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Ending Medical Reversal

Author : Vinayak K. Prasad
ISBN : 9781421417738
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 28.52 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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We expect medicine to progress in an orderly fashion, with good medical practices being replaced by better ones. But some tests and therapies are discontinued because they are found to be worse, or at least no better, than what they replaced. Medications like Vioxx and procedures such as vertebroplasty for back pain caused by compression fractures are among the medical "advances" that turned out to be dangerous or useless. What Dr. Vinayak K. Prasad and Dr. Adam S. Cifu call medical reversal happens when doctors start using a medication, procedure, or diagnostic tool without a robust evidence base—and then stop using it when it is found not to help, or even to harm, patients. Drs. Prasad and Cifu narrate fascinating stories from every corner of medicine to explore why medical reversals occur, how they are harmful, and what can be done to avoid them. They explore the difference between medical innovations that improve care and those that only appear to be promising. They also outline a comprehensive plan to reform medical education, research funding and protocols, and the process for approving new drugs that will ensure that more of what gets done in doctors’ offices and hospitals is truly effective.
Category: Health & Fitness

Enchanted America

Author : J. Eric Oliver
ISBN : 9780226578644
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 30.91 MB
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America is in civic chaos, its politics rife with conspiracy theories and false information. Nationalism and authoritarianism are on the rise, while scientists, universities, and news organizations are viewed with increasing mistrust. Its citizens reject scientific evidence on climate change and vaccinations while embracing myths of impending apocalypse. And then there is Donald Trump, a presidential candidate who won the support of millions of conservative Christians despite having no moral or political convictions. What is going on? The answer, according to J. Eric Oliver and Thomas J. Wood, can be found in the most important force shaping American politics today: human intuition. Much of what seems to be irrational in American politics arises from the growing divide in how its citizens make sense of the world. On one side are rationalists. They use science and reason to understand reality. On the other side are intuitionists. They rely on gut feelings and instincts as their guide to the world. Intuitionists believe in ghosts and End Times prophecies. They embrace conspiracy theories, disbelieve experts, and distrust the media. They are stridently nationalistic and deeply authoritarian in their outlook. And they are the most enthusiastic supporters of Donald Trump. The primary reason why Trump captured the presidency was that he spoke about politics in a way that resonated with how Intuitionists perceive the world. The Intuitionist divide has also become a threat to the American way of life. A generation ago, intuitionists were dispersed across the political spectrum, when most Americans believed in both God and science. Today, intuitionism is ideologically tilted toward the political right. Modern conservatism has become an Intuitionist movement, defined by conspiracy theories, strident nationalism, and hostility to basic civic norms. Enchanted America is a clarion call to rationalists of all political persuasions to reach beyond the minority and speak to intuitionists in a way they understand. The values and principles that define American democracy are at stake.
Category: Political Science

Difficult Decisions In Cardiothoracic Critical Care Surgery

Author : Vassyl A. Lonchyna
ISBN : 9783030041465
Genre : Medical
File Size : 79.97 MB
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Critical care medicine is responsible for many of the most important advances in outcomes after cardiothoracic surgery in the past two decades. The expertise developed in this subspecialty accounts for the resiliency that characterizes gold standard results evident in institutions recognized for excellence. This volume is intended to share ideas and algorithms that will improve outcomes in cardiothoracic critical care units. This book is part of the Difficult Decisions in Surgery series that covers surgical specialties. The volumes are multi-authored, containing brief chapters, each of which are devoted to one or two specific questions or decisions within that specialty that are difficult or controversial. The volumes are intended as a current and timely reference source for practicing surgeons, surgeons in training, and educators that describe the recommended ideal approach, rather than customary care, in selected clinical situations.
Category: Medical

Critical Thinking And The Process Of Evidence Based Practice

Author : Eileen D. Gambrill
ISBN : 9780190463359
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 50.32 MB
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In Critical Thinking and the Process of Evidence-Based Practice, Eileen Gambrill provides a detailed description of the process of evidence-based practice (EBP), designed to help individual practitioners and their clients make informed decisions. This book clearly distinguishes EBP from the promotion of EBPs, and discusses the origins of the process as well as related controversies and implementation obstacles. Ethical obligations to involve clients as informed participants are emphasized including attention to the close connection between evidentiary and ethical issues. The text features chapters covering clinical expertise, argumentation, avoidance of biases and fallacies, and common organizational and personal obstacles in optimizing quality of services. It serves as a valuable resource to professionals and students in the helping professions.
Category: Social Science


Author : Vinayak K. Prasad
ISBN : 1421437635
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38.90 MB
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This well-written, opinionated, and engaging book explains what we can do differently to make serious and sustained progress against cancer—and how we can avoid repeating the policy and practice mistakes of the past.
Category: Medical

Beyond Deductibles

Author : Gary Fradin
ISBN : 9781365782466
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 44.17 MB
Format : PDF
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Beyond Deductibles shows what companies can do to control their healthcare spending after they've tried high deductibles, narrow networks, wellness programs and price transparency. It addresses the 30%+ of medical spending that's ineffective, wasteful and harmful and it shows how employees can obtain more beneficial and typically less expensive care.
Category: Business & Economics

Ending The Tobacco Problem

Author : Institute of Medicine
ISBN : 9780309103824
Genre : Medical
File Size : 38.38 MB
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The nation has made tremendous progress in reducing tobacco use during the past 40 years. Despite extensive knowledge about successful interventions, however, approximately one-quarter of American adults still smoke. Tobacco-related illnesses and death place a huge burden on our society. Ending the Tobacco Problem generates a blueprint for the nation in the struggle to reduce tobacco use. The report reviews effective prevention and treatment interventions and considers a set of new tobacco control policies for adoption by federal and state governments. Carefully constructed with two distinct parts, the book first provides background information on the history and nature of tobacco use, developing the context for the policy blueprint proposed in the second half of the report. The report documents the extraordinary growth of tobacco use during the first half of the 20th century as well as its subsequent reversal in the mid-1960s (in the wake of findings from the Surgeon General). It also reviews the addictive properties of nicotine, delving into the factors that make it so difficult for people to quit and examines recent trends in tobacco use. In addition, an overview of the development of governmental and nongovernmental tobacco control efforts is provided. After reviewing the ethical grounding of tobacco control, the second half of the book sets forth to present a blueprint for ending the tobacco problem. The book offers broad-reaching recommendations targeting federal, state, local, nonprofit and for-profit entities. This book also identifies the benefits to society when fully implementing effective tobacco control interventions and policies.
Category: Medical

Reversal Of Aging

Author : Walter Pierpaoli
ISBN : UVA:X030000979
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34.67 MB
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The body of research on the process of human aging has grown considerably in recent years, and the reports presented here explore a full range of approaches to this research, from the molecular and genetic to the cellular and organismic levels. The contributing scientists identify the processes of aging and find functional and mechanistic approaches that may delay, prevent, or arrest the progress of aging and those ailments generally linked to senescence, such as metabolic, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. The investigation of various approaches to the prevention of aging will include efforts to mitigate the deleterious consequences of chemical pollution.
Category: Medical

A Public Health Guide To Ending The Opioid Epidemic

Author : Jay C. Butler
ISBN : 9780190056827
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69.2 MB
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THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONALS FIGHTING THE OPIOID EPIDEMIC The opioid crisis has devastated families and communities across the United States. Changes in policing and medical practices have been swift, but they've achieved only a modest impact on the fundamental causes of substance misuse and addiction. The necessity for upstream intervention is clear. But what does that look like? A Public Health Guide to Ending the Opioid Epidemic does what only a public health approach can: offer credible, scalable, and empirically supported approaches to uprooting one of society's most pernicious challenges. It systemizes the core tenets of the public health approach to substance misuse and addiction, which alongside clinical approaches (prescription guidelines and monitoring, increased access to overdose-reversal medication, and medication-assisted treatment availability) offers a roadmap for end-to-end response to this diverse problem. Core elements of the public health approach, all covered here in practical terms, include: · How to support community-based, primary prevention of substance misuse and addiction in different settings and populations · How to effectively address the cultural, social, and environmental aspects of health that are driving the current epidemic · How governmental public health agencies play a significant role in responding to the epidemic, both in the field's traditional model of disease surveillance and control and in more directed approaches to health promotion (building community resilience; addressing the impact of adverse childhood events; mitigating the root causes of addiction) These frameworks offer a foundation for understanding, analyzing, and meaningfully impacting the burden of opioid misuse and addiction in any population or setting. A Public Health Guide to Ending the Opioid Epidemic is a roadmap for meaningful change.
Category: Medical