DIFFERENTIATION AND THE BRAIN

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Differentiation And The Brain

Author : David A. Sousa
ISBN : 9781935543350
Genre : Education
File Size : 84.36 MB
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Examine the basic principles of differentiation in light of what current research on educational neuroscience has revealed. This research pool offers information and insights that can help educators decide whether certain curricular, instructional, and assessment choices are likely to be more effective than others. Learn how to implement differentiation so that it achieves the desired result of shared responsibility between teacher and student.
Category: Education

Sexual Differentiation Of The Brain 2000

Author : Akira Matsumoto
ISBN : 9781351357807
Genre : Science
File Size : 40.5 MB
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Sexual difference in the brain has long been one of the more intriguing research areas in the field of neuroscience. This thorough and comprehensive text uncovers and explains recent neurobiological and molecular biological studies in the field of neuroscience as they relate to the mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of the brain. Attempts have been made to clarify sex differences in the human brain using noninvasive techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. Sexual Differentiation of the Brain thoroughly examines these techniques and findings, providing an up-to-date, comprehensive overview written by leading researchers in the field. Just a few of the topics addressed include genetic contributions to the sexual differentiation of behavior; in-vitro studies of the effects of estrogen on estrogen receptor-transfected neuroblastoma cells; and the evolution of brain mechanisms controlling sexual behavior. Other topics include sexual differentiation of neural circuitry in the hypothalamus; structural sex differences in the mammalian brain; and sexual differentiation of cognitive functions in humans. With its revealing and informative chapters, as well as provocative treatment of the subject matter, Sexual Differentiation of the Brain helps shed new light on one of the most fascinating areas of brain research.
Category: Science

Estrogen Mystery Drug For The Brain

Author : Christian Behl
ISBN : 9783709161890
Genre : Medical
File Size : 74.46 MB
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It is well known that estrogen is "somehow” a protective hormone for various age-related disorders. This book provides a solid knowledge of estrogen’s neuroprotective activities in the brain with a special emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease. The focus is (1) to describe the biochemical, molecular, and cellular basis of the protective activity of estrogen and (2) to transfer this knowledge into the hospitals by discussing preventive and therapeutic approaches such as estrogen replacement therapy for post-menopausal women. Besides up-to-date information on estrogen and the brain, this book explains in a highly understandable manner molecular and cellular techniques by which basic data have been collected. The reader, which may include the professional specialist as well as the interested non-specialist, will also gain insight into the scientific transfer process of knowledge from basic science to the clinical situation and therefore "from bench to bed”.
Category: Medical

Myb Transcription Factors Their Role In Growth Differentiation And Disease

Author : Jon Frampton
ISBN : 9781402028694
Genre : Medical
File Size : 23.25 MB
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This volume represents the first collection of articles contributed by research leaders working on the Myb family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. In more than twenty chapters the authors discuss the range of biological processes and diverse cell types in which Myb proteins operate. Although concentrating on the three vertebrate Myb family members, homologues from lower species are also discussed because of the light they are able to shed on the evolution and function of these proteins. Individual chapters describe the involvement of Myb proteins, in particular c-Myb, in normal and diseased development and function of many tissues including haemopoietic cells, blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. Several chapters explore the mechanistic details of the action of Myb proteins, especially structural features, their interaction with DNA and other regulatory proteins, and the variety of genes that are regulatory targets for this group of transcription factors. This work will be of interest to those working directly in the field and also to the wider research community investigating the transcriptional regulation of development, differentiation and growth. The therapeutic potential of manipulating Myb function is also discussed making the book appealing to clinician scientists in several fields including haematology, oncology and cardiology.
Category: Medical

Differentiation And Growth Of Cells In Vertebrate Tissues

Author : G. Goldspink
ISBN : 9781489933041
Genre : Science
File Size : 88.41 MB
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In recent years a new field of study has arisen called developmental biology. The term developmental biology is really a new name for embryology; it is, however, used to denote the molecular approach to the study of developing systems. In this book we have tried wherever possible to blend the older information of classical embryology and in particular organogeny with the newer concepts of developmental biology. The original intention was to cover all the tissues of the body in this book. However, it soon became obvious that it was not possible to do this within one volume. Therefore we decided to have two general chapters, one on the basic concepts of cellular development and an other on the ageing of cells (this being considered part of the normal growth process). In addition to these two general chapters we have included chapters on some of the major tissues. These were chosen not just to illustrate the points made in the general chapters but because there is enough information available on the development of these tissues for the expert in that field to present a good, readable account. It is hoped that at a later date when more information is available, we will be able to extend this work, probably as several volumes, and to include the other tissues of the body which are not dealt with in this volume.
Category: Science

Sex And The Developing Brain

Author : Margaret M. McCarthy
ISBN : 9781615040605
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76.94 MB
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The brains of males and females, men and women, are different-that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important those differences are. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone, which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens, which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health, including but not limited to autism, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, and maj
Category: Medical

Differentiation And The Secondary Curriculum

Author : Susan Hart
ISBN : 9781134788170
Genre : Education
File Size : 62.90 MB
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Differentiation is a key part of effective teaching and is currently an INSET priority for many secondary schools. By giving real-life examples, this book makes links between the theory of differentiation and some of the wide range of good practice already happening in schools. It explores the meaning and issues surrounding terms like 'differentiation' and 'equal opportunities' and offers practical strategies for tackling this often difficult area. The text provides helpful case studies written by practising teachers and gives useful examples of tested INSET activities.
Category: Education

Hormones Brain And Behavior Five Volume Set

Author :
ISBN : 9780080534152
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26.72 MB
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Hormones, Brain and Behavior, Third Edition offers a state-of-the-art overview of hormonally-mediated behaviors, including an extensive discussion of the effects of hormones on insects, fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, and humans. Entries have been carefully designed to provide a valuable source of information for students and researchers in neuroendocrinology and those working in related areas, such as biology, psychology, psychiatry, and neurology. This third edition has been substantially restructured to include both foundational information and recent developments in the field. Continuing the emphasis on interdisciplinary research and practical applications, the book includes articles aligned in five main subject sections, with new chapters included on genetic and genomic techniques and clinical investigations. This reference provides unique treatment of all major vertebrate and invertebrate model systems with excellent opportunities for relating behavior to molecular genetics. The topics cover an unusual breadth (from molecules to ecophysiology), ranging from basic science to clinical research, making this reference of interest to a broad range of scientists in a variety of fields. Key Features * Contributors from 16 different countries and more than 70 institutions * Unlike any other hormone reference on the market Hormones, Brain and Behavior addresses hormone effects in all major vertebrate and non-vertebrate models * A timely, current reference on an emerging field with each chapter providing an in-depth exploration of the topic * Discusses molecular aspects of hormone function, systems, development, and hormone-related diseases * Addresses hormone effects in both the developing and adult nervous system Topics include: * Mammalian and Non-mammalian Hormone-behavior Systems * Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Hormone Actions on Behavior * Development of Hormone-dependent Neuronal Systems * Hormone/Behavior Relations of Clinical Importance
Category: Medical

Frontiers In Brain Repair

Author : Rahul Jandial
ISBN : 1441958193
Genre : Medical
File Size : 54.14 MB
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In the rapidly-evolving landscape of neurosciences, it is no easy task to select a limited array of topics to present in a text such as this. The current volume takes as its purpose to provide a representative survey of the current science of brain repair for those seeking to establish a foundation in the field or to replenish a prior knowledge base that may have lapsed in its currency. It also hopes to offer insights into what remains elusive to our collective investigations, defining the “frontiers” of brain repair for those that are currently immersed in the exciting intersection of biological advances and neuroscientific discoveries. In Chapter 1 the fundamentals of imaging transplanted cells is discussed with emphasis on animal models as well as the horizon for clinical trials. Then, detailed methods on the culture of neural stem cells is reviewed as a foundation for approaching therapeutic goals. Chapter 3 presents the broad scope of animal models that serve as the foundation for developmental and pre-clinical investigation, with mention of recent genetically engineered mouse models that represent the best models for studying disease development and treatment. Chapter 4 provides background on the delivery techniques to animals and patients that are available, providing vital information on the subtleties of technique necessary for optimal cellular grafting. Chapters 5 and 6 discuss new and evolving information on the origins of brain tumors and the indelible role of stromal and microenvironmental influences on oncogenesis and tumor progression. Subsequently, the utility of neural stem cells as cellular vehicles to deliver chemotherapeutics to broad neuropathology is reviewed. In Chapter 8 the scope of treating brain tumors is expanded beyond stem cells, to present the best biological interventions to improve upon current treatment options for brain malignancy. The last two chapters present a comprehensive review on stem cell and gene therapy options for treating cerebrovascular and neurovascular pathology. In amassing this collection, my intention has been to provide the reader with a broad introduction into molecular imaging, stem cell biology, cell therapy, animal models, central nervous system malignancies, stroke, and neurodegeneration. My hope is that Frontiers of Brain Repair will be the intellectual soil from which a deeply rooted and well-nourished vintage of neuroscience will arise.
Category: Medical

Maternal Substance Abuse And The Developing Nervous System

Author : Ian S. Zagon
ISBN : 9780080926674
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 30.7 MB
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The purpose of this book is to review the basic science and clinical findings concerning maternal substance abuse and the developing nervous system of unborn children. The short-term but vitally significant repercussions of such exposure on biological development, with particular reference to the nervous system, are discussed. The book also discusses the profound influence of maternal substance abuse on behavior in adulthood, which is caused by subtle changes in the chemistry or structure of the developing nervous system. The subject will not only be of interest to clinical and basic science researchers and teachers in the field of maternal substance abuse, but also to individuals in psychology, social work, cellular and molecular biolgoy, embryology, neuroscience, pharmacology, and in clinical professions such as pediatrics, neonatology, and obstetrics. The breadth of topics covered includes alcohol, cocaine, opiates, nicotine, benzodiazepines, marijuana, and the role of stress and hormones. Emphasis is placed on the relationship of the effects of substance abuse on neurotrophic factors and receptors. Shows how abused substances act directly or indirectly to mimic or influence the action of neurotrophic factors Explains that the transient expression of peptides, neurotransmitters, and receptors can be markedly disturbed by drugs Demonstrates that animal and tissue culture studies are consistent with clinical observations and important in understanding and ameliorating adverse actions of drugs in early life
Category: Psychology