scholarly and accurate...Nor is the expectation likely to be disappointed in this book. Plucknett's book is not...a mere epitome of what is to be found elsewhere. He has explored on his own account many regions of legal history and, even where the ground has been already quartered, he has fresh methods of mapping it. The title which he has chosen is, in view of the contents of the volume, rather a narrow one. It might equally well have been A Concise History of English Law...In conjunction with Readings on the History and System of the Common Law by Dean Pound...this book will give an excellent grounding to the student of English legal history." Percy H. Winfield. Harv. L. Rev. 43:339-340.
Category: History

The Encyclopedia Of Public Choice

Author : Charles Rowley
ISBN : 9780792386070
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 81.8 MB
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The Encyclopedia provides a detailed and comprehensive account of the subject known as public choice. However, the title would not convey suf- ciently the breadth of the Encyclopedia’s contents which can be summarized better as the fruitful interchange of economics, political science and moral philosophy on the basis of an image of man as a purposive and responsible actor who pursues his own objectives as efficiently as possible. This fruitful interchange between the fields outlined above existed during the late eighteenth century during the brief period of the Scottish Enlightenment when such great scholars as David Hume, Adam Ferguson and Adam Smith contributed to all these fields, and more. However, as intell- tual specialization gradually replaced broad-based scholarship from the m- nineteenth century onwards, it became increasingly rare to find a scholar making major contributions to more than one. Once Alfred Marshall defined economics in neoclassical terms, as a n- row positive discipline, the link between economics, political science and moral philosophy was all but severed and economists redefined their role into that of ‘the humble dentist’ providing technical economic information as inputs to improve the performance of impartial, benevolent and omniscient governments in their attempts to promote the public interest. This indeed was the dominant view within an economics profession that had become besotted by the economics of John Maynard Keynes and Paul Samuelson immediately following the end of the Second World War.
Category: Business & Economics

Introduction To English Legal History

Author : John Baker
ISBN : 9780192540744
Genre : Law
File Size : 41.50 MB
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Fully revised and updated, this classic text provides the authoritative introduction to the history of the English common law. The book traces the development of the principal features of English legal institutions and doctrines from Anglo-Saxon times to the present and, combined with Baker and Milsom's Sources of Legal History, offers invaluable insights into the development of the common law of persons, obligations, and property, and also of criminal and public law. It is an essential reference point for all lawyers, historians and students seeking to understand the evolution of English law over a millennium. The book provides an introduction to the main characteristics, institutions, and doctrines of English law over the longer term - particularly the evolution of the common law before the extensive statutory changes and regulatory regimes of the last two centuries. It explores how legal change was brought about in the common law and how judges and lawyers managed to square evolution with respect for inherited wisdom.
Category: Law

The Common Law Of Obligations

Author : Andrew Robertson
ISBN : 9781782256571
Genre : Law
File Size : 70.20 MB
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The development of the law of obligations across the common law world has been, and continues to be, a story of unity and divergence. Its common origins continue to exert a powerful stabilising influence, carried forward by a methodology that places heavy weight on the historical foundations of legal principles. Divergence is, however, produced by numerous factors, including national and international human rights instruments, local statutory regimes, civil law influences, regional harmonisation, local circumstances and values and different political and legal cultures. The essays in this collection explore the forces that produce divergence, the countervailing forces that generate cohesion and consistency in the common law of obligations, and the influence that the major common law jurisdictions continue to exert over one another in this area of law. The chapters in this book were originally presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on the Law of Obligations held in Hong Kong in July 2014. A second collection, entitled Divergences in Private Law (ISBN: 9781782256601), will focus on particular departures from the common law mainstream and the causes and effects of those deviations.
Category: Law

English Common Law In The Age Of Mansfield

Author : James Oldham
ISBN : 9780807864005
Genre : Law
File Size : 84.20 MB
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In the eighteenth century, the English common law courts laid the foundation that continues to support present-day Anglo-American law. Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench, 1756-1788, was the dominant judicial force behind these developments. In this abridgment of his two-volume book, The Mansfield Manuscripts and the Growth of English Law in the Eighteenth Century, James Oldham presents the fundamentals of the English common law during this period, with a detailed description of the operational features of the common law courts. This work includes revised and updated versions of the historical and analytical essays that introduced the case transcriptions in the original volumes, with each chapter focusing on a different aspect of the law. While considerable scholarship has been devoted to the eighteenth-century English criminal trial, little attention has been given to the civil side. This book helps to fill that gap, providing an understanding of the principal body of substantive law with which America's founding fathers would have been familiar. It is an invaluable reference for practicing lawyers, scholars, and students of Anglo-American legal history.
Category: Law

One Country Two Systems Three Legal Orders Perspectives Of Evolution

Author : Jorge Oliveira
ISBN : 9783540685722
Genre : Law
File Size : 69.92 MB
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“One Country, Two Systems, Three Legal Orders” – Perspectives of Evolution – : Essays on Macau’s Autonomy after the Resumption of Sovereignty by China” can be said, in a short preamble-like manner, to be a book that provides a comprehensive look at several issues regarding public law that arise from, or correlate with, the Chinese apex motto for reunification – One Country, Two Systems – and its implementation in Macau and Hong Kong. Noble and contemporary themes such as autonomy models and fundamental rights are thoroughly approached, with a multilayered analysis encompassing both Western and Chinese views, and an extensive comparative law acquis is also brought forward. Furthermore, relevant issues on international law, criminal law, and historical and comparative evolutions and interactions of different legal s- tems are laid down in this panoramic, yet comprehensive book. One cannot but underline the presence, in the many approaches and comments, of a certain aura of a modern Kantian cosmopolitanism revisitation throughout the work, especially when dealing with the cardinal principle of «One Country, Two Systems», which enabled a peaceful and integral reunification ex vi international law – the Joint Declarations – that ended an external and distant control.
Category: Law

Bibliography Of Law And Economics

Author : B. Bouckaert
ISBN : 9789401708937
Genre : Law
File Size : 38.24 MB
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Law and economics can be considered as the most exciting development in legal scholarship in recent decades. This volume is the first all-encompassing bibliography in this area. It lists approximately 7000 publications, covering the whole area of law and economics, including `old' law and economics (topics such as antitrust law, labor law, tax law, social security, economic regulation, etc.) as well as `new' law and economics with such topics as tort law, contract law, family law, procedure, criminal law, etc.). The volume also includes the literature on the philosophical foundations and the fundamental concepts of the approach. Part Two gives a special survey of law and economics publications in Europe, written in other languages than English. The Bibliography of Law and Economics is an invaluable reference work for students, scholars, lawyers, economists and other people interested in this field.
Category: Law

Smith Currie And Hancock S Common Sense Construction Law

Author : Thomas J. Kelleher, Jr.
ISBN : 9781118858158
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 78.79 MB
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Cut through the legalese to truly understand construction law Smith, Currie & Hancock's Common Sense Construction Law is a guide for non-lawyers, presenting a practical introduction to the significant legal topics and questions affecting the construction industry. Now in its fifth edition, this useful guide has been updated to reflect the most current developments in the field, with new information on Public Private Partnerships, international construction projects, and more. Readers will find full guidance toward the new forms being produced by the AIA, AGC, and EJDC, including a full review, comparison to the old forms, areas of concern, and advice for transitioning to the new forms. The companion website features samples of these documents for ease of reference, and end of chapter summaries and checklists help readers make use of the concepts in practice. The updated instructor support material includes scenario exercises, sample curriculum, student problems, and notes highlighting the key points student responses should contain. Construction is one of the nation's single largest industries, but its fractured nature and vast economic performance leave it heavily dependent upon construction law for proper functioning. This book is a plain-English guide to how state and federal law affects the business, with practical advice on avoiding disputes and liability. Understand construction law without wading through legal theory Get information on an emerging method of funding large-scale projects Parse the complexities presented by international and overseas projects Migrate to the new AIA, AGC, and EJDC forms smoothly and confidently This book doesn't cover legal theory or serve as a lawyer's guide to case law and commentary – its strength is the clear, unaffected common-sense approach that caters to the construction professional's perspective. For a better understanding of construction law, Smith, Currie & Hancock's Common Sense Construction Law is an efficient reference.
Category: Technology & Engineering

English And Continental Maritime Law

Author : H. Boonk
ISBN : 9789062158096
Genre : Law
File Size : 68.12 MB
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This volume is a collection of essays by English, Dutch and Belgian maritime law experts presented at an international seminar at the University of Antwerp. The purpose of the seminar was to discuss topics that have thus far eluded worldwide harmonisation of maritime law, an ambitious project that began in Antwerp in 1897 with the creation of the Comité Maritime International (CMI). The papers cover areas where there is still a considerable degree of difference between the two principal legal systems in the world, namely Anglo-Saxon or common law on the one hand and continental law on the other. Topics under discussion include maritime law practice, statutory rights of action in carriage of goods, the action in rem, common carriers, bailment and carriage by sea, legislative techniques in international trade, bills of lading and sea waybills, charter parties and marine insurance. Finally, the president of the CMI provides an overall perspective.
Category: Law

Using Human Rights Law In English Courts

Author : Murray Hunt
ISBN : 9781901362725
Genre : Law
File Size : 51.4 MB
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This book demonstrates the scope that already exists for using international human rights law in English courts.
Category: Law

Bentham And The Common Law Tradition

Author : Gerald Postema
ISBN : 9780198793052
Genre : Law
File Size : 59.81 MB
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This work explores the relationship between Bentham's utilitarian practical philosophy and his positivist jurisprudence. These theories appear to be in tension because his utilitarian commitment to the sovereignty of utility as a practical decision principle seems inconsistent with his positivist insistence on the sovereignty of the will of the lawmaker. Two themes emerge from the attempt in this work to reconcile these two core elements of Bentham's practical thought. First, Bentham's conception of law does not fit the conventional model of legal positivism. Bentham was not just a utilitarian and a positivist; he was a positivist by virtue of his commitment to a utilitarian understanding of the fundamental task of law. Moreover, his emphasis on the necessary publicity and the systemic character of law, led him to insist on an essential role for utilitarian reasons in the regular public functioning of law. Second, Bentham's radical critique of common law theory and practice convinced him of the necessity to reconcile the need for certainty of law with an equally great need for its flexibility. He eventually developed a constitutional framework for adjudication in the shadow of codified law that accorded to judges discretion to decide particular cases according to their best judgment of the balance of utilities, guaranteeing the accountability and appropriate motivation of judicial decision-making through institutional incentives. The original text of this work, first published in 1986, remains largely unchanged, but an afterword reconsiders and revises some themes in response to criticism.
Category: Law