ECHOLOCATION IN BATS AND DOLPHINS

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Echolocation In Bats And Dolphins

Author : Jeanette A. Thomas
ISBN : 0226795985
Genre : Nature
File Size : 90.82 MB
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Although bats and dolphins live in very different environments, are vastly different in size, and hunt different kinds of prey, both groups have evolved similar sonar systems, known as echolocation, to locate food and navigate the skies and seas. While much research has been conducted over the past thirty years on echolocation in bats and dolphins, this volume is the first to compare what is known about echolocation in each group, to point out what information is missing, and to identify future areas of research. Echolocation in Bats and Dolphins consists of six sections: mechanisms of echolocation signal production; the anatomy and physiology of signal reception and interpretation; performance and cognition; ecological and evolutionary aspects of echolocation mammals; theoretical and methodological topics; and possible echolocation capabilities in other mammals, including shrews, seals, and baleen whales. Animal behaviorists, ecologists, physiologists, and both scientists and engineers who work in the field of bioacoustics will benefit from this book.
Category: Nature

Animal Sonar

Author : Paul E. Nachtigall
ISBN : 9781468474930
Genre : Science
File Size : 48.54 MB
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The first meeting on biosonar that I had the opportunity to attend was held in 1978 on the Island of Jersey in the English Channel. That meeting, organized by Professor R.G. Busne1 and Dr. Jim Fish, was my introduction to an exciting and varied group of hard-working and dedicated scientists studying animal echolocation. They are, by nature, a very diverse group. They tend to publish in different journals and rarely interact despite the fact that they all work on echolocation. When they do interact as a group, as they did in Frascati Italy in 1966, in Jersey i~ 1978, and during the meeting reported in this volume, the meetings are intense, interesting, and exciting. This volume is a composition of a series of contributed papers written to foster an interdisciplinary understanding of the echolocation systems of animals. The echolocation pulse production studies in bats and dolphins have recently been concentrated on the ontogeny of infant pulses, other studies, with three-dimensional computer graphics and x-ray computed tomography, have concentrated on finally resolving the old controversy concerning the site of dolphin echolocation click production. Much has been accomplished on the analysis of bat neural structure and function. The intense effort directed toward understanding the structure, connections, and functional properties of parallel auditory pathways and the parallel and hierarchical processing of information by the mustached bat, has lead to dramatic breakthroughs in understanding brain function.
Category: Science

Biosonar

Author : Annemarie Surlykke
ISBN : 9781461491460
Genre : Science
File Size : 26.79 MB
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Two groups of animals, bats and odontocetes (toothed whales), have independently developed the ability to orient and detect prey by biosonar (echolocation). This active mechanism of orientation allows these animals to operate under low light conditions. Biosonar is a conceptual overview of what is known about biosonar in bats and odontocetes. Chapters are written by bat and odontocetes experts, resulting in collaborations that not only examine data on both animals, but also compare and contrast mechanisms. This book provides a unique insight that will help improve our understanding of biosonar in both animal groups.
Category: Science

Encyclopedia Of Perception

Author : E. Bruce Goldstein
ISBN : 9781506332734
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 48.25 MB
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The field of perception is devoted to explaining the operation of the senses and the experiences and behaviors resulting from stimulation of the senses. Perceptual processes such as recognizing faces, seeing color, hearing music, and feeling pain represent the actions of complex mechanisms, yet we usually do them easily. The Encyclopedia of Perception presents a comprehensive overview of the field of perception through authoritative essays written by leading researchers and theoreticians in psychology, the cognitive sciences, neuroscience, and medical disciplines. It presents two parallel and interacting approaches: the psychophysical, or determining the relationship between stimuli in the environment and perception, and the physiological, or locating the biological systems responsible for perception. Are there any processes not associated with perception? Surely there are, but the pervasiveness of perception is truly impressive, and the phenomena of perception and its mechanisms are what this encyclopedia is about. Key Features Contains 16 pages of color illustration and photography to accompany the entries Offers a varied and broad list of topics, including basic research as well as methodologies, theoretical approaches, and real-world applications of perceptual research Emphasizes human perception but includes ample research because of its importance in its own right and because of what this research tells us about human perception Written by recognized experts from many disciplines but for an audience with no previous background in perception—students and members of the general public alike Key Themes Action Attention Audition Chemical Senses Cognition and Perception Computers and Perception Consciousness Disorders of Perception Illusory Perceptions Individual Differences (Human) and Comparative (Across Species; Not Including Ageing, Disorders, and Perceptual Development) Methods Perceptual Development/Experience Philosophical Approaches Physiological Processes Sense Interaction Skin and Body Senses Theoretical Approaches Visual Perception
Category: Psychology

The Sonar Of Dolphins

Author : Whitlow W.L. Au
ISBN : 9781461243564
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66.62 MB
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The extraordinary ability of dolphins to echolocate has fascinated scientists and the public since its discovery in the late 1950's. This is the first book to summarize modern research in this area, and presents a broad synthesis of this very interdisciplinary subject. The author is an internationally-recognized expert on dolphin sonar and is thus in a unique position to bring together research on the physiological, mathematical and engineering aspects of the subject. Of interest to auditory researchers, electrical engineers, acoustical physicists, and mammalian physiologists.
Category: Medical

See With Your Ears

Author : Be Naturally Curious
ISBN : 1942403011
Genre :
File Size : 70.83 MB
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How are dolphins and bats alike? They can both see with their ears! That is, they both use sound to navigate and find food. Designed for grades K-5 and to be done at home or with small groups, this interactive multi-activity mini-course introduces children to the amazing process of echolocation and how dolphins and bats manage to accomplish it. The mini-course includes a richly illustrated story-based lesson as well as games, activities, and projects that appeal to all types of learners. How can dolphins and bats accomplish such a cool feat? After reading the fun, illustrated story about Dolphin and Bat School, children reinforce the features that make echolocation possible through an echolocation elements board game (included in the course). They then get to experience echolocation through a movement-based Name That Sound game in which children must themselves try to echolocate. Finally, children can cement their knowledge of the anatomical features involved in echolocation through an art project in which they create their own bat ears or dolphin snout. Most materials needed to complete the mini-course can be cut from the book itself (or, if preferred, downloaded and printed using an included link). The mini-course requires only a few common household items to complete the activities: blindfold (scarf or headband), blank paper, blanket, pen or pencil, coloring materials (crayons, markers or colored pencils), tape, and scissors. Upon completing the mini-course, children will be provided with links to additional online resources and will earn new concept badges for their Science Tool Kit (included in the mini-course)-including echolocation, larynx, noseleaf, phonic lips, melon, and blowhole.
Category:

Biology

Author : Eldra Solomon
ISBN : 9781111794347
Genre : Science
File Size : 50.19 MB
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BIOLOGY, Seventh Edition by Solomon, Berg, and Martin continues to be the best-liked and most student-friendly introductory majors text available. In this edition the authors have created a learning system that makes the chapters easier to navigate and provides a variety of ways for students to learn the material. Learning Objectives are now strategically placed throughout the chapter following major headings, and there are review questions at the ends of these major sections. Chapter Summaries are now organized around the Learning Objectives as well, making it easier for students to return to the place in the book that can help them work through the end-of-chapter material. Icons throughout the chapter direct students to the BiologyNow CD and tells them what they will find there. BiologyNow, the new Student CD-ROM for BIOLOGY Seventh Edition, is also based on these Learning Objectives to further reinforce the text's concepts. The BiologyNow CD, fully integrated with the Seventh Edition text, provides access to diagnostic pre-tests for each chapter. It also automatically generates customized learning plans for students, directing students to the information in the book, ancillaries and media program that will help them master specific concepts. Post-tests allow students to assess their progress as well. Personal Tutor with SMARTHINKING, a FREE online live tutoring service. Students can ask questions, get answers, and they don't need to set up appointments! For instructors, a Multimedia Manager provides the text art in PowerPoint form. Instructors also receive an Instructor's Guide, ExamView Electronic Testing and WebTutor course management options. Solomon, Berg, and Martin have gone beyond presenting facts for memorization -- they have created a well-designed pedagogical system through their use and reuse of chapter Learning Objectives, which is supported by an unbelievable package of materials for instructors and students. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Category: Science

Perceiving In Depth Volume 3 Other Mechanisms Of Depth Perception

Author : Ian P. Howard
ISBN : 9780199877362
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 37.24 MB
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The three-volume work Perceiving in Depth is a sequel to Binocular Vision and Stereopsis and to Seeing in Depth, both by Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers. This work is much broader in scope than the previous books and includes mechanisms of depth perception by all senses, including aural, electrosensory organs, and the somatosensory system. Volume 1 reviews sensory coding, psychophysical and analytic procedures, and basic visual mechanisms. Volume 2 reviews stereoscopic vision. Volume 3 reviews all mechanisms of depth perception other than stereoscopic vision. The three volumes are extensively illustrated and referenced and provide the most detailed review of all aspects of perceiving the three-dimensional world. Volume 3 addresses all depth-perception mechanisms other than stereopsis. The book starts with an account of monocular cues to depth, including accommodation, vergence eye movements, perspective, interposition, shading, and motion parallax. A chapter on constancies in depth perception, such as the ability to perceive the sizes and shapes of objects as they move or rotate in depth, is followed by a chapter on the ways in which depth cues interact. The next chapter reviews sources of information, such as changing disparity, image looming, and vergence eye movements, used in the perception of objects moving in depth. Various pathologies of depth perception, including visual neglect, stereoanomalies, and albanism are reviewed. Visual depth-perception mechanisms through the animal kingdom are described, starting with insects and progressing through crustaceans, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The chapter includes a discussion of how stereoscopic vision may have evolved. The next chapter describes how visual depth perception is used to guide reaching movements of the hand, avoiding obstacles, and walking to a distant object. The next three chapters review non-visual mechanisms of depth perception. Auditory mechanisms include auditory localization, echolocation in bats and marine mammals, and the lateral-line system of fish. Some fish emit electric discharges and then use electric sense organs to detect distortions of the electric field produced by nearby objects. Some beetles and snakes use heat-sensitive sense organs to detect sources of heat. The volume ends with a discussion of mechanisms used by animals to navigate to a distant site. Ants find their way back to the nest by using landmarks and by integrating their walking movements. Several animals navigate by the stars or by polarized sunlight. It seems that animals in several phyla navigate by detecting the Earths magnetic field.
Category: Psychology

If A Dolphin Were A Fish

Author : Loran Wlodarski
ISBN : 1607180065
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 41.73 MB
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Join Delfina the dolphin as she imagines that she becomes other sea animals: a fish, a sea turtle, a pelican, an octopus, a shark, even a manatee! The incredible morphing illustrations will have children laughing as they learn about the real differences between these ocean animals and their respective classes.
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

The Senses

Author : Fiona Macpherson
ISBN : 9780195385960
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 23.27 MB
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This volume is the first on the philosophy of the non-visual senses. It includes in equal measure both "classic" articles (from Aristotle to Paul Grice) which are unavailable or otherwise difficult to access, as well as new essays by well-known philosophers. It also includes an introduction by Macpherson, which draws together the centuries of philosophical thought on the senses and points to likely new directions.
Category: Philosophy