Ethanol Corn

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Corn Ethanol

Author : Ken G. Glozer
ISBN : 9780817949631
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 24.91 MB
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The author documents the political history of federal corn ethanol policy, showing how it has evolved from 1977 through 2008. He then offers an in-depth, fact-based look at the major assertions made by the advocates of the policy, providing the results of an evaluation of the claims made by the architects of the Renewal Fuels Standard in 2005 during its consideration by Congress.
Category: Political Science

Cellulosic Ethanol From Corn Stover Cost Analysis Ethanol E11a

Author : Intratec Solutions
ISBN : 9781945324550
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 58.53 MB
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This report presents a cost analysis of second generation Ethanol production from corn stover via a biochemical conversion process. The process examined is similar to the process reported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This process involves the following steps in the production of hydrous Ethanol: corn stover pretreatment with dilute acid and ammonia conditioning; enzymatic hydrolysis; and fermentation. Electricity is also generated as by-product. This report examines one-time costs associated with the construction of a United States-based plant and the continuing costs associated with the daily operation of such a plant. More specifically, it discusses: * Capital Investment, broken down by: - Total fixed capital required, divided in production unit (ISBL); infrastructure (OSBL) and contingency - Alternative perspective on the total fixed capital, divided in direct costs, indirect costs and contingency - Working capital and costs incurred during industrial plant commissioning and start-up * Production cost, broken down by: - Manufacturing variable costs (raw materials, utilities) - Manufacturing fixed costs (maintenance costs, operating charges, plant overhead, local taxes and insurance) - Depreciation and corporate overhead costs * Raw materials consumption, products generation and labor requirements * Process block flow diagram and description of industrial site installations (production unit and infrastructure) This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): Humbird, D., et al., "Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol, " Report NREL/TP-5100-47764, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2011 Keywords: Ethyl Alcohol, Bioethanol, Lignocellulosic Biomass, 2nd Generation, Cellulosic Sugar, Hemicelluloses, Cellulose
Category: Business & Economics

2008 Energy Balance For The Corn Ethanol Industry

Author : H. Shapouri
ISBN : 9781437940213
Genre :
File Size : 71.89 MB
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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. The Agricultural Resource Management Survey of corn growers for the year 2005 and the 2008 survey of dry mill ethanol plants are used to estimate the net energy balance of corn ethanol. This report measures all conventional fossil fuel energy used in the production of 1 gallon of corn ethanol. The ratio is about 2.3 BTU of ethanol for 1 BTU of energy inputs, when a portion of total energy input is allocated to byproduct, and fossil fuel is used for processing energy. The ratio is somewhat higher for some firms that are partially substituting biomass energy in processing energy. Charts and tables.
Category:

Students Corn Ethanol Perceptions

Author : Rosemary Nicholson
ISBN : OCLC:1038460854
Genre :
File Size : 45.6 MB
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Due to increased energy demands from the growing population, ethanol as a fuel sourcehas gained popularity over time. Currently, in the United States, E10 (less than 10% ethanol) isthe mainstream option at the pump, and there are two higher ethanol fuel blends commonlyavailable at the pump: E15 (between 10.5%-15% ethanol) and E85 (51%-83% ethanol). Thisstudy sought to better understand the existing knowledge and perceptions of college students oncorn ethanol as a fuel source. A census sample of predominately undergraduate students in theCollege of Agricultural Sciences (CAS) at Penn State University was surveyed via SurveyMonkey. The survey was administered through a newsletter to all students in the CAS (n=1200),and an estimated adjusted response rate was found to be 34 percent (n=204). Some key findingsare that price and location are the two most important criterion for customers to consider whenchoosing a fuel retailer. In terms of a variety of ethanol issues, the three statements that studyparticipants felt most strongly about were that using ethanol decreased US dependency onforeign oil, benefits rural economies, and has an effect on food prices. Finally, price sensitivityof E15 was analyzed when E15 was priced both above and below parity. Interestingly,approximately 87-90 percent of recipients may or would purchase E15 when priced belowparity, disagreeing slightly with the findings of Sheetz (2017). Ultimately this study representsexploratory research about a sample of educated millennial undergraduates at a major US landgrant university located outside of the Corn Belt. Although the sample limits the ability to makeinferences to a larger population, it is useful to better understand the perceptions and opinions ofa sample of educated millennial undergraduates, which could be interesting to fuel retailers andethanol producers, among others.
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Impact Of Ethanol Use On Food Prices And Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Author :
ISBN : 9781437915495
Genre :
File Size : 35.17 MB
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The production and use of ethanol in the U.S. have been steadily increasing since 2001, boosted in part by production subsidies. That growth has exerted upward pressure on the price of corn and, ultimately, on the retail price of food, affecting both individual consumers and fed. expend. on nutritional support programs. It has also raised questions about the environmental consequences of replacing gasoline with ethanol. This analysis examines the relationship between increasing production of ethanol and rising prices for food. It estimated how much of the rise in food prices between 4/07 and 4/08 was due to an increase on the production of ethanol and how much that increase in prices might raise fed. expend. on food assistance programs. Tables and graphs.
Category:

Ethanol Production From Dry Mill Corn Starch In A Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1061359075
Genre :
File Size : 83.67 MB
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The development of a high-rate process for the production of fuel ethanol from dry-mill corn starch using fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) technology is discussed. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale FBR using immobilized biocatalysts. Two ethanol production process designs were considered in this study. In the first design, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was performed at 35 C using?-carageenan beads (1.5 mm to 1.5 mm in diameter) of co-immobilized glucoamylase and Zymomonas mobilis. For dextrin feed concentration of 100 g/L, the single-pass conversion ranged from 54% to 89%. Ethanol concentrations of 23 to 36 g/L were obtained at volumetric productivities of 9 to 15 g/L-h. No accumulation of glucose was observed, indicating that saccharification was the rate-limiting step. In the second design, saccharification and fermentation were carried out sequentially. In the first stage, solutions of 150 to 160 g/L dextrins were pumped through an immobilized glucoamylase packed column maintained at 55 C. Greater than 95% conversion was obtained at a residence time of 1 h, giving a product of 165 to 170 g glucose/L. In the second stage, these glucose solutions were fed to the FBR containing Z. mobilis immobilized in?-carageenan beads. At a residence time of 2 h, 94% conversion and ethanol concentration of 70 g/L was achieved, giving an overall productivity of 23 g/L-h.
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The Economic Impact Of The Demand For Ethanol

Author : Michael K. Evans
ISBN : 9780788171796
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 23.15 MB
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Ethanol production is the third-largest user of corn, behind only feed & export uses. Ethanol production uses approximately 7% of the nation's corn crop which increases farm income & generates economic activity nationwide. This report is the first comprehensive analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of ethanol production. The conclusions in this report verify the cost-effectiveness of the federal ethanol program. In short, the partial excise tax exemption provided for ethanol blends is a non-inflationary incentive that creates jobs, stimulates tremendous economic activity, & reduces our trade imbalance.
Category: Business & Economics

Ethanol And A Changing Agricultural Landscape

Author : Scott A. Malcolm
ISBN : 9781437925579
Genre :
File Size : 59.24 MB
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The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established specific targets for the production of biofuel in the U.S. Meeting these targets will increase demand for traditional ag. commodities used to produce ethanol, resulting in land-use, production, and price changes in the farm sector. This report summarizes the estimated effects of meeting the EISA targets for 2015 on regional ag. production and the environment. Meeting EISA targets for ethanol production will expand U.S. cropped acreage by 5 million acres by 2015, an increase of 1.6% over what would otherwise be expected. Much of the growth comes from corn acreage, which increases by 3.5% over baseline projections. Water quality and soil carbon will also be affected.
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Gasoline Diesel And Ethanol Biofuels From Grasses And Plants

Author : Ram B. Gupta
ISBN : 9781139489065
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30.55 MB
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The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, which are continuously being exacerbated due to increasing global energy consumption. As a substitute for petroleum, renewable fuels have been receiving increasing attention due a variety of environmental, economic, and societal benefits. The first-generation biofuels - ethanol from sugar or corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils - are already on the market. The goal of thisbook is to introduce readers to second-generation biofuels obtained from non-food biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switch grass, corn stover, waste wood, municipal solid wastes, and so on. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the upgradation of biofuel. This book strives to serve as a comprehensive document presenting various technological pathways and environmental and economic issues related to biofuels.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Ethanol Co Product Use In U S Cattle Feeding

Author : Kenneth H. Mathews
ISBN : 9781437921748
Genre :
File Size : 69.72 MB
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The byproducts of making ethanol, sweeteners, syrups, and oils were considered less valuable than the primary products. But the increased livestock-feed market for such byproducts has switched that perception to one of the ethanol industry making grain-based ¿co-products (CP)¿ that have market value separate from the primary products. CP such as dried distiller¿s grains, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, corn oil, and brewer¿s grains have become economically viable components, along with traditional ingred., in feed rations. The CP have limitations, such as variable moisture content, product avail., nutrient excesses or deficiencies, and nutrient variability. These limitations affect how they must be handled and stored and how much they cost. Illus.
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Biofuels

Author : Mark E. Gaffigan
ISBN : 9781437923575
Genre :
File Size : 42.42 MB
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In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The EPA administers the RFS. This report examines, among other things: (1) the effects of increased biofuels production on U.S. agriculture, environment, and greenhouse gas emissions; (2) federal support for domestic biofuels production; and (3) key challenges in meeting the RFS. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.
Category:

Ethanol Expansion In The United States

Author : Paul C. Westcott
ISBN : 9781437921717
Genre :
File Size : 61.30 MB
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A large expansion in ethanol production is underway in the United States. Cellulosic sources of feedstocks for ethanol production hold some promise for the future, but the primary feedstock in the United States currently is corn. Market adjustments to this increased demand extend well beyond the corn sector to supply and demand for othercrops, such as soybeans and cotton, as well as to the livestock industries. USDA¿s long-term projections, augmented by farmers¿ planting intentions for 2007, are used to illustrate anticipated changes in the agricultural sector. Graphs.
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