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Dynamics And Characterization Of Marine Organic Matter

Author : N. Handa
ISBN : 9789401713191
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.35 MB
Format : PDF
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Over the past decade the scientific activities of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), which focuses on the role of the oceans in controlling climate change via the transport and storage of greenhouse gases and organic matter, have led to an increased interest in the study of the biogeochemistry of organic matter. There is also a growing interest in global climate fluctuations. This, and the need for a precise assessment of the dynamics of carbon and other bio-elements, has led to a demand for an improved understanding of biogeochemical processes and the chemical characteristics of both particulate and dissolved organic matter in the ocean. A large amount of proxy data has been published describing the changes of the oceanic environment, but qualitative and quantitative estimates of the vertical flux of (proxy) organic compounds have not been well documented. There is thus an urgent need to pursue this line of study and, to this end, this book starts with several papers dealing with the primary production of organic matter in the upper ocean. Thereafter, the book goes on to follow the flux and characterization of particulate organic matter, discussed in relation to the primary production in the euphotic zone and resuspension in the deep waters, including the vertical flux of proxy organic compounds. It goes on to explain the decomposition and transformation of organic matter in the ocean environment due to photochemical and biological agents, and the reactivity of bulk and specific organic compounds, including the air-sea interaction of biogenic gases. The 22 papers in the book reflect the interests of JGOFS and will thus serve as a valuable reference source for future biogeochemical investigations of both bio-elements and organic matter in seawater, clarifying the role of the ocean in global climate change.
Category: Science

Biogeochemistry Of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

Author : Dennis A. Hansell
ISBN : 9780124071537
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.99 MB
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Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of molecules found throughout the world's oceans. It plays a key role in the export, distribution, and sequestration of carbon in the oceanic water column, posited to be a source of atmospheric climate regulation. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, focuses on the chemical constituents of DOM and its biogeochemical, biological, and ecological significance in the global ocean, and provides a single, unique source for the references, information, and informed judgments of the community of marine biogeochemists. Presented by some of the world's leading scientists, this revised edition reports on the major advances in this area and includes new chapters covering the role of DOM in ancient ocean carbon cycles, the long term stability of marine DOM, the biophysical dynamics of DOM, fluvial DOM qualities and fate, and the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeochemistry of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter, Second Edition, is an extremely useful resource that helps people interested in the largest pool of active carbon on the planet (DOC) get a firm grounding on the general paradigms and many of the relevant references on this topic. Features up-to-date knowledge of DOM, including five new chapters The only published work to synthesize recent research on dissolved organic carbon in the Mediterranean Sea Includes chapters that address inputs from freshwater terrestrial DOM
Category: Science

Biophysico Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter In Environmental Systems

Author : Nicola Senesi
ISBN : 0470494948
Genre : Science
File Size : 80.53 MB
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An up-to-date resource on natural nonliving organic matter Bringing together world-renowned researchers to explore natural nonliving organic matter (NOM) and its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems offers an integrated view of the dynamics and processes of NOM. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a comprehensive treatment encompassing all the formation processes, properties, reactions, environments, and analytical techniques associated with the latest research on NOM. After briefly outlining the historical background, current ideas, and future prospects of the study of NOM, the coverage examines: The formation mechanisms of humic substances Organo-clay complexes The effects of organic matter amendment Black carbon in the environment Carbon sequestration and dynamics in soil Biological activities of humic substances Dissolved organic matter Humic substances in the rhizosphere Marine organic matter Organic matter in atmospheric particles In addition to the above topics, the coverage includes such relevant analytical techniques as separation technology; analytical pyrolysis and soft-ionization mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance; EPR, FTIR, Raman, UV-visible adsorption, fluorescence, and X-ray spectroscopies; and thermal analysis. Hundreds of illustrations and photographs further illuminate the various chapters. An essential resource for both students and professionals in environmental science, environmental engineering, water science, soil science, geology, and environmental chemistry, Biophysico-Chemical Processes Involving Natural Nonliving Organic Matter in Environmental Systems provides a unique combination of the latest discoveries, developments, and future prospects in this field.
Category: Science

Structural Characterization And Bacterial Degradation Of Marine Carbohydrates

Author : Carol Arnosti
ISBN : UCSD:31822008814782
Genre : Anaerobic bacteria
File Size : 90.92 MB
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An integrated chemical and microbial approach was used to study the effects of chemical structure on rates and patterns of carbohydrate degradation by anaerobic marine bacteria. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to characterize plankton carbohydrates, and to follow the bacterial hydrolysis of polysaccharides. A carbohydrate produced by Synechococcus WH7335 was identified as a teichoic acid-like polysaccharide, similar in structure to teichoic acids found in cell walls of gram-positive bacteria. This is the first report of teichoic acids in cyanobacteria. Enrichment experiments with bacteria from anoxic marine sediments showed that mixed cultures of marine bacteria distinguish even between small, very closely-related substrates which do not require extracellular hydrolysis prior to uptake. A series of experiments showed that polysaccharides are degraded by bacteria at virtually the same rate as structurally related substrates in the molecular weight range of 300-600 daltons. The time-course of pullulan degradation was examined with gel permeation chromatography and NMR to provide the first molecular-level evidence in marine systems of the bacterial extracellular hydrolysis of high molecular weight organic matter to lower molecular weight organic matter. The experiments demonstrate that enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecules is not always the slow step in bacterial degradation of organic matter. Carbohydrate, Bacteria, NMR.
Category: Anaerobic bacteria

The Role Of Nonliving Organic Matter In The Earth S Carbon Cycle

Author : Richard G. Zepp
ISBN : 0471954632
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.91 MB
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Nonliving organic matter (NLOM) comprises the bulk of the organic carbon stored in the terrestrial biosphere and a major part of the organic carbon in the sea. Organic substances, which include litter, marine detritus, dissolved organic matter, and soil organic matter, have diverse effects on the Earth’s biogeochemical processes and serve as a major reservoir of biospheric carbon, which can be transformed to carbon dioxide, methane, and other "greenhouse" gases. Given this broad spectrum of effects, efforts to adapt to or perhaps benefit from global change require a better understanding and an ability to predict the role of NLOM in the global environment. The overall objective of this volume is to provide experimental and modeling strategies for the assessment of the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle to changes in nonliving organic pools in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The discussions in this volume consider how best to characterize and quantify pools and fluxes of NLOM, the role of NLOM cycling on a global scale, human and climatic perturbations of interactions between NLOM and nutrients, and biological, chemical, and physical processes that control the production and degradation of NLOM, with an emphasis on processes that affect the persistence of NLOM in the environment. One of the most unique aspects of this volume is that it represents extensive exchanges between leading international scientists from both aquatic and terrestrial backgrounds. It will be of particular interest to organic geochemists, microbiologists, ecologists, soil scientists, agricultural scientists, marine chemists, limnologists, and modelers. Goal of this Dahlem Workshop: to devise experimental and modeling strategies for assessment of the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle to changes in nonliving organic pools.
Category: Science