Decision Making And Radioactive Waste Disposal

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Decision Making And Radioactive Waste Disposal

Author : Andrew Newman
ISBN : 9781136686399
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 27.67 MB
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The International Atomic Energy Agency estimates that nuclear power generation facilities produce about 200,000 cubic meters of low and intermediate-level waste each year. Vital medical procedures, industrial processes and basic science research also produce significant quantities of waste. All of this waste must be shielded from the population for extended periods of time. Finding suitable locations for disposal facilities is beset by two main problems: community responses to siting proposals are generally antagonistic and, as a result, governments have tended to be reactive in their policy-making. Decision-making and Radioactive Waste Disposal explores these issues utilizing a linear narrative case study approach that critically examines key stakeholder interactions in order to explain how siting decisions for low level waste disposal are made. Five countries are featured: the US, Australia, Spain, South Korea and Switzerland. This book seeks to establish an understanding of the political, economic, environmental, legal and social dimensions of siting across those countries. This valuable resource fills a gap in the literature and provides recommendations for future disposal facility siting efforts. The book will be of interest to students and scholars of environmental law, justice, management, politics, energy and security policy as well as decision-makers in government and industry.
Category: Business & Economics

Decision Making For Complex Socio Technical Systems

Author : Thomas Flüeler
ISBN : 9781402035296
Genre : Science
File Size : 83.34 MB
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The long-term governance of radioactive waste continues to be a major complex and unresolved socio-technical issue. Previous technocratic approaches have so far failed. This empirically based study provides a novel approach to complementing technical expertise and economic/political power with stakeholder involvement. Inclusive participation is shown to be an asset that strengthens the processes, enhances robustness and facilitates sustainable decision making, thus adding value for all involved.
Category: Science

The Politics Of Radioactive Waste Disposal

Author : Ray Kemp
ISBN : 0719031842
Genre : Radioactive wastes
File Size : 88.22 MB
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Considers the politics of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal (high-level waste is another kettle of [toxic] fish altogether, just now beginning to enter the political arena) from a comparative international perspective in order to discover what factors impinge upon the overriding need for legitimate and publicly acceptable solutions. Distributed by St. Martin's Press. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Category: Radioactive wastes

Intelligent Decision And Policy Making Support Systems

Author : Da Ruan
ISBN : 9783540783060
Genre : Computers
File Size : 24.94 MB
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This edited book reports recent research results and provides a state-of-the-art on intelligent decision support systems applications, lessons learned and future research directions. The book covers a balanced mixture of theory and practice, including new methods and developments of intelligent decision support systems applications in Society and Policy Support. Its main objective is to gather a peer-reviewed collection of high quality contributions in the relevant topic areas.
Category: Computers

Nuclear Waste Governance

Author : Achim Brunnengräber
ISBN : 9783658089627
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 33.5 MB
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This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.​
Category: Business & Economics

Groundwater Contamination Use Of Models In Decision Making

Author : G. Jousma
ISBN : 9789400923010
Genre : Science
File Size : 39.44 MB
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The protection of groundwater resources has emerged in recent years as a high priority topic on the agenda of many countries. In responding to the growing concern over deteriorating groundwater quality, many countries are developing a comprehensive regulatory framework for the management of subsurface water resources with management referring to both quantity and quality aspects. Within this framework, groundwater models are rapidly coming to playa central role in the development of protection and rehabilitation strategies. These models provide forecasts of the future state of the groundwater aquifer systems and/or the unsaturated zone in response to proposed management initiatives. For example, models will predict the effects of implementing a proposed management scheme on water levels and on the transport and fate of pollutants. The models are now used in the formulation of policies and regulations, the issuing of permits, design of monitoring and data collection systems, and the development of enforcement actions. The growth in the use of these sophisticated tools has led to many unforeseen problems in groundwater management. Lingering issues include reliability of codes, quality assurance in model development and applications, efficient utiliza tion of human and material resources, technology transfer and training. Some issues have legal ramifications, as in cases where the applications of models have been contested in courts.
Category: Science

Disposition Of High Level Waste And Spent Nuclear Fuel

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309073172
Genre : Science
File Size : 31.93 MB
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Focused attention by world leaders is needed to address the substantial challenges posed by disposal of spent nuclear fuel from reactors and high-level radioactive waste from processing such fuel. The biggest challenges in achieving safe and secure storage and permanent waste disposal are societal, although technical challenges remain. Disposition of radioactive wastes in a deep geological repository is a sound approach as long as it progresses through a stepwise decision-making process that takes advantage of technical advances, public participation, and international cooperation. Written for concerned citizens as well as policymakers, this book was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and waste management organizations in eight other countries.
Category: Science

Risk And Decisions About Disposition Of Transuranic And High Level Radioactive Waste

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309095495
Genre : Science
File Size : 76.69 MB
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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages dozens of sites across the nation that focus on research, design, and production of nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors for defense applications. Radioactive wastes at these sites pose a national challenge, and DOE is considering how to most effectively clean them up. Some of the greatest projected risks, cleanup costs, and technical challenges come from processing and disposing transuranic and high-level radioactive waste. This report addresses how DOE should incorporate risk into decisions about whether the nation should use alternatives to deep geologic disposal for some of these wastes. It recommends using an exemption process involving risk assessment for determining how to dispose of problematic wastes. The report outlines criteria for risk assessment and key elements of a risk-informed approach. The report also describes the types of wastes that are candidates for alternative disposition paths, potential alternatives to deep geologic disposal for disposition of low-hazard waste, and whether these alternatives are compatible with current regulations.
Category: Science

Uncertainty In Risk Assessment Risk Management And Decision Making

Author : V.T. Covello
ISBN : 9781468453171
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 68.64 MB
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The subject of this volume--uncertainties in risk assessment and management--reflects an important theme in health, safety, and environ mental decision making. MOst technological hazards are characterized by substantial uncertainty. Recent examples include nuclear waste disposal, acid rain, asbestos in schools, carcinogens in food, and hazardous waste. realing with such uncertainty is arguably the most difficult and challeng ing task facing risk assessors and managers today. Four primary sources of uncertainty in risk assessment and management can be identified: (1) uncertainties about definitions; (2) uncertainties about scientific facts; (3) uncertainties about risk perceptions and atti tudes; and (4) uncertainties about values. Uncertainties about definitions derive primarily from disagreements about the meaning and interpretation of key concepts, such as probability. Uncertainties about scientific facts derive primarily from disagreements about failure modes, the probability and magnitude of adverse health or environmental consequences, cause and effect relationships, dose-response relationships, and exposure patterns. Uncertainties about risk perceptions and attitudes derive primarily from disagreements about what constitutes a significant or acceptable level of risk. Uncertainties about values derive primarily from disagreements about the desirability or worth of alternative risk management actions or conse quences. The papers in this volume address each of these sources of uncertainty from a variety of perspectives. Reflecting the broad scope of risk assess ment and risk management research, the papers include contributions from safety engineers, epidemiologists, toxicologists, chemists, biostatisticians, biologists, decision analysts, economists, psychologists, political scien tists, sociologists, ethicists, and lawyers.
Category: Technology & Engineering

Soft Computing For Risk Evaluation And Management

Author : Da Ruan
ISBN : 3790814067
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 32.1 MB
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Risk is a crucial element in virtually all problems people in diverse areas face in their activities. It is impossible to find adequate models and solutions without taking it into account. Due to uncertainty and complexity in those problems, traditional "hard" tools and techniques may be insufficient for their formulation and solution. This is the first book in the literature that shows how soft computing methods (fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, etc.) can be employed to deal with various problems related to risk analysis, evaluation and management in various fields of technology, environment and finance.
Category: Business & Economics

Making Technology Work

Author : John M. Deutch
ISBN : 0521523176
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 21.17 MB
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This book presents 15 interdisciplinary case studies of technology application in the energy and environment sectors.
Category: Business & Economics

Stepwise Decision Making In Finland For The Disposal Of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Author : NEA Staff
ISBN : UOM:39015056473955
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 42.30 MB
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An account of the individual presentations and the discussions that took place at an NEA workshop held in November 2001 which focused on three main topics: the stepwise decision-making process, stakeholder involvement and confidence building.
Category: Electronic books

Tank Waste Retrieval Processing And On Site Disposal At Three Department Of Energy Sites

Author : National Research Council
ISBN : 9780309101707
Genre : Science
File Size : 30.21 MB
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DOE Tank Waste: How clean is clean enough? The U.S. Congress asked the National Academies to evaluate the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) plans for cleaning up defense-related radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at three sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and the Idaho National Laboratory. DOE plans to remove the waste from the tanks, separate out high-level radioactive waste to be shipped to an off-site geological repository, and dispose of the remaining lower-activity waste onsite. The report concludes that DOE’s overall plan is workable, but some important challenges must be overcomeâ€"including the removal of residual waste from some tanks, especially at Hanford and Savannah River. The report recommends that DOE pursue a more risk-informed, consistent, participatory, and transparent for making decisions about how much waste to retrieve from tanks and how much to dispose of onsite. The report offers several other detailed recommendations to improve the technical soundness of DOE's tank cleanup plans.
Category: Science

Deep Geological Disposal Of Radioactive Waste

Author : W. R. Alexander
ISBN : 0080468888
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 38.47 MB
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Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste presents a critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic: providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved and with extensive references to sources of more detailed information. Emphasis is very much on “deep geological disposal – at least some tens of metres below land surface and, in many cases, many hundred of metres deep. Additionally, only radioactive wastes are considered directly – even though such wastes often contain also significant chemotoxic or otherwise hazardous components. Many of the principles involved are generally applicable to other repository options (e.g. near-surface or on-surface disposal) and, indeed, to other types of hazardous waste. Presents a current critical review in designing, siting, constructing and demonsrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radwaste Addresses the fundamental principles of radioactive waste with up-to-date examples and real-world case studies Written for a multi-disciplinary audience, with an appropriate level of detail to allow a non-specialist to understand
Category: Technology & Engineering

Nuclear Waste Management In A Globalised World

Author : Urban Strandberg
ISBN : 9781317985358
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 84.82 MB
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High-level nuclear waste (HLW) is a controversial and risky issue. For the next 100 years, the HLW will be subject to policy decisions and value assessments. Physically safe, technologically stable, and socio-economically sustainable HLW-management will top the agenda. That must be accomplished in a society whose segments are both stable and in a rapid state of flux, under the influence of global as well as national factors, private interests as well as the vagaries of national politics. Among the challenges to be faced is how to codify responsibilities of nuclear industry, governments and international organisations, and any adopted management policy must attain legitimacy at the local, national, regional and global levels. All such considerations raise questions about the practical and theoretical knowledge. This special issue book will address these questions by exploring HLW-management in Canada, France, Germany, India, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Special emphasis will be placed on highlighting national context, current trends and uncertainties, with relevance to a socially sustainable contemporary and future HLW-management.
Category: Business & Economics

Calculated Risks

Author : Dr Kenneth A Rogers
ISBN : 9781409498605
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 40.80 MB
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This well-documented study examines one of the increasingly pressing problems for US homeland security: the storage and management of radioactive waste. Despite pressing homeland security and energy security concerns associated with highly radioactive waste, political considerations have prevented policy makers from adopting adequate long-term solutions to the problem. This book explores nuclear waste problems through the broader lens of federal, state and local government and the resultant constraints on policy that emerge within the American political system. Presenting specific case studies to highlight the deficiencies in current policy and planning as well as the possibility of terrorist activity, it is highly suited to courses on security studies and environmental politics.
Category: Technology & Engineering