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Eco Evolutionary Dynamics

Author : Andrew P. Hendry
ISBN : 9780691145433
Genre : Science
File Size : 24.95 MB
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In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations—including those in human-disturbed environments—to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, Eco-evolutionary Dynamics reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.
Category: Science

Eco Evolutionary Dynamics

Author :
ISBN : 9780128014332
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.74 MB
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The theme of this volume is to discuss Eco-evolutionary Dynamics. Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings Written by leading experts in the field Highlights areas for future investigation
Category: Science

Rumour Propagation And The Eco Evolutionary Dynamics Of Social Information Use

Author :
ISBN : OCLC:1052011468
Genre :
File Size : 71.84 MB
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Abstract : Information is a crucial currency for living organisms as it allows them to adjust their behaviour to environmental fluctuations. Thus, natural selection should have favoured the capacity of collecting information from different sources, including social interactions whereby individuals could quickly gain reliable information. However, such conditions may also favour the gathering of potentially detrimental information, such as false or misinterpreted accounts of environmental and social phenomena such as rumours, which may spread via informational cascades. We applied ecological and evolutionary principles to investigate how the propagation of social information at a populational level affects the propensity to assimilate it, here defined as the gullibilty. Our results show that the evolution of an individual's susceptibility to assimilate information strongly depends on eco-evolutionary feedbacks, in particular when both useful and detrimental information circulate. We discuss our results regarding the different information transmission mechanisms involved with particular attention to specific cases of social learning.

Eco Evolutionary Dynamics Density Dependent Dispersal And Collective Behaviour Implications For Salmon Metapopulation Robustness

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ISBN : OCLC:1051974534
Genre :
File Size : 71.24 MB
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Abstract : The spatial dispersal of individuals plays an important role in the dynamics of populations, and is central to metapopulation theory. Dispersal provides connections within metapopulations, promoting demographic and evolutionary rescue, but may also introduce maladapted individuals, potentially lowering the fitness of recipient populations through introgression of heritable traits. To explore this dual nature of dispersal, we modify a well-established eco-evolutionary model of two locally adapted populations and their associated mean trait values, to examine recruiting salmon populations that are connected by density-dependent dispersal, consistent with collective migratory behaviour that promotes navigation. When the strength of collective behaviour is weak such that straying is effectively constant, we show that a low level of straying is associated with the highest gains in metapopulation robustness and that high straying serves to erode robustness. Moreover, we find that as the strength of collective behaviour increases, metapopulation robustness is enhanced, but this relationship depends on the rate at which individuals stray. Specifically, strong collective behaviour increases the presence of hidden low-density basins of attraction, which may serve to trap disturbed populations, and this is exacerbated by increased habitat heterogeneity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that density-dependent straying and collective migratory behaviour may help metapopulations, such as in salmon, thrive in dynamic landscapes. Given the pervasive eco-evolutionary impacts of dispersal on metapopulations, these findings have important ramifications for the conservation of salmon metapopulations facing both natural and anthropogenic contemporary disturbances. This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'.

Eco Evolutionary Dynamics Of Invasion In The Exotic Grass Bromus Rubens L

Author : Matthew Ryan O'Neill
ISBN : 0355754703
Genre : Bromegrasses
File Size : 62.77 MB
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A minority of exotic plant species undergo differentiation in vigor following introduction, leading to an explosion in population sizes and aggressive range expansion. Investigations into the mechanisms that determine successful invasion historically emphasized phenotypic traits in hopes of identifying ecological predictors and subsequent control mechanisms. Yet, it is now recognized that post-introductory evolution of invasiveness is common in many systems, frustrating efforts to identify ecological predictors. This suggests that evolutionary mechanisms ought to be given increased consideration. But this does not mean that regional differences in ecological interactions are unimportant. Many investigations demonstrate that invasive plant species experience facilitation in introduced relative to native range soils. My objective was to integrate these two promising fields of study in order to obtain a more holistic view of the mechanisms underlying invasion. Here I utilized seed and soils from native and introduced regions of the locally abundant grass species Bromus rubens L. (Pavlick and Anderson 2007, = B. madritensis ssp. rubens, Fortune et al. 2008), also known as Red brome. B. rubens is a winter annual common in the Mediterranean (native range) and Southwestern United States (introduced range). I examined the complexities of potential evolutionary and ecological factors leading to the invasion success of this species by concentrating on 1) patterns and promoters of regional differentiation, 2) the impacts of differentiation on competitive ability, and 3) the contribution of multiple ecological factors to plant-soil interactions. I found that introduced populations showed a strong signal for diversifying selection toward more aggressive growth. In a competitive environment introduced genotypes demonstrated greater reproductive fitness relative to native genotypes, regardless of competitor's genotypic or region of origin. Finally, a plant-soil interaction growth assay suggested that increased resource availability coupled with decreased interactions with both antagonistic and beneficial soil fungi in introduced soils contributed to the invasion success in B. rubens. Together these patterns indicate that the occurrence of post-introductory evolution is of major importance to the development of invasive characters and increased competitive ability, and that ecological interactions among hosts and respective soil communities greatly contributed to the dynamics observed in this system.
Category: Bromegrasses

Dispersal Ecology And Evolution

Author : Jean Clobert
ISBN : 9780199608904
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.41 MB
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Provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the fast expanding field of dispersal ecology, incorporating the very latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species, and community levels are considered.
Category: Science

Insect Conservation

Author : Michael J Samways
ISBN : 9781789241686
Genre : Nature
File Size : 62.75 MB
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Insects do not live in isolation. They interact with the abiotic environment and are major components of the terrestrial and freshwater biotic milieus. They are crucial to so many ecosystem processes and are the warp and weft of all terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems that are not permanently frozen. This means that insect conservation is a two-way process: insects as the subjects of conservation, while also they are useful tools for conserving the environment. This book overviews strategic ways forward for insect conservation. It is a general view of what has worked and what has not for the maintenance of insect diversity across the world, as well as what might be the right approaches for the future.
Category: Nature