Driving Technical Change

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Driving Technical Change

Author : Terrence Ryan
ISBN : 1934356603
Genre : Computers
File Size : 73.67 MB
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New technologies are popping up every day. Convincing co-workers to adopt them is the hard part. Adobe software evangelist Ryan breaks down the patterns and types of resistance technologists face in many organizations.
Category: Computers

Technical Change And Social Conflict In Agriculture

Author : Martin E Pineiro
ISBN : 9781000314007
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 22.30 MB
Format : PDF
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Incorporating case studies of technological change in six Latin American countries, this book presents the results of a large cooperative research project (PROTAAL) that has led to a new interpretation of the process of technical change in agricultural development. The contributors contrast the perspective emerging from PROTAAL with two other views of technical change in agriculture: the theory of induced innovation and the political economy approach. They then describe the methodology developed by PROTAAL, which is highlighted in their analysis of the case studies. In the concluding chapters, the authors address important issues concerning the organization of agricultural research activities at the national and international levels and consider theoretical and policy implications for the analysis of technical change in Latin American agriculture.
Category: Social Science

Technological Change And The Environment

Author : Arnulf Grübler
ISBN : 9781136522901
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 26.62 MB
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Much is written in the popular literature about the current pace of technological change. But do we have enough scientific knowledge about the sources and management of innovation to properly inform policymaking in technology dependent domains such as energy and the environment? While it is agreed that technological change does not 'fall from heaven like autumn leaves,' the theory, data, and models are deficient. The specific mechanisms that govern the rate and direction of inventive activity, the drivers and scope for incremental improvements that occur during technology diffusion, and the spillover effects that cross-fertilize technological innovations remain poorly understood. In a work that will interest serious readers of history, policy, and economics, the editors and their distinguished contributors offer a unique, single volume overview of the theoretical and empirical work on technological change. Beginning with a survey of existing research, they provide analysis and case studies in contexts such as medicine, agriculture, and power generation, paying particular attention to what technological change means for efficiency, productivity, and reduced environmental impacts. The book includes a historical analysis of technological change, an examination of the overall direction of technological change, and general theories about the sources of change. The contributors empirically test hypotheses of induced innovation and theories of institutional innovation. They propose ways to model induced technological change and evaluate its impact, and they consider issues such as uncertainty in technology returns, technology crossover effects, and clustering. A copublication o Resources for the Future (RFF) and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
Category: Technology & Engineering

Knowledge Flows Technological Change And Regional Growth In The European Union

Author : Małgorzata Runiewicz-Wardyn
ISBN : 9783319003429
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 30.33 MB
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The book provides conceptual and empirical insights into the complex relationship between knowledge flows and regional growth in the EU. The author critically scrutinizes and enhances the RIS (Regional Innovation System) approach, discussing innovation as a technological, institutional and evolutionary process. Moreover, she advances the ongoing discourse on the role of space and technological proximity in the process of innovation and technological externalities. The book closes with an investigation of the role of technological change and knowledge spillovers in the dynamic growth and “catching-up” of EU regions. ​
Category: Business & Economics

Worker Satisfaction And Economic Performance

Author : Morris Altman
ISBN : 9781000161441
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 83.66 MB
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This book challenges some of the fundamental tenets of "free market" economics that have had a profound impact on public policy and the plight of the American worker. These include the beliefs that high wages inevitably mean low profits; that a "free" market will automatically reduce discrimination and pay inequality; that anti-trust legislation hinders competitive market forces; and that minimum wage laws and trade unions negatively impact the economy. Using both theoretical analysis and real-life examples, the author shows that these myths are a product of unrealistic behavioral assumptions on the part of "free market" economists about the typical worker. In fact, as the author makes clear, the level of workers' satisfaction with their jobs, as a reflection of how well they are paid and treated by their employers, has a direct impact on the quality level of the products they produce and, inevitably, the economic performance of the firms.
Category: Business & Economics

Imports Exports And The American Worker

Author : Susan M. Collins
ISBN : 0815714998
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55.89 MB
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Will technological improvement and growth in the rest of the world cause a decline in American living standards? Can government policy in Japan and Western Europe limit the availability of high- wage jobs in America? Does expanding trade with Mexico and other developing countries with large numbers of inexpensive workers imply a continuing decline in wages for low-skilled American workers? These questions express a widespread concern about potential negative effects of import competition on domestic labor markets, but ignore potential gains to U.S. workers from exports abroad. Through U.S. exports, the rest of the world is an increasingly large indirect employer of U.S. workers, and through imports, foreign labor is an increasingly important potential substitute for U.S. workers. Bringing together the often diverse perspectives of international economists, labor economists, and policymakers, this volume analyzes how international trade affects the level and distribution of wages and employment in the United States, examines the need for government intervention, and evaluates policy options. In addition to the editor, the contributors are Jagdish Bhagwati, Columbia University and American Enterprise Institute; J. Bradford De Long, U.S. Department of the Treasury and University of California, Berkeley; I. M. Destler, University of Maryland and Institute for International Economics; Richard B. Freeman, Harvard University and London School of Economics; Louis Jacobson, WESTAT; Lori G. Kletzer, University of California, Santa Cruz; Edward Leamer, University of California, Los Angeles; Michael Piore, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Ana Revenga and Claudio Montenegro, The World Bank; Jeffrey D. Sachs and Howard Shatz, Harvard University.
Category: Business & Economics

What S Driving Wage Inequality

Author : Aaron Steelman
ISBN : 9781437904970
Genre :
File Size : 87.85 MB
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Wage inequality has increased sharply in the U.S. since the mid-1970s. While some have argued that globalization -- in particular, increased international trade and immigration -- is primarily responsible for changes in the wage distribution, the authors argue that the main cause is skill-biased technical change. Workers with relatively high skill levels have experienced more rapid growth in wages than less-skilled workers, some of whom have seen an actual decline in their real wages. Although technical change likely has increased wage inequality, it also has greatly enhanced productivity and thus living standards in the U.S.

Technological Transitions And System Innovations

Author : Frank W. Geels
ISBN : 184542459X
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 79.7 MB
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This important book addresses how long term and large scale shifts from one socio-technical system to another come about, using insights from evolutionary economics, sociology of technology and innovation studies. These major changes involve not just technological changes, but also changes in markets, regulation, culture, industrial networks and infrastructure. The book develops a multi-level perspective, arguing that transitions take place through the alignment of multiple processes at three levels: niche, regime and landscape. This perspective is illustrated by detailed historical case studies: the transition from sailing ships to steamships, the transition from horse-and-carriage to automobiles and the transition from propeller-piston engine aircraft to turbojets. This book will be of great interest to researchers in innovation studies, evolutionary economics, sociology of technology and environmental studies. It will also be useful for policy makers involved in long-term sustainability and systems transitions issues.
Category: Business & Economics

Taking Technical Risks

Author : Lewis M. Branscomb
ISBN : 0262524198
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 72.9 MB
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Overcoming technical risks requires demonstrating the soundness of a technical concept in a controlled setting and readying the product technology for the market. Topics include the extent to which purely technical risk is separable from market risk, how industrial managers make decisions on funding early-stage, high-risk technology projects, and how the government can and should act to reduce the technical risks so that firms will invest in them.
Category: Business & Economics

Global Technological Change

Author : Zhouying Jin
ISBN : 9781841503769
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 80.42 MB
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"Translated from the second Chinese edition published by Peking University Press in Beijing, July 2010."--T.p. verso.
Category: Social Science

Understanding Industrial Transformation

Author : Xander Olsthoorn
ISBN : 1402037554
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 54.85 MB
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When facing momentous societal change, such as the transformation to a sustainable world, the sciences must impress their importance upon the public and convince scientific and policy institutions in order to obtain the means to carry out their mission. This book represents the first attempt to integrate disciplinary views on the topic of transformation towards sustainability.
Category: Business & Economics

The Economics Of New Health Technologies

Author : Joan Costa-Font
ISBN : 9780191580239
Genre : Medical
File Size : 75.46 MB
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Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certain technologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed analysis of what technological change is; to identify drivers of innovation in several healthcare areas; to present existing mechanisms and processes for ensuring and valuing efficiency and development in the use of medical technologies; and to analyse the impact of advances in medical technology on health, healthcare expenditure, and health insurance. Each of the seventeen chapters summarizes an important issue concerning the innovation debate and contributes to a better understanding of the role innovation has both at the macro level and at the delivery (meso) and micro level in the healthcare sector. The effectiveness of innovation in improving people's welfare depends on its diffusion and inception by the relevant agents in the health production process, and this book recognizes the multi-faceted contribution of policy makers, regulators, managers, technicians, consumers and patients to this technology change. This book offers the first truly global economic analysis of healthcare technologies, taking the subject beyond simply economic evaluation, and exploring the behavioural aspects, organization and incentives for new technology developments, and the adoption and diffusion of these technologies.
Category: Medical

R D Patents And Productivity

Author : Zvi Griliches
ISBN : 9780226308920
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 47.84 MB
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"An essential reference for specialists in the economics of technological change."--D. G. McFertridge, Canadian Journal of Economics
Category: Business & Economics

New Partnerships For Managing Technological Change

Author : Nancy H. Bancroft
ISBN : UOM:39015024973938
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 36.31 MB
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Challenges management teams to cooperate in new ways in order to bring about technological change that meets both business and employee goals for the organization. Offers a context and methodology for achieving successful change and looks at this kind of change in management from a holistic perspective. Considers the changing business environment of the '90s which demands a stimulating and creative new way of instituting technological change.
Category: Business & Economics

Ageing And Invisibility

Author : Emilio Mordini
ISBN : 9781607506140
Genre : Medical
File Size : 66.28 MB
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Providing an overview of the process of e-inclusion for older people and addressing the ethical, social and legal aspects of the process, this book is suitable for researchers, policy-makers, organisations and companies, as well as for those with an interest in the identification and promotion of good practice within an ageing society.
Category: Medical

Risk And Innovation

Author : National Academy of Engineering
ISBN : 9780309053761
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 90.26 MB
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Smaller, technically-oriented companies often assume types of risk (and an amount of risk) that is not often tolerated by large companies. In the United States both consumers and companies depend on smaller, high-tech companies to explore the commercial application of technology in potential, emerging, and small markets. This book, through comparison of six industries in which small companies play a critical role, explores the principal economic function of small, high-tech companies--to probe, explore, and sometimes develop the frontiers of the U.S. economy in search of unrecognized or otherwise ignored opportunities for economic growth and development.
Category: Political Science